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  • 1. Aarrestad, P. A.
    et al.
    Hytteborn, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Masunga, G.
    Skarpe, C.
    Vegetation: Between Soils and Herbivores2014In: Elephants and Savanna Woodland Ecosystems: A Study from Chobe National Park, Botswana / [ed] Christina Skarpe, Johan T. du Toit and Stein R. Moe, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, p. 61-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vegetation of the study area in Chobe National Park is influenced by a range of factors, including inundation by the Chobe River, soil moisture and fertility, and the impacts of different-size grazers and browsers. This chapter focuses on how the structure and species composition of the present vegetation in northern Chobe National Park is related to recent herbivory by elephants, as agents shaping the vegetation, and by mesoherbivores acting as controllers or responders, along with abiotic controllers such as soil type and distance to the river. In the study, a two-way indicator species analysis classified the vegetation data into four more or less distinct plant community groups (i) Baikiaea plurijuga-Combretum apiculatum woodland, (ii) Combretum mossambicense-Friesodielsia obovata wooded shrubland, (iii) Capparis tomentosa-Flueggea virosa shrubland and (iv) Cynodon dactylon-Heliotropium ovalifolium floodplain, named after the TWINSPAN indicator or preferential species with high cover, and the relative amount of shrubs and trees.

  • 2. Aarrestad, P. A.
    et al.
    Masunga, G. S.
    Hytteborn, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Pitlagano, M. L.
    Marokane, W.
    Skarpe, C.
    Influence of soil, tree cover and large herbivores on field layer vegetation along a savanna landscape gradient in northern Botswana2011In: Journal of Arid Environments, ISSN 0140-1963, E-ISSN 1095-922X, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 290-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of the field layer vegetation to co-varying resource availability (soil nutrients, light) and resource loss (herbivory pressure) was investigated along a landscape gradient highly influenced by elephants and smaller ungulates at the Chobe River front in Botswana. TWINSPAN classification was used to identify plant communities. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) were used to explore the vegetation-environment relationships. Four plant communities were described: Panicum maximum woodland, Tribulus terrestris woodland/shrubland, Chloris virgata shrubland and Cynodon dactylon floodplain. Plant height, species richness and diversity decreased with increasing resource availability and resource loss. The species composition was mainly explained by differences in soil resources, followed by variables related to light availability (woody cover) and herbivory, and by interactions between these variables. The vegetation structure and species richness, on the other hand, followed the general theories of vegetation responses to herbivory more closely than resource related theories. The results suggest a strong interaction between resource availability and herbivory in their influence on the composition, species richness and structure of the plant communities.

