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  • 1.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    de Ridder, Adri
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Strong CEOs and Ownership StructureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to examine compensation to Swedish executives over the period 1999 to 2008 and whether domestic and foreign equity ownership influence levels.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We use the strength of the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), defined as the ratio between total compensation to the CEO and total compensation to Group management, as our primary variable of interest. Cross-sectional regression analysis is used to examine if the domiciles of stockholders as well as firm specific factors can predict compensation.

    Findings

    We find a positive relationship between compensation levels to the CEO and foreign institutional investors. Higher foreign institutional holdings reduce the strength of the CEO. Our findings do not support the claim that compensation to CEO is related to firm behaviour or market related valuation measures.

    Practical implications

    This paper finds that holdings by foreign investors are negatively related to the strength of the CEO.

  • 2.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    de Ridder, Adri
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Valuation of Swedish IPO Companies: Who Receives the Money Left on the Table?2011In: 2nd Annual Nordic Financial Accounting, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study underpricing and equity holdings following initial public offerings (IPOs) in Sweden over the sample period 2000 through 2010. By exploiting a unique data set, with information of the ultimate holdings by institutional as well as individual investors in these firms, we make several original contributions to the existing literature related to IPOs as our data are sharper and more detailed than what have been used in prior studies. We document, as most prior studies of IPOs, that they on average are underpriced (i.e., associated with a positive initial return). IPOs with low (high) initial return have higher (lower) equity holdings by retail investors. We find that institutional investors are, to greater extent than individual investors, able to identify firms with a high initial return (i.e. receives the money left on the table). Hence, our data support the generally accepted view that institutional investors are better equipped to process information. We also confirm that the relationship between underpricing (the initial return) and offer price is U-shaped, as first reported by Fernando, Krishnamurty and Spindt (2004). Our multivariate analysis shows that individual investors have preferences for low priced IPOs whereas domestic (foreign) institutional investors have preferences for low (high) priced IPOs. Our analysis of domicile of institutional investors indicates that foreign institutional investors have preferences for holdings in IPOs characterized by a high initial return and large capitalization values. Analysis of overseas institutional holdings indicates existence of information asymmetries related to distance.

     

  • 3.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    de Ridder, Adri
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Executive Compensation Contracts and Ownership Structure2010In: / [ed] Prof. Lars Oxelheim, 2010, 1-19 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study executive compensation packages and ownership structures for a sample of firms listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange over the period 1999 to 2008. The basic question we raise is whether strong CEOs can set their own salaries and bonuses given the composition of group management and institutional ownership. With the use of exclusive ultimate ownership records we can identify the relationship between ownership and executive compensation. Collectively, we find a positive relationship between strong CEOs and compensation. Moreover, compensation is related to the composition of ownership and breadth of ownership. Firms with high foreign institutional ownership are associated with higher compensation to the CEO.  These results affect the possibility of an all European compensation strategy.

  • 4.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    de Ridder, Adri
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Råsbrant, Jonas
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Information Asymmetries among European Investors: Evidence from Swedish IPOs2011In: 13th Annual SNEE (Swedish Network for European Economic Research) Conference, May 17-20, 2011 . Session F1: European Corporate Finance / [ed] Prof. Lars Oxelheim, 2011, 1-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study underpricing and equity holdings following initial public offerings (IPOs) in Sweden over the sample period 2000 through 2009. We document, as most prior studies of IPOs, that they on average are underpriced (i.e., associated with a positive initial return). IPOs with a low (high) initial return have higher (lower) equity holdings by retail investors. Our analysis of domicile of institutional investors indicates that foreign institutional investors have preferences for holdings in IPOs characterized by a high initial return and large capitalization values. Analysis of overseas institutional holdings indicates existence of information asymmetries related to distance.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    University Services for regional Development: Ideas on Stakeholder Based Quality Management in a Region2011In: Proceedings : 14th QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Sciences: From LearnAbility and InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca,Ricardo Mateo,Elizabeth Viles, Javier Santos, Pamplona: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, 36-54 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Regional Development is a permanent activity of change including long range visions and goals. This work includes both continuous and breakthrough change. Quality management practises are used for organisational improvement and could be seen as one way of supporting effective change management. Provided we can view a region as an organisation we could also view it as a process. Dealing with the region as a system of processes might make it possible to use quality management practices to support more effective regional development. Based on an analysis of the presentation of the current state and the visionary state it should be possible to analyse proposed change strategies from a process perspective.

    Purpose

    The general purpose of the study is to see how universities could contribute to regional development. Specific research questions in this study are:

    For a region how can the present state, the visionary state and the chosen change strategies, be described with Quality Management values and methodologies with focus on the process view

    How do the regional university mission, vision and goals align with defined regional objectives?

    Methodology

    A literature survey for how Quality Management has been used for regional development is carried out to create a structure for the data collection. The region of Gotland is chosen as an example for a region. The reason for this is that Gotland is a small region consisting of an island providing clear boundaries. There is only one university, which makes it easier to study the links between university and region. Available regional visions are studied as well as main presentation of regional performance with focus on the region of Gotland. The main organizational stakeholders are identified and studied. Data is gathered from web sites and from interviews. The categorisation of information is based on a process perspective using process based system models adapted to the initial literature survey. The current change process is also portrayed. In order to see how the local university performance and plans align with the regional plans the Gotland University web-site is studied for relevant documents.

    Main results

    Regional performance can seemingly be described using process based system models. The stakeholder approach can in a meaningful way be used to describe main regional requirements.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Högskolan Väst.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Integrated Management Systems: testing a model for integration2011In: 14th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service, 1-3 September, 2011, Alicante, Spain / [ed] Jacques Martin and Claudio Baccarani, University of Alicante and University of Oviedo, Spain , 2011, 22-35 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management systems are widely used for creating order, minimising risks and for assuring performance. Management systems are in many occasions integrated since this has been found to be beneficial. In this paper a model for a fully integrated management system (IMS) based on the three axes of level, extent and scope of integration is tested for relevance. The studied system permits the integration of all relevant process dimensions. The research is only in a pilot stage, but the initial results are promising and indicate that there are advantages in using the process view as a base for identifying critical aspects to be managed. A review of the current situation for system integration is studied and the model is subjected to some tests using Sweden as a case. The background study shows that system integration still is limited, especially when comparing with a fully integrated IMS. The feedback from the organisations interviewed is positive and supports continued work with development of the model.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Implementing Lean: Discussing Standardization Versus Customization with Focus on National Cultural Dimensions2012In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 3, no 4, 4-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean or Toyota Production System (TPS) has more or less successfully been implemented in the Western world’s businesses and organizations for the past 20 years. Several authors have discussed what it is that creates a successful implementation, and several studies have been presented where strategies for implementations have been studied. Culture’s impact and possible mitigation for Western companies have been studied and described by for example Womak & Jones. Proponents of the concept of Lean argue that culture is not a constraint for implementation of Lean. Lean Management is called a philosophy but it is often used as a change strategy in the sense that it is implemented with the view of improving performance. A change strategy could be seen as a product that might have to be customized with the view of improving the effectiveness of the implementation. On the other hand abandoning a standardized approach comes with the risk of severely altering the change strategy, possibly to its detriment. Implementing Lean will have an effect on the company culture. Does it make any sense customizing the implementation to culture if the issue is changing the culture? The purpose of this paper is to highlight and discuss the balance between a customized implementation and a standardized implementation. Which are the main arguments for standardization and customization and how could these be reconciled? A literature study of Lean implementation has been carried out and compared with Lean principles and theories from change management with focus on change drivers and change barriers. Main drivers of Hofstede’s national cultural dimensions are compared with Lean principles to identify possible drivers and barriers in different cultures. The theory synthesis on drivers and barriers is subjected to a first test in a case study on Lean implementation according to a standardized approach. The implementation is made in a small Swedish factory belonging to a worldwide industrial company. Results from the literature review and the case study indicate that both customization and standardization are needed.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Adding requirements on customers to current quality models toimprove quality: development of a customer ‐ vendor interaction2010In: 13th QMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences ICQSS 2010 / [ed] Jens J. Dahlgaard, Linköping University, Sweden, Visby: Gotland University , 2010, 1-9 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most descriptions of business development and models for Corporate Governance, contacts between supplier and customer are for the most part focused on the supplier’s responsibility to identify and document customer requirements in order to enable the organization to meet customer requirements (stated and unstated). In the actual contact between customer and supplier it has been observed in several cases that there are aspects of the interaction not described in traditional theoretical quality models. What seems to be missing is a more explicit requirement for customers and for customers' actions. The logic is that a qualified customer performing based on supplier instructions will result in a better performing product. The apparent lack of theoretical models describing this aspect indicates that this is an interesting area for research and development.

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight a seemingly "forgotten" area within quality management, which is the lack of requirements put on customers in quality models.  The first objective is to review existing quality models to explore the extent of requirement on customers included. The second objective is to propose additions to current models that include requirements placed on customers.

    A limited review of the award criteria and the most common models for quality and improvement techniques shows that there is no explicit and documented way to set requirements for customers. Our interpretation is that EFQM is the model closest to our description of “demands on customer” due to their clauses connected to “partnership”.

    The ISO/DIS 26000 is moving the requirements further against the customer for the social responsibility than the quality standards are doing.

    Further research could focus on how requirements on customer will affect the performance of the entire supply chain both from a quality and social point of view.

  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hansson, Jonas
    University West.
    Integrated Management Systems: advantages, problems and possibilities2010In: 13th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service / [ed] Jacques Martin, Toulon University, 2010, 1-12 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective management in the globalized world requires an effective, efficient and flexible management system. Effective could be interpreted as addressing all relevant stakeholder concerns in a context of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Efficient would mean that it does the job with low resource use. Flexibility requires that changed conditions and new requirements easily can be included. Many organizations are already working with Integrated Management Systems (IMS). Interesting questions are to what extent current integration covers the above mentioned needs and if not what changes are needed. This conceptual paper looks at the advantages and problems of integration. Possibilities for development of fully integrated management systems are studied from the perspective of managing stakeholder needs, with the forthcoming ISO 26000 – “Guidance on social responsibility”, as inspiration. Results show that there are advantages in integration, but that the scope and level of integration often is limited. A conceptual model for integrating all stakeholder needs in value networks is presented.

  • 10. af Klintberg, Bengt
    et al.
    Palmenfelt, Ulf
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Vår tids folkkultur2007Book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Agrell, Carina
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hundertwassers arkitektur: att vara eller inte vara2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppsats studerar Friedensreich Hundertwassers (1928-2000) organiska/vegetativaarkitektur, begränsad till utvalda signifikativa arkitekturelement på fyra olika bildnivåer, frånöversiktsbild till en avgränsad del av ett mindre utrymme. Den byggnad som avses är kvarteretDie Grüne Zitadelle i Magdeburg, Tyskland. Uppsatsen är tudelad i den meningen att den utgårifrån nämnd arkitektur och analyseras/syntetiseras enligt Erwin Panofskys ikonologiska metod. Urdenna första analys framvaskas relevanta dikotomier, en metod som i sin ursprungliga form ärHeinrich Wölfflins komparativa. Dock jämförs inte Hundertwassers verk genom epokskiljandestilfaktorer, utan genom jämförande med en konstnär som enligt tidigare forskning anses varanärliggande Hundertwasser. Denne arkitekt är Antoni Gaudí (1852-1926), verket för analysen ärCasa Milá i Barcelona i Spanien. Syftet med uppsatsen är att genom dikotomierna experimentelltjämföra arkitekterna och deras verk, och forskningsinriktningen ligger i att urröna omdikotomierna kan blottlägga insikter om skillnader och/eller likheter som annars kunde varit svåraatt identifiera. Resultatet visar att arkitekterna tolkat filosofin på delvis lika och delvis olika sätt.Sammanfattande har Hundertwasser ett betydligt mer individualiserat formspråk avseende designifikativa arkitekturelementen. Oavsett om den dubbla metoden tillför nya kunskaper eller inte,torde dikotomierna kunna fungera som stöd för arkitekturanalyser och som hjälp vidkonstreflektion.

  • 12.
    Ahlgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Nielsen, Kristin
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Verksamhetsstyrning: en fallstudie av en revisionsbyrås anpassning och förväntningar vid avskaffandet av revisionsplikten2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how a company adapts its operating control when the environmental circumstances are changing. This is a case study with a qualitative approach which is based on interviews. The main purpose is to examine how an accounting firm adjusts its operating control in order to meet the abolishment of the statutory auditing. Another purpose is to describe how the abolishment of the statutory auditing will influence or have influenced the choice of measures in the balanced scorecard. The question this study aims to examine is: How do audit firms adapt its operating control in order to meet changes in the environment? This question lead to a second question which the study also aims to examine and is How is the abolishment of the statutory auditing influencing the accounting firms goals, measures and focus in the balanced scorecard? The conclusion of this study shows that the abolishment of the statutory auditing has had an influence on the balanced scorecard. The interviews have manifested that both the customer and the development/leadership perspective have been adapted in order to meet the abolishment of the statutory auditing. Nevertheless the study also indicates that the balanced scorecard contains central key performance indicators which are essential in the management control of an accounting firm.

  • 13.
    Ahmed, Bassam
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Förbättring av kvalitet och samarbete i tågtrafiken: ett förbättringsprojekt till tågtrafikens intressenter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Passengers get dissatisfied because of poor communication and bad co-operation between railway companies. The alternative solutions to the passengers at the traffic disruptions are not the best, which causes traveler dissatisfaction. The risk is that passengers choose other ways of transport.

    Each transport organizer is responsible for the passengers. The form of the operating agreements between transport authorities and rail companies creates a structure for the responsibilities of the different components. This is also part of the problem leading to unhappy customers.

    I have studied this problem through interviews and surveys at DSB Småland where I work asa traffic controller. Jönköping County relates to the DSB Småland with a contract. I have hadthe opportunity to interview dispatchers in Jönköping County and to take part of customer complaints. But the big picture is not only about DSB Småland and Jönköping County. Consequently I have chosen to also include opinions from the DB-Regional traffic.