  • 3.
    Abbott, Benjamin W.
    et al.
    Univ Rennes 1, OSUR, CNRS, UMR ECOBIO 6553, F-35014 Rennes, France.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Jones, Jeremy B.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA..
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Bowden, William B.
    Univ Vermont, Rubenstein Sch Environm & Nat Resources, Burlington, VT 05405 USA..
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Epstein, Howard E.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Environm Sci, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA..
    Flannigan, Michael D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M7, Canada..
    Harms, Tamara K.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Hollingsworth, Teresa N.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, PNW Res Stn, USDA Forest Serv, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Mack, Michelle C.
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA..
    McGuire, A. David
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Cooperat Fish & Wildlife Res Unit, US Geol Survey, Anchorage, AK USA..
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA..
    Rocha, Adrian V.
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Biol Sci, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Notre Dame, Environm Change Initiat, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M7, Canada..
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada..
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Wickland, Kimberly P.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Res Program, Boulder, CO USA..
    Aiken, George R.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Res Program, Boulder, CO USA..
    Alexander, Heather D.
    Mississippi State Univ, Forest & Wildlife Res Ctr, Mississippi State, MS 39762 USA..
    Amon, Rainer M. W.
    Texas A&M Univ, Galveston, TX USA..
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Bergeron, Yves
    Univ Quebec Abitibi Temiscamingue, Forest Res Inst, Rouyn Noranda, PQ, Canada..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. wedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Blarquez, Olivier
    Univ Montreal, Dept Geog, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Bond-Lamberty, Ben
    Pacific NW Natl Lab, Richland, WA 99352 USA..
    Breen, Amy L.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Scenarios Network Alaska & Arctic Planning, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Buffam, Ishi
    Univ Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA..
    Cai, Yihua
    Xiamen Univ, State Key Lab Marine Environm Sci, Xiamen, Peoples R China..
    Carcaillet, Christopher
    Ecole Prat Hautes Etud, UMR5023, CNRS Lyon 1, Lyon, France..
    Carey, Sean K.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada..
    Chen, Jing M.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, Canada..
    Chen, Han Y. H.
    Lakehead Univ, Fac Nat Resources Management, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada..
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Lund Univ, Arctic Res Ctr, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Aarhus Univ, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Univ Maryland, Ctr Environm Sci, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Syst Ecol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    de Groot, William J.
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    DeLuca, Thomas H.
    Univ Washington, Sch Environm & Forest Sci, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Fetcher, Ned
    Wilkes Univ, Inst Environm Sci & Sustainabil, Wilkes Barre, PA 18766 USA..
    Finlay, Jacques C.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Ecol Evolut & Behav, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Univ Lapland, Arctic Ctr, Rovaniemi, Finland..
    French, Nancy H. F.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Michigan Tech Res Inst, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Girardin, Martin P.
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Goetz, Scott J.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA..
    Goldammer, Johann G.
    Max Planck Inst Chem, Global Fire Monitoring Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Gough, Laura
    Towson Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Towson, MD USA..
    Grogan, Paul
    Queens Univ, Dept Biol, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada..
    Guo, Laodong
    Univ Wisconsin Milwaukee, Sch Freshwater Sci, Milwaukee, WI USA..
    Higuera, Philip E.
    Univ Montana, Dept Ecosyst & Conservat Sci, Missoula, MT 59812 USA..
    Hinzman, Larry
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Hu, Feng Sheng
    Univ Illinois, Dept Plant Biol, Chicago, IL 60680 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Geol, Chicago, IL 60680 USA..
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO USA..
    Jandt, Randi
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Fire Sci Consortium, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Univ Saskatchewan, Dept Biol, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W0, Canada..
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Kasischke, Eric S.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Kattner, Gerhard
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, Berlin, Germany..
    Kelly, Ryan
    Neptune & Co Inc, North Wales, PA USA..
    Keuper, Frida
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.;INRA, AgroImpact UPR1158, New York, NY USA..
    Kling, George W.
    Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Finnish Environm Inst, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kouki, Jari
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Joensuu, Finland..
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Laurion, Isabelle
    Inst Natl Rech Sci, Ctr Eau Terre Environm, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Inst Ocean Sci, Dept Fisheries & Oceans, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Mann, Paul J.
    Northumbria Univ, Dept Geog, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Martikainen, Pertti J.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Environm & Biol Sci, Joensuu, Finland..
    McClelland, James W.
    Univ Texas Austin, Inst Marine Sci, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Molau, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Florida Int Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Miami, FL 33199 USA..
    Olefeldt, David
    Univ Alberta, Dept Revewable Resources, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M7, Canada..
    Pare, David
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Parisien, Marc-Andre
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, No Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Payette, Serge
    Univ Laval, Ctr Etud Nord, Quebec City, PQ G1K 7P4, Canada..
    Peng, Changhui
    Univ Quebec, Ctr CEF, ESCER, Montreal, PQ H3C 3P8, Canada.;Northwest A&F Univ, Coll Forestry, State Key Lab Soil Eros & Dryland Farming Loess P, Xian, Peoples R China..
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    CNRS, Georesources & Environm, Toulouse, France.;Tomsk State Univ, BIO GEO CLIM Lab, Tomsk, Russia..
    Rastetter, Edward B.
    Marine Biol Lab, Ctr Ecosyst, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA..
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Yale Univ, Sch Forestry & Environm Studies, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Raynolds, Martha K.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Rein, Guillermo
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Mech Engn, London SW7 2AZ, England..
    Reynolds, James F.
    Lanzhou Univ, Sch Life Sci, Lanzhou 730000, Peoples R China.;Duke Univ, Nicholas Sch Environm, Durham, NC 27706 USA..
    Robards, Martin
    Arctic Beringia Program, Wildlife Conservat Soc, New York, NY USA..
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA..
    Schaedel, Christina
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA..
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Natl Snow & Ice Data Ctr, Boulder, CO USA..
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.;Sukachev Inst Forest, Moscow, Russia..
    Sky, Jasper
    Cambridge Ctr Climate Change Res, Cambridge, England..
    Spencer, Robert G. M.
    Florida State Univ, Dept Earth Ocean & Atmospher Sci, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA..
    Starr, Gregory
    Univ Alabama, Dept Biol Sci, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Striegl, Robert G.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Res Program, Boulder, CO USA..
    Teisserenc, Roman
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, ECOLAB,UPS, Toulouse, France..
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Environm Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, AK USA..
    Zimov, Sergei
    Russian Acad Sci, Northeast Sci Stn, Moscow 117901, Russia..
    Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment2016In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 034014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

  • 4.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic animals2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1703, p. 161-169Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intra-locus sexual conflict results when sex-specific selection pressures for a given trait act against the intra-sexual genetic correlation for that trait. It has been found in a wide variety of taxa in both laboratory and natural populations, but the importance of intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic organisms has rarely been considered. This is not so surprising given the conceptual and theoretical association of intra-locus sexual conflict with sexual dimorphism, but there is no a priori reason why intra-locus sexual conflict cannot occur in hermaphroditic organisms as well. Here, I discuss the potential for intra-locus sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals and review the available evidence for such conflict, and for the existence of sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphrodites. I argue that mutations with asymmetric effects are particularly likely to be important in mediating sexual antagonism in hermaphroditic organisms. Moreover, sexually antagonistic genetic variation is likely to play an important role in inter-individual variation in sex allocation and in transitions to and from gonochorism (separate sexes) in simultaneous hermaphrodites. I also describe how sequential hermaphrodites may experience a unique form of intra-locus sexual conflict via antagonistic pleiotropy. Finally, I conclude with some suggestions for further research.