    Dedicated people from the different organizations have helped me to collect the information needed. Documentation of the selected organization the DSB Småland and my personal experience has helped me to formulate some conclusions:

    • Individual responsibility and mutual responsibility across organizational boundaries is important and it does not exist today. That may result in each organization working to save itself without looking at the big picture. Greater individual responsibility and collective responsibility across organizational boundaries will lead to focus on the passengers and it can result in saving resources.
    • Collaboration between organizations, which does not exist today, is needed. Without organized cooperation, the risk will be that each organization can be held to the agreement with the county traffic without any further interest towards the traveler. The more cooperation between the organizations, the more satisfied customers.
    • Communication between the organizations on the problems encountered needs to be improved. Poor communication between organizations leads to waste of environmental resources and other assets, and leads to dissatisfied customers. Better communication gives all organizations the possibility of increasing the number of passengers, to save resources and leads to increased sustainability in train traffic.

    It takes exchange of experiences between railway companies to achieve better quality of train services, more sustainable rail services to all, stronger collaboration and deep and straightforward communication.

  • 14.
    Ali, Sajid
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Zhugri, Merijon
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hedging Oil Prices: a case study on Gotlandsbolaget2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increase of volatility in financial markets and leading to financial risk and corporate failures, organizations are showing keen interest in managing financial risk, one of the most commonly used technique to minimize financial risk is hedging. Hedging of oil prices has also become a common practice especially in shipping. Financial risk managers are busy in saving the industries from expected risk and volatility in oil prices through hedging. Therefore we have decided to look into shipping industry and specifically to study the hedging oil prices with respect to a case study on Gotlandsbolaget.Our case study will also focus on the relationship between oil and ticket price ratios in Gotlandsbolaget, TT Line and Adria Ferries Ltd. In order to collect empirical data we have done interviews with the companies and worked closely with Destination Gotland and Nordea bank.The results of the study show that Gotlandsbolaget hedge oil prices to protect themselves from volatility of oil prices. Regression analysis showed that there is a positive relationship between ticket prices and oil prices in the companies operating in Sweden while a relatively weaker relationship exists for the Adria Ferries Ltd. This study will help the shipping companies, who are either new in hedging or want to minimize and avert the risk and volatility in oil prices through hedging.

  • 15.
    Ali, Yasir
    Gotland University, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    The delicate balance of Internet banking and bricks and mortar offices: a study on bank services offered in Visby2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet banking has an impact on banking performance as well as customer’s daily life. Customers are getting more used to use Internet banking services because the Internet is so popular and common available, it is more convenient and comfortable for customers to use banking services on the Internet. Hereby Internet banking also helps to improve banking service and increasing banks profitability by reducing costs. It also increases the overall value of the banks services by providing convenience, reliable, faster, cheaper services. The purpose of study is to find out which services customer prefers to execute the Internet bank and which services customers prefer to execute through branch office and based on this, what combination of services are desirable for banks customers in Visby. Finding shows that young and educated people are more frequently users of Internet banking for balance inquiry and for viewing the transaction history of his/her account. For some services customers prefer to visit branch office when opining a new account, deposit money, insurances service and loan activities. Banks encourage their customers to use online services but there is need that there are some activities that customer must go to the branch office.

  • 16.
    Altskog, Frida
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Keramisk List: produktutveckling för Askersunds Kakelmakeri2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report presents a thesis by Frida Altskog performed in collaboration with Askersunds Kakelmakeri. The project’s goal has been to produce a ceramic ledge after the company’s specifications. The company’s desire and production facilities have been in focus.  This report includes a collection of facts and gives an overview of the ceramic material, production of ceramic products and how production of hand-made tiles and clinker is made. A analysis of target group and market have been a guide line through the projects ideas and realizations.  The final product is a ceramic ledge that can combine with three different patterns. Classic, modern and oriental. It can be combined and adjustable on different surfaces. The form of the ledge is effective to produce and it can be made in Askersund kakelmakeris pottery.

  • 17.
    Alvarez Martinez, Oscar
    Gotland University, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Branding Spain: analyzing the organizations behind the image of Spain in Sweden2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization abates barriers and makes the world similar, but also leads countries to perform like companies seeking and competing for global capitals. In this competition the „nation brand‟ becomes a critical tool to stand out and attract any sort of foreign investments. In this research, the factors which affect the nation brand, presented in the Anholt´s hexagon model, will be tested through the combination of theory on nation branding and empirical data. The study analyzes how different organizations affect and promote the commercial image of Spain in Sweden. Up to seven entities susceptible to affect the brand Spain were analyzed; the ICEX, the economic and commercial office of Spain in Stockholm, the embassy of Spain in Stockholm, Invest in Spain, the Elcano Royal institute, the Hispanic-Swedish chamber of commerce in Madrid and the Swedish trade council in Madrid. The study also presents an outline of the current context of the brand Spain and its projection in Sweden, as well as an overview on the trade relationship between both countries. The individual commitment of most of the organizations investigated, under the guidance of the Ministry of foreign affairs and the Ministry of industry, tourism, and trade of Spain, appears as one of the main findings. Despite the limited scope of this investigation, the relative novelty of this field of study leaves room for further research in different directions, questioning those who claim that globalization threats local diversity.

  • 18.
    Anchér, Anna
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Modern, Intim, Beskrivande2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Ajvide: begravningsentreprenad och sälklubbning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to see what the Ajvide location and its surroundings mighthave been used as. The author is going to compare a couple of sites, Stora Förvar, Snausarve, Bjerges and Ajvide, and see if these sites might have some connection to each other. Thesesites are going to be studied and see what they might have been used as, maybe a burialground or a settlement.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Inger
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    I Hyalta gastars sällskap: om konstvetenskapens diskriminering av kvinnliga målare ur den arbetande klassen på 1700- och 1800-talen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen läggs ett intersektionellt perspektiv på konsthistorien. Det sker genom en belysning av det sydsvenska bonadsmåleriets undanskymda plats i allmänhet och de kvinnliga bonadsmålarnas osynliga roll i synnerhet.

    Uppsatsen består av fyra kapitel. I det första studerar jag den svenska konsthistorieskrivningen i tre historiografiska undersökningar: först en narrativ, sedan en kvantitativ och sist en komparativ diskussion av några historiografiska verk. Min huvudsakliga slutsats är att klassanalys lyser med sin frånvaro, ordet klass och framför allt arbetarklass nämns förhållandevis sällan. Genusstrukturer analyseras i varierande grad och på olika sätt medan etnicitet mest omnämns som en kanoniserad uteslutning.

    I det andra kapitlet introduceras först den sydsvenska bonadstraditionen. Därpå presenteras Bengta Persdotter i Hyhult som ett exempel ur den kvinnliga skaran målare. I samband med det görs en möjlig attribuering av en bonad till henne. En historiografisk undersökning av folkkonstbegreppet påvisar hur det skapats av forskare för att särskilja folket från den kulturella eliten. Först betecknade folkkonst det förindustriella bondesamhällets konstnärliga föremål och den lyftes fram i en strävan att profilera en nationell identitet under senare 1800-tal. Under tidigt 1900-tal kom forskarnas attityder att bli nedlåtande. Teorier om ”gesunkenes Kulturgut” och stilretardation myntades för att leva kvar mot seklets slut. Ett begrepp som fortfarande används är ”horror vacui” vilket jag analyserar kritiskt och ger ersättningsförslaget ytmässig bildförtätning. En annan utveckling av begreppet är att det efterhand vidgats till att omfatta konsumtionssamhällets vardagsyttringar i en väldigt bred förståelse. Det får till följd att värderingen relativiseras. Undersökningen visar därtill att folkkonsten försummats av konstvetenskapen. Exempel på forskningens växlande värdering av sydsvenskt bonadsmåleri redogörs.

    I det tredje kapitlet diskuterar jag först resultatet från första kapitlet i relation till olika texter om konsten i termer av hur kultur och institutioner förhåller sig till främst klass men också kön och etnicitet. Några resultat från rapporter på fältet belyser situationen och tydliggör behovet av att inkludera de sociala kategorierna klass, kön och etnicitet i analyser av ojämlika maktförhållanden i konstvärlden.

    I det fjärde kapitlet jämför jag några bilder på bönder och adelsmän med avsändare från de olika klasserna adel, borgarklass och allmoge för att föra en diskussion om betydelsen av avsändarperspektiv och identifikation.

    I min diskussion drar jag några slutsatser om den diskursiva tystnaden kring framförallt klass. I uppsatsen dras linjer mellan olika skeenden i historien och våra dagar för att åskådliggöra samband mellan odlade attityder och dominerande norm i det fält som utgörs av konsten och konstvetenskapen.

  • 21.
    Andreasson, Anna
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Från Hyssna till "Huck": en diskussion om träskulpturens roll i en medeltida kyrka respektive i en kyrka byggd på 1990-talet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte med uppsatsen är att, diskutera träskulpturens roll i en medeltida kyrka respektive i en kyrka byggd på 1990-talet. Fokus ligger på skulpturernas nutida roll inom Svenska kyrkan. Frågeställningarna som jag arbetar efter handlar om vilken relevans/roll som de medeltida skulpturerna har i Hyssna gamla kyrka idag. Arbetet tar också upp frågan om hur skulpturerna i de båda kyrkorna kan tolkas ur en religiös och konstnärlig synvinkel. Avslutningsvis behandlar jag frågan hur skulpturerna i Lundby nya kyrka har utformats för att passa dagens besökare.

    Mina metoder för uppsatsen har varit litteraturstudier och enkätfrågor som skickats ut till personal till de respektive kyrkorna och till konstnären, Lars ”Huck” Hultgren. Som hjälp för analysen av skulpturerna har en ikonografisk metod använts. Uppsatsens teoretiska utgångspunkt handlar om hur konst kan påverka människor.

    Uppsatsen visar att skulpturerna i Hyssna framförallt har sin betydelse som kulturarv men att de till viss del har ett religiöst och liturgiskt värde. Skulpturerna i Lundby har i högre utsträckning ett religiöst och liturgiskt värde för sin församling. De har inte fått någon speciell utformning för att passa dagens kyrkobesökare eller svenska kyrkans lära av idag. Det finns också en oenighet vad gäller det religiösa och konstnärliga utformandet av Lundbyskulpturerna. 

  • 22.
    Andreasson, Christine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    De medeltida djurfigurernas idévärld: med kyrkomålaren Johannes Rosenrods exemplifiering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the medieval ruling catholic time the church walls was swarmed with programs of pictures with religious motives there the animal figures rich symbolics was significant first and foremost for the illiterate. Principally the inspiration comes from the antiquitys pagan world of fables and bestiary Christian world of symbols with the bible as the essential source. The essay describes six of the most common animal symbols who occur; dragon, the sneak in the Paradise, mouth of hell, lion, the fox as a preacher and the devil.

    To attain to a discussion about why just animals are used as symbols for human characteristics in the medieval church art instead for human beings as it's actually be about, I have studied bestiary and other literature about medieval churchpainting to get an understanding about the history of ideas about the thoughts of the time and about symbolics of animals, worth and how the Christianity have had an influence on the pictures.

    I have used Johannes Rosenrods church pictures from Tensta church in Uppland from 1437 as an exemplification but also mentioned other unknown painters who used similar animal codes and motives.

    It's plausible that the purpose of the animal figures was both religious and political, which was used by both the spiritual and the worldly authority so they could keep their dominance over the peasant. The figures was simple to read and remember and they made a deep impression on the people together with the sermon. The churchgoer get so to speak a sound- and image experience, a medieval reality who impress their world of ideas.

    When it's about the artistic formation of religious expression and characteristics it was undoubtedly a great advantage for the artists to use an animal code like a schemata. The medieval unchangeable animal symboles was ready to be used for anyone who wished.

  • 23.
    Antipova, Kaidi
    Gotland University, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Flaska för mineralvatten2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a new, more exclusive concept of packaging and labels for mineral water. The main problem with today's bottles for water which we have on the russian market, is that bottles have the same form, are very similar to each other, are intended mainly for the same target group, with sport interests and active way of life and that almost all bottles are made of plastic (PET). The goal for my project is to create a new variant of bottles for water that will be selling to restaurants, café, pubs, fares and other special occasions and to increase value of water through developing a more exclusive product. Using the reference group and studies I have produced a bottle for water which is made of glass, has an aluminium screwing cork and designed label which is different from the other products in the same trade.

  • 24.
    Arvidsson, Thomas
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    En studie i brott: kvinnlig brottslighet i Askeryds Socken, Småland 1825-302011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay focuses on crime history and gender. It is a study of female crimes in the beginning of the 19th century in a small parish (Askeryd Socken) in Småland in the south part of Sweden. The method I have used is to study the records of Municipal Court regarding the citizens of the parish of Askeryd. I have then tried to find out whether the female offenders have been treated different than the male offenders, if there is a certain kind of gender-related crimes and in those cases where comparison is possible, I have examined if the females are treated in a lighter way. (”female discount”), or if they were treated as mentally unstable.The essay shows that in this particular parish during the years 1825 to 1830, female offenders were not treated in a lighter manner. There were certain gender-related crimes, which women were more exposed to than men, but women offenders were not treated as mentally disturbed.