  • 5.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Bedhomme, Stéphanie
    Evolutionary Systems Virology Group, University of Valencia.
    Chippindale, Adam K.
    Biology Department, Queen's University.
    Sexual conflict in wing size and shape in Drosophila melanogaster2010In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 1989-1997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intralocus sexual conflict occurs when opposing selection pressures operate on loci expressed in both sexes, constraining the evolution of sexual dimorphism and displacing one or both sexes from their optimum. We eliminated intralocus conflict in Drosophila melanogaster by limiting transmission of all major chromosomes to males, thereby allowing them to win the intersexual tug-of-war. Here, we show that this male-limited (ML) evolution treatment led to the evolution (in both sexes) of masculinized wing morphology, body size, growth rate, wing loading, and allometry. In addition to more male-like size and shape, ML evolution resulted in an increase in developmental stability for males. However, females expressing ML chromosomes were less developmentally stable, suggesting that being ontogenetically more male-like was disruptive to development. We suggest that sexual selection over size and shape of the imago may therefore explain the persistence of substantial genetic variation in these characters and the ontogenetic processes underlying them.

  • 6. Abbott, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Innocenti, Paolo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Chippindale, Adam K.
    Morrow, Edward H.
    Epigenetics and Sex-Specific Fitness: An Experimental Test Using Male-Limited Evolution in Drosophila melanogaster2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, p. e70493-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When males and females have different fitness optima for the same trait but share loci, intralocus sexual conflict is likely to occur. Epigenetic mechanisms such as genomic imprinting (in which expression is altered according to parent-of-origin) and sex-specific maternal effects have been suggested as ways by which this conflict can be resolved. However these ideas have not yet been empirically tested. We designed an experimental evolution protocol in Drosophila melanogaster that enabled us to look for epigenetic effects on the X-chromosome-a hotspot for sexually antagonistic loci. We used special compound-X females to enforce father-to-son transmission of the X-chromosome for many generations, and compared fitness and gene expression levels between Control males, males with a Control X-chromosome that had undergone one generation of father-son transmission, and males with an X-chromosome that had undergone many generations of father-son transmission. Fitness differences were dramatic, with experimentally-evolved males approximately 20% greater than controls, and with males inheriting a non-evolved X from their father about 20% lower than controls. These data are consistent with both strong intralocus sexual conflict and misimprinting of the X-chromosome under paternal inheritance. However, expression differences suggested that reduced fitness under paternal X inheritance was largely due to deleterious maternal effects. Our data confirm the sexually-antagonistic nature of Drosophila's X-chromosome and suggest that the response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution entails compensatory evolution for maternal effects, and perhaps modification of other epigenetic effects via coevolution of the sex chromosomes.

  • 7.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Morrow, Edward H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Obtaining snapshots of genetic variation using hemiclonal analysis2011In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 359-368Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemiclones are naturally occurring or artificially produced individuals that share a single specific genetic haplotype. Natural hemiclones are produced via hybridization between two closely related species, whereas hemiclonal analysis in Drosophila is carried out in the laboratory via crosses with artificially created 'clone-generator' females with a specific genetic make-up. Hemiclonal analysis in Drosophila has been applied successfully to date to obtain measures of standing genetic variation for numerous traits. Here, we review the current hemiclonal literature and suggest future directions for hemiclonal research, including its application in molecular and genomic studies, and the adaptation of natural hemiclonal systems to carry out Drosophila-type studies of standing genetic variation.

  • 8. Abbott, R.
    et al.
    Albach, D.
    Ansell, S.
    Arntzen, J. W.
    Baird, S. J. E.
    Bierne, N.
    Boughman, J.
    Brelsford, A.
    Buerkle, C. A.
    Buggs, R.
    Butlin, R. K.
    Dieckmann, U.
    Eroukhmanoff, F.
    Grill, A.
    Cahan, S. H.
    Hermansen, J. S.
    Hewitt, G.
    Hudson, A. G.
    Jiggins, C.
    Jones, J.
    Keller, B.
    Marczewski, T.
    Mallet, J.
    Martinez-Rodriguez, P.
    Möst, M.
    Mullen, S.
    Nichols, R.
    Nolte, A. W.
    Parisod, C.
    Pfennig, K.
    Rice, A. M.
    Ritchie, M. G.
    Seifert, B.
    Smadja, C. M.
    Stelkens, R.
    Szymura, J. M.
    Väinölä, R.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Zinner, D.
    Hybridization and speciation2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 229-246Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybridization has many and varied impacts on the process of speciation. Hybridization may slow or reverse differentiation by allowing gene flow and recombination. It may accelerate speciation via adaptive introgression or cause near-instantaneous speciation by allopolyploidization. It may have multiple effects at different stages and in different spatial contexts within a single speciation event. We offer a perspective on the context and evolutionary significance of hybridization during speciation, highlighting issues of current interest and debate. In secondary contact zones, it is uncertain if barriers to gene flow will be strengthened or broken down due to recombination and gene flow. Theory and empirical evidence suggest the latter is more likely, except within and around strongly selected genomic regions. Hybridization may contribute to speciation through the formation of new hybrid taxa, whereas introgression of a few loci may promote adaptive divergence and so facilitate speciation. Gene regulatory networks, epigenetic effects and the evolution of selfish genetic material in the genome suggest that the Dobzhansky-Muller model of hybrid incompatibilities requires a broader interpretation. Finally, although the incidence of reinforcement remains uncertain, this and other interactions in areas of sympatry may have knock-on effects on speciation both within and outside regions of hybridization.

  • 9. Adamik, Peter
    et al.
    Emmenegger, Tamara
    Briedis, Martins
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Henshaw, Ian
    Krist, Milos
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Liechti, Felix
    Prochazka, Petr
    Salewski, Volker
    Hahn, Steffen
    Barrier crossing in small avian migrants: individual tracking reveals prolonged nocturnal flights into the day as a common migratory strategy2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21560Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Adolfsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Lack of Dosage Compensation Accompanies the Arrested Stage of Sex Chromosome Evolution in Ostriches2013In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 806-810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex chromosome evolution is usually seen as a process that, once initiated, will inevitably progress toward an advanced stage of degeneration of the nonrecombining chromosome. However, despite evidence that avian sex chromosome evolution was initiated > 100 Ma, ratite birds have been trapped in an arrested stage of sex chromosome divergence. We performed RNA sequencing of several tissues from male and female ostriches and assembled the transcriptome de novo. A total of 315 Z-linked genes fell into two categories: those that have equal expression level in the two sexes (for which Z-W recombination still occurs) and those that have a 2-fold excess of male expression (for which Z-W recombination has ceased). We suggest that failure to evolve dosage compensation has constrained sex chromosome divergence in this basal avian lineage. Our results indicate that dosage compensation is a prerequisite for, not only a consequence of, sex chromosome evolution.

  • 11.
    Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene
    et al.
    Univ Basel, Program Man Soc Environm, Dept Environm Sci, Vesalgasse 1, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland..
    Svensson, Ola
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Medicinaregatan 18A, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Linnaeus Ctr Marine Evolutionary Biol, POB 46040530, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kutschera, Verena E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Rosenblad, Magnus Alm
    Univ Gothenburg, Linnaeus Ctr Marine Evolutionary Biol, POB 46040530, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, NBIS Bioinformat Infrastruct Life Sci, Medicinaregatan 9C, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Pippel, Martin
    Heidelberg Inst Theoret Studies, Schloss Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Winkler, Sylke
    Max Planck Inst Mol Cell Biol & Genet, Pfotenhauerstr 108, D-01307 Dresden, Germany..
    Schloissnig, Siegfried
    Heidelberg Inst Theoret Studies, Schloss Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blomberg, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Linnaeus Ctr Marine Evolutionary Biol, POB 46040530, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Medicinaregatan 9C, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia
    Univ Basel, Program Man Soc Environm, Dept Environm Sci, Vesalgasse 1, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, 11455 Saskatchewan Dr, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    The mitochondrial genome sequences of the round goby and the sand goby reveal patterns of recent evolution in gobiid fish2017In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 18, article id 177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vertebrate mitochondrial genomes are optimized for fast replication and low cost of RNA expression. Accordingly, they are devoid of introns, are transcribed as polycistrons and contain very little intergenic sequences. Usually, vertebrate mitochondrial genomes measure between 16.5 and 17 kilobases ( kb). Results: During genome sequencing projects for two novel vertebrate models, the invasive round goby and the sand goby, we found that the sand goby genome is exceptionally small (16.4 kb), while the mitochondrial genome of the round goby is much larger than expected for a vertebrate. It is 19 kb in size and is thus one of the largest fish and even vertebrate mitochondrial genomes known to date. The expansion is attributable to a sequence insertion downstream of the putative transcriptional start site. This insertion carries traces of repeats from the control region, but is mostly novel. To get more information about this phenomenon, we gathered all available mitochondrial genomes of Gobiidae and of nine gobioid species, performed phylogenetic analyses, analysed gene arrangements, and compared gobiid mitochondrial genome sizes, ecological information and other species characteristics with respect to the mitochondrial phylogeny. This allowed us amongst others to identify a unique arrangement of tRNAs among Ponto-Caspian gobies. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the round goby mitochondrial genome may contain novel features. Since mitochondrial genome organisation is tightly linked to energy metabolism, these features may be linked to its invasion success. Also, the unique tRNA arrangement among Ponto- Caspian gobies may be helpful in studying the evolution of this highly adaptive and invasive species group. Finally, we find that the phylogeny of gobiids can be further refined by the use of longer stretches of linked DNA sequence.