  • 25.
    Axglimt, Angelica
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Könsuppfattningar i en förskoleklass2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Min uppsats har som syfte att belysa könsuppfattningar i en förskoleklass. Under studien har ett förbättringsområde identifierats och könskillnader mellan könen noterades. Hur hanterar förskoleklassen pojkar och flickor utifrån deras kön och hur jobbar förskoleklasslärare för att minska könsstereotyper? Centrala frågor var att identifiera könsrollsmönster i förskoleklassen framträder, jämställdhetsarbetet i förskoleklassen och framträdande av könsstereotyper. I dag ses det oftast som självklart i Sverige att förskoleklasser arbetar med jämställdhetsfrågor enligt förskoleklassens läroplan och att förskoleklasser skall försöka utmana könsstereotyper. Förskoleklassen lägger en grund för hur våra barns värderingar och vad deras värdegrund skall förankras utav. Det valda ämnesområdet är viktigt att belysa, som skola räcker det inte enbart med att ha jämställdhetsdagar, jämställdhetsarbetet måste finnas som en kontinuerlig process i deras dagliga verksamhet om könsstereotyper skall försvinna. Kvalitetsarbetet inom förskoleklasser måste hålla en hög nivå. Ständiga förändringar och ökade krav i samhället gör att skolan måste se över och revidera sina läroplaner kontinuerligt. Kvalitetsarbete inom förskoleklasser samt i skolans värld skall sätta sina elever i centrum, undervisningen måste baseras på fakta och integrera samtliga inom skolvärlden för att kunna förbättra skolans processer. Det empiriska materialet består utav observationer och intervjuer. Denna uppsats är gjord utifrån en kvalitativ metod. Resultatet utav denna uppsats tyder på att det finns skillnader mellan könen. Slutsatsen är att det finns en problematik för skolan där läroplanen (Lgr11) säger att skolan skall utmana och följa med i tiden. Dokumenten säger ingenting om hur jämställdhetsarbetet skall göras. Att tolka läroplanen (Lgr11) är upp till varje skola att göra själv.

  • 26.
    Backlund, Grethe
    Gotland University, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Hoff. Conterfäyarens teckning: en skiss av Georg Engelhard Schröder2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i en porträttskiss signerad  Schröder tecknas i uppsatsen en bild av konstnären Georg Engelhard Schröder och särskilt av hans tid som hovmålare 1725-1750.  I uppsatsen diskuteras Schröders porträtt av drottning Ulrika Eleonora och den tecknade ansiktsstudiens roll i det samtida porträttmåleriet.

  • 27.
    Ballaei, Sahar
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Utveckling av skylt samt en parkerings app för Visby innerstad2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this examination project, at candidate level with extent of 15 credits has been going on for ten weeks and been in collaboration with the municipality of Gotland, Region Gotland.This assignment has been about developing a new parking sign for Visby’s inner town and to facilitate navigation in traffic through a parking app. The parking sign and the app interact with each other and create a unity over the traffic problems in Visby.

    The problem formulation of the project has been:“How can I develop a new navigational system to facilitate the traffic flow in Visby and a new parking sign that is easily understood, while blending in with the cultural heritage with reasonable measures for Region Gotland to produce?”

    I have through studies of color, form, function analyzed and come up with a graphic symbol, in a choice that is recognizable to the signs related to parking machines and payment of them adapted for Visby’s inner town as well as it should blend in with the environment. You should easily be able to interpret the signs and find the parking machines as well as the parking app gives you direction to the nearest parking space and inform you if any parking spaces are available or not, all this give you more comprehensive and facilitate information.The project has been adapted to human from an ergonomic perspective and the cultural heritage of Visby old town, with reasonable measures for the municipality to realize and produce.

  • 28. Baumane, Ilona
    et al.
    Lind, Per
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Simonova, Tatjana
    Timofejevs, Aivars
    Vedina, Rebekka
    Wrobel, Piotr
    Innovation capabilities in tourism and food production SMEs in the Baltic Sea Region2011In: International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, ISSN 1743-8268, Vol. 4, no 4, 336-358 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the resource-based view, this paper addresses two fundamental questions: what innovation capabilities are most important for the creation of innovations in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) and what are the relations between different innovation capabilities? We propose a model for the analysis of innovation capabilities in small and medium enterprises. In the model, we distinguish between capacities, such as access to financial, physical, technological and human resources, and competencies, such as knowledge and skills, market and entrepreneurial orientation. The findings are based on surveys from 277 tourism and food production SMEs from five Baltic Sea Region countries.

  • 29.
    Beccau, Hanna
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Bevarande av och tillgänglighet till samlingar: exempel från Västerbottens museums textilsamling2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is performed as a case study in Västerbotten Museum's textile storage space. The intention with this study is to investigate the relationships between the museum’s tasks: to collect, preserve and make the collections accessible. The aim is to reveal the problems that exist in museums today with increasing collections, less resources for the preservation of the collections and increasing requirements on accessibility. The aim is to deduce the problem by finding out how the different tasks relate to one another today.  It will also be interesting to find out how the history and traditions of the museum has influenced the work as it looks today and how external and internal factors affect the priorities set out in the practical work in the museum. The study is primarily based on interviews with those who were responsible for the textile storage space during the period under investigation. The statements are analyzed and connected to the data in registers, annual and quarterly reports and museum scientific research to provide the context necessary for understanding the context.

    The result shows that the problems existing in the relationship between the museum’s different missions seem to be largely attributable to the fact that preservation and collecting are placed behind closed doors. And therefore mainly characterized by traditions while accessibility is constantly remodeled by social changes. This seems to have created a lack of understanding and commitment to the collections generally and inability for the museum to obtain resources to these areas.

  • 30.
    Beccau, Hanna
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Kläder i målningar och verklighet: en studie av dräktframställningen i Pehr Hilleströms genremålningar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The artist Pehr Hilleström has been credited as the founder of the Swedish genre painting. In the second half of the 18th century he began painting everyday subjects of the different social stratums. Today his paintings are noted for their way of showing us the culture of the time since the photograph still had still not been introduced.   Hilleström was a court painter for King Gustav III who wanted him to depict the Swedish people and their different costumes. The king thought the costumes were of great significance for their psychological impact on people and therefore used them as a way to unite the nation psychologically, both by the genre paintings and also by making a national costume. The costumes were used as a symbol of an unbroken tradition and national heritage. This work examines the way Hilleström produced costumes in his paintings, by comparing the painted costumes with extant costumes and images from costume history.    The purpose is to find out how credible the costumes are and also finding out what the primary aims of the paintings were. The paintings will be analyzed with focus on the costumes to determine which symbolic meanings the clothes have and what they express about the time. Even though Hilleström is seen as a source for cultural history today his role as an artist must be taken in account  which may have had an impact  on the paintings credibility.

  • 31.
    Beischer, Per-Henrik
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Homoadoption i Bamse: hur skildras homosexualitet och homoadoption i serietidningen ”Bamse” och var placerar sig resultatet mot en kort jämförelse av homohistoria, samhälle och genus?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how homosexuality and homosexual adoptions are manifested in children's comic "Bamse" and study the result in the light of a brief background about the western society and gay history. The study has a historical gender perspective and focus homosexuality primarily in modern times. Drawing on critical theory and semiotic analysis, the study shows how ideas and ideology surrounding same-sex relations and parenting are negotiated in the ”Bamse” comic. 2010 was the year when the Bamse cartoon took a step into the gender debate and introduced two gay rabbits who adopted an infant.

    The study shows that despite the obvious intent to anchor homosexuality as normal and integrated in the society there are hidden ideologies that reveals homosexuality as abnormal and excluded. Homosexuality in "Bamse" includes a male homosexuality and no female representatives are visible. Also is homosexuality normalized by including both traditional male and female attributes and domains. The gay man emerges as emotional, scared, unused to children, colored, not belonging in a middle or upper class, surrounded by darkness, but, while fully capable of providing care to a child, just as heterosexual parents. The study reveals how ”Bamse” contains and negotiates between conflicting ideoligies about same sex parenting. This duality of the prominent ideologies may well reflect the social concepts that exist at the time of this study in the media debate.