  • 12.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Problemet med "könsroller" kvarstår2013In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, no 1, p. 136-137Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The "Sex Role" Concept: An Overview and Evaluation2013In: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 461-470Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Sex roles" are intuitively associated to stereotypic female and male sexual strategies and in biology, the term "sex role" often relates to mating competition, mate choice or parental care. "Sex role reversals" imply that the usual typological pattern for a population or species is deviates from a norm, and the meaning of "sex role reversal" thus varies depending upon whatever is the usual pattern of sex-typical behavior in a given taxon. We identify several problems with the current use of the "sex role" concept. (1) It is typological and reflects stereotypic expectations of the sexes. (2) The term "sex role" parses continuous variation into only two categories, often obscuring overlap, between the sexes in behavior and morphology, and variability in relation to ecological circumstances. (3) Common generalizations such as "sex role as seen in nature" mask variation upon which selection may act. (4) The general meaning of "sex roles" in society (i.e. "socially and culturally defined prescriptions and beliefs about the behavior and emotions of men and women") is contrary to biological "sex role" concepts, so that confusing the two obscure science communication in society. We end by questioning the validity of the "sex role" concept in evolutionary biology and recommend replacing the term "sex role" with operational descriptions.

  • 14.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Vad kan vi lära av biologisk forskning om “könsroller”?2012In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 51-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Karlsson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lindegren, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Om universitetet blir aktiebolag2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    De Brabandere, Heidi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Reitzel, Kasper
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Waldebäck, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sediment Phosphorus Extractants for Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis: A Quantitative Evaluation2007In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 892-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pre-extractant, extractant, and post-extractant on total extracted amounts of P and organic P compound groups measured with 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) in lacustrine sediment was examined. The main extractants investigated were sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hydroxide ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaOH-EDTA) with bicarbonate buffered dithionite (BD) or EDTA as pre-extractants. Post extractions were conducted using either NaOH or NaOH-EDTA, depending on the main extractant. Results showed that the most efficient combination of extractants for total P yield was NaOH with EDTA as pre-extractant, yielding almost 50% more than the second best procedure. The P compound groups varying the most between the different extraction procedures were polyphosphates and pyrophosphates. NaOH with BD as pre-extractant was the most efficient combination for these compound groups.

  • 17.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Reitzel, Kasper
    Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    De Brabandere, Heidi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I.
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Release of Organic P Forms from Lake Sediments2011In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 565-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of different physical and chemical conditions on the decomposition and release of organic and inorganic P compound groups from the sediment of Lake Erken were investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Conditions investigated were temperature, oxygen level, and the effects of additions of carbon substrate (glucose) and poison (formalin). The effects on the P compound groups were determined by measurements with 31P NMR before and after the experiments, as well as analysis of P in effluent water throughout the experiment. Phosphate analysis of the effluent water showed that oxygen level was the most influential in terms of release rates, with the sediments under anoxic conditions generally releasing more phosphate than the other treatments. 31P NMR showed that the various treatments did influence the P compound group composition of the sediment. In particular, the addition of glucose led to a decrease in orthophosphate and polyphosphate while the addition of formalin led to a decrease in phosphorus lipids, DNAphosphate and polyphosphate. Oxic conditions resulted in an increase in polyphosphates, and anoxic conditions in a decrease in these. Temperature did not seem to affect the composition significantly.