  • 32.
    Bentfors, Kaj
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Sant eller falskt?: hur skildrar de nätbaserade media SANA, BBC och CNN händelserna mellan 1.4. och 18.4.2012 i Syrien?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will try to analyze how Syria’s official news agency, SANA, describes events taking place in Syria in the days between 1.4 and 18.4.2012. This will be contrasted with how BBC and CNN describe the events. These other two news agencies were chosen, because they represent media from democratic countries in Europe and the USA. This rebellion became a full scale civil war over time. The sources being used are news articles on the internet.

    After a short background, this essay will answer the following questions: How does SANA define the events? How do the foreign media BBC and CNN define the events? In what way does SANA try to drag Israel into this conflict? How do the media describe the number of dead and wounded people and what do they report on the refugees?  How is Kofi Annan’s peace plan described? How do these events affect Syria’s economy? What further events are mentioned?

    After trying to answer these questions, an analysis and a discussion will take place concerning their credibility. This will be summed up at this essay’s end.

  • 33.
    Berg, Sascha
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Troll i diskussionsforum: en etnologisk analys av attityder kring olika bruk av virtuell identitet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the emic use of ”Internet trolls" and trolling behaviour in one specific Internet community. The findings are compared with, and put in relations to the conventional definition of Internet-trolls as individuals who deliberately, typically anonymously, antagonize other users of online common spaces.

    A forum dealing with matters of relationship issues in the Swedish online community Message Board of Familjeliv.se, was the subject of field-work that provided the basic empirical material for the research; three comparable threads on the subject of infidelity. These could all be said to contain suspected trolling, and such suspicions were also ascribed participants throughout the discussions. The analysis was undertaken mainly in terms of quality of narrative, performance and interaction.

    A comparative method and a genre analysis out of a holistic and functionalistic perspective is used to shed some light on how forum participants organize themselves and steer narratives towards desired outcomes. Author performances, both initially and throughout conversational threads, are explored through holistic analysis.

    It is concluded that a broad emic view on trolls and trolling behaviour exists within the Internet community, and that the understanding of trolls can differ between users, forums and within conversational threads. The results are put in relations to and are compared to how trolls are described in Swedish folklore tradition. Parallels are also drawn to fear of and belief in evil.

    The analytical concepts ”actual” and ”virtual” worlds, as defined by the anthropologist Tom Boellstorff (2008:18f), are used in this analysis to illustrate how trolling behaviour can be perceived when borders between differing worldviews are crossed and/or when the majority of the active participants of a thread consider a statement incompatible with the dominating interpretation of a given narrative.

  • 34.
    Berg, Sascha
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Att förhandla om rum: en etnologisk analys av hantverkares tal om kundmöten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to point out variations of practices in the relationship between professionals of service occupations and their clients. The material consists of four openly conducted thematic interviews with male professionals who work in the environment of their clients' homes.The main theoretical approach of this analysisis undertaken with ethnicity in mind.The practices identified aim to throw light on the boundaries between the differing cultures of professionals and their clients.The analytical termsboundary reduction and boundary maintenanceare used in this research.

    The two-stage analysis points out different practicesused, in chronological order, during contact between professionals and their clients. This is followed by a statement of the themes which connect, primarily fromthe professional perspective. The results indicate an intimate connection between intercultural and transcultural aspects through the use of cultural transparancy, which is a strategy connecting different roles, aswell as use of loophole tacticsthat afford the possibility of definingspace, place and relationship.

    It's illustrated how the professionals operate from "within the structures and worldview" of the client, and this analysis also reveals a glimpse of the potential for cultural changein the meeting between different cultures.

  • 35.
    Bergenheim, Linda
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    System- och framtidsperspektiv på designprocessen och designerns roll2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to present a system- and future perspective on the design process and the role of the industrial designer, which also will result in a clearer definition and mapping of the design process and adjacent areas.

    Extensive research was made in form of studies in literature, visit to museum and searching information on the web. This provided a good foundation for the upcoming interviews.

    The interviews were carried out with representatives from universities and colleges of higher learning, representatives from SVID and industrial designers -which would provide different perspectives and point of views on the specified scope.

    Based on the information from the study phase and from the interviews, a mapping of the design process was made, with a clearer connection to macro- and micro environment and also Design Management. To clarify even more, I compiled applicable questions that correlate with the workflow.

    Regarding the role of the Industrial Designer, I decided to (based on the result from the interviews), visualize possible future areas and competencies.

    I can conclude that the design process has developed into something much more than “design of products”. Nowadays people often refer to service design, interaction design, creative industries and sustainable development, which make the workflow more complex. This also generates competence requirements on the industrial designer, requirements like behavioral science, project management, marketing, and environmental knowledge.

  • 36.
    Bergström, Philip
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Kökslampa: tema Fransk Bistro2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes the thesis I, Philip Bergstrom, have done at the University of Gotland. The work comprises 15 credits and is at bachelor level and has been done in collaboration with Lyktan Bankeryd Belysning.The project consists of developing the design of a kitchen lamp for the Swedish home following the catchwords stripped French bistro that will fit into the Lyktan Bankeryd lighting spring collection 2013, and it should not look too alike any existing lamp on the market today.The work includes analysis of the company's current products and the image the company wants to project, analysis of three other companies' products to draw inspiration from, and a simple ergonomic study of the lights in the kitchen.The final result achieves the demands made and fits well in the intended environment, there is also the possibility for further development of both a floor lamp and a wall lamp.

  • 37.
    Berntsson, Linnéa
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Magdalena Rudenschölds medverkan i Armfeltskonspirationen 1792-17942011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Magdalena Rudenschöld (born 1766, died 1823) was a woman in Swedish history, who lived a turbulent life. As a young woman she was employed at the Swedish court and got to know the king of that time, Gustaf III, and she became the mistress of one of his closest deputies, Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt. After the killing of Gustaf III, a temporary government was formed. This was a regency that was put there on behalf of Prince Gustaf Adolf, since he was not yet of age to run the country. The commission to conduct this temporary government was given to Duke Carl, who was the dead king’s brother.

    King Gustavus III’s former employees and Officers were after the king’s death, opposed by the temporary government, and they were moved to other assignations. Among these former employees and Officers a discontent arose and a few of them, among others Rudenschöld and her friend Armfelt, started to discuss and plan for a change in the governance of Sweden. The planning was mostly done through correspondence. Several of those who took part in this correspondence, was later sentenced for trying to overthrow the Swedish government. One of the sentenced people was Magdalena Rudenschöld.

    The purpose of this treatise, has been to examine the role and actions of Magdalena Rudenschöld in the Armfelt conspiracy and also to compare the court records to the sentence she received. Rudenschöld was convicted of treason against the king and kingdom. The results show that Rudenschöld’s conviction for being part of treason against king and kingdom was correct, and that she had made no attempt to stop the conspiracy plans. On her part she had mediated letters between people and she had offered to help, for instance by travelling to Russia to speak for their cause. Rudenschöld’s penalty was hard. She was imprisoned for about two years, after having been publicly pilloried. As she was released from prison, Duke Carl provided her a property on the Swedish island Gotland, and she was not permitted to leave it for still some time. The fact that two members of the temporary government was part of the court that sentenced her, probably contributed to the harsh punishment. However, it has to be born in mind that this was how the judicature was organised at the time being.

    The treatment of Rudenschöld upset the public at the time of the trials - a lady-in-waiting who were pilloried and ended up in prison was very unusual. The fact that the affair was given characteristics of romanticism as Rudenschöld’s intimacy with the married man Armfelt was made public, and that the affair is even more complicated since the conductor of the temporary government - Duke Carl - previously had been in love with Rudenschöld, makes this story linger for posterity.

  • 38.
    Besedina, Oleksandra
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Chernyshova, Viktoriia
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Who you are and what they think about you: how to measure brand identity and brand image of a small design company2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of this thesis originates from the stand point that the understanding of who you are, who you want to be and what impression you actually make, is the start of a successful reciprocal relationship. The thesis solves two tasks. First, it offers a methodology of measuring brand image and brand identity and therefore contributes to the development of the research base. Second, presenting a case-study of a small scale company it applies the methodology and analyzes the congruency between brand image and brand identity from the communication perspective of SMEs. In a result the developed methodology is tested and a contribution to the deeper understanding of brand nature is made.

  • 39.
    Björk, Inga
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Fotografen och bröllopsbilden: hur teknikskiftet från analog till digital teknik påverkat bröllopsfotografernas villkor och vanor2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how and if the understanding of wedding photography has changed during the shift of technology - from analog to digital photography. It examines if the changed conditions due to the shift of technology have changed the habits and conditions for the photographers working with wedding photography. It furthermore examines what impact these habits and conditions have had on the pictures of weddings. The investigation is based on interviews of six photographers that have worked professionally before and after the shift of technology, as well as of pictures by the photographers taken before and after the shift of technology.

    Use of time and space has changed due to the shift of technology. The change has also had an influence on hierarchy among the photographers. Depending on not only the camera technology but also at the digital revolution of our society. The pictures have changed due to the change of technology, but at the same time pictures of wedded couples follow rigid norms. The shift of technology is to be understood as a shift of paradigm according to the habits and conditions of the photographers.

  • 40.
    Björk, Inga
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Identitet, skog, fjäll och ren i Härjedalen: ur ett samiskt perspektiv2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how nature is understood in the province of Härjedalen by the sami population of the area, through interviews with three informers and photographs taken by the author. Pictures and answers point in the direction that much of nature is understood through the reindeer, the most important key symbol of the reindeer herding part of the sami people and their kin.

  • 41.
    Björling, Sofia
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Ethnic fashion: begrepp i förändring2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att se på hur begreppet etniskt mode används i praktiken inom dagens modejournalistik och inom den mode- och dräkthistoriska litteraturen, med utgångspunkt i hur etniskt mode och dräkt presenteras i forskningen.

    Etniskt mode som idag är ett väl använt begrepp som visar sig ha många olika innebörder. För det har visat sig att man med begreppet etniskt mode menar olika saker inom forskningen respektive inom mode- och dräkthistoriska översiktsverk samt inom modejournalistiken.

  • 42.
    Blidberg, Anders
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Återvändarna: en undersökning av hur det svenska samhället påverkades av återvändande emigranter 1860-19402013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1860 and 1940 approximately 1,1 million Swedish citizens emigrated to North America. But over 200 000 of them returned to Sweden. In this essay I have tried to estimate the impact of these people on the Swedish society. To make a deeper analyze possible, I have studied the parish of Glimåkra in southern Sweden and tried to trace the immigrants’ lives after their return to Sweden and thus estimate their impact on society.

    By statistical analysis of migrants between Sweden and USA and between the parish of Glimåkra and USA I have concluded that the result can be used as a model for Sweden on a national basis. The impact of returned emigrants on the parish of Glimåkra is significant. I have been able to identify important areas in the development of the local society that are clearly linked to these people, returning with new knowledge, ideas and money. This is especially obvious in the establishment of independent religious congregations and in the organizations for sobriety.

  • 43.
    Blomberg, Carina
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Drottningholmsparken under 1900-talet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Drottningholmsparken under 1900– talet” beskriver vilka förändringar och restaureringar som genomförts i lustträdgården och parken från 1900 fram till idag och hur man sett på det historiska arvet. Den tar upp och visar på förändringar som skett i synsättet på historiska trädgårdsanläggningar. Att kungafamiljen bosatte sig på slottet och att Drottningholm blev Sveriges första världsarv ledde till att besökarantalet ökade. Uppsatsen redovisar hur man nyttjat Drottningholmsparken som en publik park för olika typer av arrangemang och hur administrationen sett ut under olika tidsperioder. Som bakgrund och jämförelsematerial finns en bakgrundsbeskrivning av hur lustträdgården och parken anlades under tidsperioden från när slottet byggdes i slutet på 1500-talet och fram till 1700-talets slut och även vilka förändringar som gjordes under 1800-talet.

  • 44.
    Blomberg, Linda
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Wemnell, Sara
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Kvalitetsutveckling och verksamhetsstyrning i praktiken: ett förbättringsprojekt vid Avdelningen ombudsekonomi, AB Svenska Spel2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AB Svenska Spel is a state-owned company that delivers games and lottery to the Swedish society. In this essay, Svenska Spel and its unit ombudsekonomi acted as a case company. The unit, which is located at the Headquarters in Visby, was selected when the Chief Financial Officer declared that the employees felt that their workflow was ineffective and in need of change. Ombudsekonomi is part of the Finance Department and works with the company's establishment process for new customers, accounts receivable and management of the company's collection of debts.

    This essay began with a pre-study which intended to identify areas of improvement within the department, which then would form the basis for this essay. The pre-study pointed out several  primarily, development of the unit's credit surveillance, head process and workflow, as well as internal handovers.

    Common for all identified areas was that the unit didn ́t plan their work systematically or with total quality management, which is to be seen as a symptom of the lack of overall framework, policies and well-defined goals. The employees couldn ́t describe the function and purpose of the unit, or how they contributed to Svenska Spels organization or to the Swedish society. Neither could they express how the unit's internal actions and tasks together contributed to the common cause or how to work together to reach it, and we couldn't find any (for the unit) defined goals, vivion or overall assignment.

    Therefore, a general framework was put together combining theories of total quality management and processes, mapping with the official strategies, vision and goals that were found in the Svenska Spel annual report. To enable this, information was collected, modified and reformulated to fit the unit's work situation. A mission, vision and strategy was made and new processes were established. This, together with new guidelines and documents for work practices, should make it possible for all the emplyees to work against the same goal in an effective and rationalized way that creates more value for the unit.

    The result of this essay is the creation of a main thread from Svenska Spels overall existing framework down to the unit's work, as well as a new defined goal. To illustrate how this work can be implemented in different perspectives, a balance scorecard has been created including suggestions for measurement and key performance indicators. Furthermore, the result of this essay contributes to the unit's systematic approach to promote the analysis and continuous improvement based on fundamental proposed values.

    However, this project does not include implementation of the results and is therefore not going to ensure the outcomes. An action and application plan for further work will be handed over to the unit's Team Leader. This ensure that the systematic work approach progress, is further improved and that the proposed mind set is maintained.