  • 18.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Sci Life Lab, Tomtebodavagen 23A, SE-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Parducci, Laura
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Unneberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Ågren, Rasmus
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Biol Engn, Sci Life Lab, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Schenk, Frederik
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rattray, Jayne E.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Calgary, Biol Sci, 2500 Univ Dr NW, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Han, Lu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Jilin Univ, Coll Life Sci, Ancient DNA Lab, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China..
    Muschitiello, Francesco
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, 61 Route 9NW, Palisades, NY USA..
    Pedersen, Mikkel W.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, England..
    Smittenberg, Rienk H.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Yamoah, Kweku Afrifa
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Slotte, Tanja
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Sci Life Lab, Tomtebodavagen 23A, SE-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Archaeal community changes in Lateglacial lake sediments: Evidence from ancient DNA2018In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 181, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lateglacial/early Holocene sediments from the ancient lake at Hasseldala Port, southern Sweden provide an important archive for the environmental and climatic shifts at the end of the last ice age and the transition into the present Interglacial. The existing multi-proxy data set highlights the complex interplay of physical and ecological changes in response to climatic shifts and lake status changes. Yet, it remains unclear how microorganisms, such as Archaea, which do not leave microscopic features in the sedimentary record, were affected by these climatic shifts. Here we present the metagenomic data set of Hasseldala Port with a special focus on the abundance and biodiversity of Archaea. This allows reconstructing for the first time the temporal succession of major Archaea groups between 13.9 and 10.8 ka BP by using ancient environmental DNA metagenomics and fossil archaeal cell membrane lipids. We then evaluate to which extent these findings reflect physical changes of the lake system, due to changes in lake-water summer temperature and seasonal lake-ice cover. We show that variations in archaeal composition and diversity were related to a variety of factors (e.g., changes in lake water temperature, duration of lake ice cover, rapid sediment infilling), which influenced bottom water conditions and the sediment-water interface. Methanogenic Archaea dominated during the Allerod and Younger Dryas pollen zones, when the ancient lake was likely stratified and anoxic for large parts of the year. The increase in archaeal diversity at the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition is explained by sediment infilling and formation of a mire/peatbog. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Ahmed Osman, Omneya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Beier, Sara
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res, Warnemunde, Germany..
    Grabherr, Manfred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Interactions of Freshwater Cyanobacteria with Bacterial Antagonists2017In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 83, no 7, article id UNSP e02634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacterial and algal mass development, or blooms, have severe effects on freshwater and marine systems around the world. Many of these phototrophs produce a variety of potent toxins, contribute to oxygen depletion, and affect water quality in several ways. Coexisting antagonists, such as cyanolytic bacteria, hold the potential to suppress, or even terminate, such blooms, yet the nature of this interaction is not well studied. We isolated 31 cyanolytic bacteria affiliated with the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Delftia from three eutrophic freshwater lakes in Sweden and selected four phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains with strong-to-moderate lytic activity. To characterize their functional responses to the presence of cyanobacteria, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiments on coculture incubations, with an initial predator-prey ratio of 1: 1. Genes involved in central cellular pathways, stress-related heat or cold shock proteins, and antitoxin genes were highly expressed in both heterotrophs and cyanobacteria. Heterotrophs in coculture expressed genes involved in cell motility, signal transduction, and putative lytic activity. L, D-Transpeptidase was the only significantly upregulated lytic gene in Stenotrophomonas rhizophila EK20. Heterotrophs also shifted their central metabolism from the tricarboxylic acid cycle to the glyoxylate shunt. Concurrently, cyanobacteria clearly show contrasting antagonistic interactions with the four tested heterotrophic strains, which is also reflected in the physical attachment to their cells. In conclusion, antagonistic interactions with cyanobacteria were initiated within 24 h, and expression profiles suggest varied responses for the different cyanobacteria and studied cyanolytes. IMPORTANCE Here, we present how gene expression profiles can be used to reveal interactions between bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacteria and antagonistic heterotrophic bacteria. Species-specific responses in both heterotrophs and cyanobacteria were identified. The study contributes to a better understanding of the interspecies cellular interactions underpinning the persistence and collapse of cyanobacterial blooms.

  • 20.
    Ahnesjo, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Craig, J. F.
    The biology of Syngnathidae: pipefishes, seadragons and seahorses2011In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 1597-1602Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Bokrecension av Retorik för naturvetare: skrivande som fördjupar lärandet2014In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 83-85Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Consequences Of Male Brood Care: Weight And Number Of Newborn In A Sex-Role Reversed Pipefish1992In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 274-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. In the pipefish Syngnathus typhle sex roles are reversed, as females compete for access to males. In this species males provide all brood care (i.e. are 'pregnant') and female reproductive rate exceeds the reproductive rate of males. Consequently females are limited by access to mates and male reproductive success is limited by male brooding ability and/or mate quality. Thus, phenomena like brood reduction and a trade-off between number and weight of newborn may be expected in males. 2. In this paper I demonstrate the following in males of S. typhle: (a) the initial weight of the egg (received from the female) positively influenced the weight of newborn; (b) in the male's brood pouch, number of newborn frequently is less than number of eggs initially received (brood reduction), and the extent of this decrease in brood size positively influenced the weight of newborn; (c) a trade-off between number and weight of newborn was demonstrated in males from field samples and in large experimental males (independent of brood reduction), but not in small males that presumably allocated resources to several other demands (condition, growth, etc.); (d) paternal length, per se, did not affect the weight of newborn. 3. The results indicate that in S. typhle, male reproductive success is limited by their own brooding ability and influenced by the egg size received (indirectly quality of mate), which may be expected in a situation of sex-role reversal.

  • 23.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Equal Opportunity for Sexual Evolution2011In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 641-642Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Fewer Newborn Result In Superior Juveniles In The Paternally Brooding Pipefish Syngnathus-Typhle L1992In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 41, no Suppl. B, p. 53-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mate Choice in Males and Females2010In: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior / [ed] Michael D. Breed and Janice Moore, Oxford: Academic Press, 2010, p. 394-398Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding a ‘dream mate’ is important for fitness in many sexually reproducing animals because half the genome of the offspring will come from this mate. Individuals that choose their mates carefully may gain both direct benefits (i.e., good care, territories, and other resources) and indirect benefits (genes that improve offspring viability or attractiveness). Mate choices occur in both sexes and the same individuals can be both choosy and competitive. Mate choice and mating competition often result in sexual selection and the evolution of secondary sexual characters. Mate choice is interactive, context dependent, operates on multiple traits, and varies in time and space.