  • 45.
    Blomberg, Marta
    Gotland University, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Landsbygd i förändring: en jämförelse mellan bouppteckningar från1840-talet och sekelskiftet 1900 på Gotlands södra landsbygd2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the beginning of the 19th century Sweden is effected by the Napoleonic Wars and in the aftermath of the war Sweden looses Finland to Russia. This loss leads to the dismissal of King Gustav IV Adolf and the introduction of the Bernadotte dynasty on the Swedish throne. Over the century the industrialization plays a big part in the progress of Sweden. The growth of the industries leads to developments in the areas of agriculture. With this essay I would like to examine if the people on the countryside of Gotland keep the same pace as the people on the mainland in their introduction of new things. Is it possible to see any new innovations on the southern part of Gotland in estate inventories from the period between year 1840 to 1900, and if so which? I will also try to examine which part of the society, social class, leads the introduction of the modern things. The material I have used is estate inventories from three parishes on the southern Gotland. To ease the examination I have divided people and things into different groups. This has helped me to see the difference between people and things, and it has also helped me to see which society class it was that introduced modern things. New crops, new tools and a new way to cultivate are some of the improvements that we can see in the areas concerning agriculture. Example of new tool that are developed during this time is the “turning” plough and “claw” harrow. There are also developments in other parts of the society, like in the textile industry. Cotton becomes more frequently used and the textile goes from being expensive to be used by all classes. My conclusion is, with some exceptions, that the countryside on Gotland has, more or less, the same development pace as the countryside on the mainland of Sweden.

  • 46.
    Blomkvist, Nils
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Peter of Dacia and the Urban Revolution2012In: The Image of the Baltic: a Festschrift for Nils Blomkvist / [ed] Michael F. Scholz, Robert Bohn, Carina Johansson, Gotland University Press, 2012, 185-202 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Blomqvist, Torbjörn
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Karolinsk Stridstaktik: artilleriets och pikens roll 1700-1712 samt bataljonens stridsformering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From a new perspective, this paper will examine the artillery and the pike role in the period 1700-1712 and the battalion´s battle formation in the Caroline combat tactics. Carolinian battle tactics were practiced during the period 1700-1721. The results from my study will be compared to existing research opinion regarding the selected subject areas, if the result confirms the thesis or question the existing research opinion. The source material used consists of eyewitness accounts from the period consisting of diaries, memoir, biography, general muster rolls and historical literature covering the subject. The analysis shows that the Caroline artillery took part in 12 battles during the period of 1700-1712. The analysis also shows that there was a close working between the infantry and artillery in attacks. This result contradicts the existing facility research mixture view that artillery was subordinate other weaponry because it prevented the Caroline attack tempo. In the analysis of the pike role in Caroline combat tactics, reveals nothing that confirms existing research opinion that the pike was an offensive melee weapon. Instead it seems that the pikes role was a support weapon with a defensive focus. The analysis of the battalion`s battle formation shows that the Caroline battalion battle formation did not follow the regulations of the battle formation. According to the existing research the battalion´s battle formation was as required by regulations. But according to the general muster rolls, there are differences between the battalions when it comes to the relationship of forces. So the Caroline battalion battle formation could not have been strictly required by regulations.

  • 48.
    Bohme-Shomari, Wiji
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Arab Anti-Semitism2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although anti-Semitism is a fact of Arab life, most individuals prefer to describe it as political animosity and religious polemic. This explains why my study has only drawn from works on the subject by Western historians – because no Arab historian has even acknowledged that it exists, let alone written about it.

    In this study I compare and analyze the different views my sources have on some matters related to the subject of Jew-hatred among Arabs; these are Zionism, the origins of Arab nationalism, the legendary age of tolerance in Al-andalus (Muslim Spain) and the treatment of Jews in the Quran. In most of my sources I find that:

    • For Arabs, Zionism and Jewishness are one and the same thing.
    • The influence of Nazi ideals and prejudices on Arab nationalism and the paranoid attitudes of the region’s leaders effectively stymie any chances of reconciliation between the two peoples. 
    • Historical evidences show that the much-praised racial harmony of Al-andalus has been exaggerated for political purposes.
    • The negative image of Jews in the Quran has been deliberately misinterpreted in order to keep hatred of Jews alive among Arabs today.

    To see just how effective anti-Semitic indoctrination has been on reasonable, educated people, I sent a simple question to my Arab friends around the world asking them to say what they really think of Jews, hoping to get some candid answers.  But to my great disappointment, not one of them replied.

  • 49.
    Bohn, Robert
    et al.
    Flensburg.
    Wegener Friis, ThomasSyddansk universitet / Danmark.Scholz, Michael FGotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Østersøområdet fra Anden Verdenskrig til den Kolde Krig2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Perioden efter 1945 skulle visa sig att bli en omvälvande tid i Norden och i Östersjörummet. De nordiska länderna konfronterades nu ed frågan om hur de skulle orientera sig säkerhetspolitiskt. Vid samma tid stod länderna både i nord, syd och öst inför flyktingproblem som andra världskriget hade medfört.

    Med denna antologi diskuterar ett antal historiker från Norden och Tyskland förändringarna i Östersjörummet efter andra världskriget. Antologin syftar till att göra upp med den tradition där historikerna gör en skarp uppdelning mellan två av 1900-talets viktigaste händelser, andra världskriget och kalla kriget.

  • 50.
    Bolander, Paulina
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Fattigvården i Gustavsberg 1869-19242011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the help of large amount of archive material I have examined how Gustavsberg in Värmdö were affected by the great labor migration in Gustavsberg porcelain factory during the period 1869-1924. I have chosen to investigate how the municipality dealt with the poverty relief issue out of the labour immigration perspective. To my surprise I found out that Värmdö was not responsible for Gustavsberg in the poverty issue. The workers belonged to the factory, which had a relatively well-developed system of poverty relief in place. This is not to say that the workers received any support from the factory to any great extent. The general causes for poverty were lack of housing, unemployment, disease and what we today refer as old age. In regards to housing, it was not a problem, because the workers lived rent-free in the factory apartments. In case of unemployment the factory often arranged other chores for the employees until the situation changed for the better again. The factory had access to its own hospital with a doctor who came from Stockholm. For financial support there were Help Fund, Health and Funeral Fund and Savings Fund in workers disposal. These funds were based on the deposits of the workers’ wages and factory owners' donations or grants. The relationship between the factory workers and the factory would have been quite complex due to the workers strong dependence to their employer. During the time span of my research the factory owner Wilhelm Odelberg created a patriarchal society within the factory with his style of leadership. This meant that he was involved in every aspect of his workers lives, from factory, school, health care and church to such things as the factory store, where the employees were only able to only buy on credit.

    This made it likely very difficult for the workers to ask for any support or other type of poverty relief. I have not found any evidence that the great labor migration to the factory would have affected the poverty relief in any significant way. There are other factors that have affected the poverty relief like the poverty relief regulation from 1871 and the political discussions around social security as a result of the rise of the industrialism. For the individual worker the changes in economy affected the level of poverty relief. During the good times the more liberal poverty politics favored those in need of support.

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