  • 26.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Seahorses and Their Relatives2010In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 308-309Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Braga Goncalves, Ines
    Mate Choice in Males and Females2017In: Reference Module in Life Sciences, Elsevier, 2017, p. 394-398Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To find a “dream mate” is important for fitness in all sexually reproducing animals because half of the genome of one’s offspring comes from the chosen mate. Individuals that choose their mates may gain both direct benefits (ie, care or other resources) and indirect benefits (genes improving offspring viability or attractiveness). Mate choice occurs in males and females, and individuals may simultaneously be choosy and compete to be chosen. Processes that often result in sexual selection and in the evolution of secondary sexual characters. Mate choice is context-dependent, operates on multiple traits and varies in time and space.

  • 28.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Forsgren, Elisabet
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Variation in sexual selection in fishes2008In: Fish Behaviour / [ed] Carin Magnhagen, Victoria A. Braithwaite, Elisabet Forsgren, B.G. Kapoor, Enfield: Science Publishers Inc., 2008, p. 303-335Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Vincent, Amanda
    Alatalo, Rauno
    Halliday, Tim
    Sutherland, William J
    The role of females in influencing mating patterns1993In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 187-189Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Life History and Tolerance and Resistance against Herbivores in Natural Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I combined observational studies with field and greenhouse experiments to examine selection on life history traits and variation in tolerance and resistance against herbivores in natural populations of the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in its native range. I investigated (1) phenotypic selection on flowering time and plant size, (2) the effects of timing of germination on plant fitness, (3) the effect of leaf damage on seed production, and (4) correlations between resistance against a specialist and a generalist insect herbivore.

    In all three study populations, flowering time was negatively related to plant fitness, but in only one of the populations, significant selection on flowering time was detected when controlling for size prior to the flowering season. The results show that correlations between flowering time and plant fecundity may be confounded by variation in plant size prior to the reproductive season.

    A field experiment detected conflicting selection on germination time: Early germination was associated with low seedling survival, but also with large leaf rosette before winter and high survival and fecundity among established plants. The results suggest that low survival among early germinating seeds is the main force opposing the evolution of earlier germination, and that the optimal timing of germination should vary in space and time as a function of the relative strength of selection acting during different life-history stages.

    Experimental leaf damage demonstrated that tolerance to damage was lowest among vegetative plants early in the season, and highest among flowering plants later in the season. Given similar damage levels, leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should thus exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering.

    Resistance against larval feeding by the specialist Plutella xylostella was negatively correlated with resistance against larval feeding by the generalist Mamestra brassicae and with resistance against oviposition by P. xylostella when variation in resistance was examined within and among two Swedish and two Italian A. thaliana populations. The results suggest that negative correlations between resistance against different herbivores and different life-history stages of herbivores may contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation in resistance.

    List of papers
    1. Selection on flowering time in three natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection on flowering time in three natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159506 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-03 Last updated: 2011-11-10
    2. Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 193-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of germination is a key life-history trait that may strongly influence plant fitness and that sets the stage for selection on traits expressed later in the life cycle. In seasonal environments, the period favourable for germination and the total length of the growing season are limited. The optimal timing of germination may therefore be governed by conflicting selection through survival and fecundity. We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of timing of germination on survival, fecundity and overall fitness in a natural population of the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in north-central Sweden. Seedlings were transplanted at three different times in late summer and in autumn covering the period of seed germination in the study population. Early germination was associated with low seedling survival, but also with high survival and fecundity among established plants. The advantages of germinating early more than balanced the disadvantage and selection favoured early germination. The results suggest that low survival among early germinating seeds is the main force opposing the evolution of earlier germination and that the optimal timing of germination should vary in space and time as a function of the direction and strength of selection acting during different life-history stages.

    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159664 (URN)10.1111/jeb.12293 (DOI)000329254500018 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Magnitude and timing of leaf damage affect seed production in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnitude and timing of leaf damage affect seed production in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)
    2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 1, p. e30015-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effect of herbivory on plant fitness varies widely. Understanding the causes of this variation is of considerable interest because of its implications for plant population dynamics and trait evolution. We experimentally defoliated the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in a natural population in Sweden to test the hypotheses that (a) plant fitness decreases with increasing damage, (b) tolerance to defoliation is lower before flowering than during flowering, and (c) defoliation before flowering reduces number of seeds more strongly than defoliation during flowering, but the opposite is true for effects on seed size.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: In a first experiment, between 0 and 75% of the leaf area was removed in May from plants that flowered or were about to start flowering. In a second experiment, 0, 25%, or 50% of the leaf area was removed from plants on one of two occasions, in mid April when plants were either in the vegetative rosette or bolting stage, or in mid May when plants were flowering. In the first experiment, seed production was negatively related to leaf area removed, and at the highest damage level, also mean seed size was reduced. In the second experiment, removal of 50% of the leaf area reduced seed production by 60% among plants defoliated early in the season at the vegetative rosettes, and by 22% among plants defoliated early in the season at the bolting stage, but did not reduce seed output of plants defoliated one month later. No seasonal shift in the effect of defoliation on seed size was detected.

    Conclusions/Significance: The results show that leaf damage may reduce the fitness of A. thaliana, and suggest that in this population leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering, given similar damage levels.

    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159665 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0030015 (DOI)000301457200028 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Genetic variation in leaf morphology and resistance against specialist and generalist insect herbivores in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic variation in leaf morphology and resistance against specialist and generalist insect herbivores in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159685 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2011-11-10
  • 31.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Noack, Sibylle
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Genetic variation in leaf morphology and resistance against specialist and generalist insect herbivores in natural populations of Arabidopsis thalianaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana2014In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 193-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of germination is a key life-history trait that may strongly influence plant fitness and that sets the stage for selection on traits expressed later in the life cycle. In seasonal environments, the period favourable for germination and the total length of the growing season are limited. The optimal timing of germination may therefore be governed by conflicting selection through survival and fecundity. We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of timing of germination on survival, fecundity and overall fitness in a natural population of the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in north-central Sweden. Seedlings were transplanted at three different times in late summer and in autumn covering the period of seed germination in the study population. Early germination was associated with low seedling survival, but also with high survival and fecundity among established plants. The advantages of germinating early more than balanced the disadvantage and selection favoured early germination. The results suggest that low survival among early germinating seeds is the main force opposing the evolution of earlier germination and that the optimal timing of germination should vary in space and time as a function of the direction and strength of selection acting during different life-history stages.

  • 33.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Magnitude and timing of leaf damage affect seed production in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 1, p. e30015-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effect of herbivory on plant fitness varies widely. Understanding the causes of this variation is of considerable interest because of its implications for plant population dynamics and trait evolution. We experimentally defoliated the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in a natural population in Sweden to test the hypotheses that (a) plant fitness decreases with increasing damage, (b) tolerance to defoliation is lower before flowering than during flowering, and (c) defoliation before flowering reduces number of seeds more strongly than defoliation during flowering, but the opposite is true for effects on seed size.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: In a first experiment, between 0 and 75% of the leaf area was removed in May from plants that flowered or were about to start flowering. In a second experiment, 0, 25%, or 50% of the leaf area was removed from plants on one of two occasions, in mid April when plants were either in the vegetative rosette or bolting stage, or in mid May when plants were flowering. In the first experiment, seed production was negatively related to leaf area removed, and at the highest damage level, also mean seed size was reduced. In the second experiment, removal of 50% of the leaf area reduced seed production by 60% among plants defoliated early in the season at the vegetative rosettes, and by 22% among plants defoliated early in the season at the bolting stage, but did not reduce seed output of plants defoliated one month later. No seasonal shift in the effect of defoliation on seed size was detected.

    Conclusions/Significance: The results show that leaf damage may reduce the fitness of A. thaliana, and suggest that in this population leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering, given similar damage levels.

  • 34.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Selection on flowering time in three natural populations of Arabidopsis thalianaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jaegerbrand, Annika K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Climate change and climatic events: community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, E-ISSN 1664-221X, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 A degrees C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 A degrees C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 A degrees C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 36.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jagerbrand, Annika K.
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molau, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether shortterm responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 37.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Simulated global change: contrasting short and medium term growth and reproductive responses of a common alpine/Arctic cushion plant to experimental warming and nutrient enhancement2014In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 3, article id 157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cushion plants are important components of alpine and Arctic plant communities around the world. They fulfill important roles as facilitators, nurse plants and foundation species across trophic levels for vascular plants, arthropods and soil microorganisms, the importance of these functions increasing with the relative severity of the environment. Here we report results from one of the few experimental studies simulating global change impacts on cushion plants; a factorial experiment with warming and nutrient enhancement that was applied to an alpine population of the common nurse plant, Silene acaulis, in sub-arctic Sweden. Experimental perturbations had significant short-term impacts on both stem elongation and leaf length. S. acaulis responded quickly by increasing stem elongation and (to a lesser extent) leaf length in the warming, nutrient, and the combined warming and nutrient enhancements. Cover and biomass also initially increased in response to the perturbations. However, after the initial positive short-term responses, S. acaulis cover declined in the manipulations, with the nutrient and combined warming and nutrient treatments having largest negative impact. No clear patterns were found for fruit production. Our results show that S. acaulis living in harsh environments has potential to react quickly when experiencing years with favorable conditions, and is more responsive to nutrient enhancement than to warming in terms of vegetative growth. While these conditions have an initial positive impact, populations experiencing longer-term increased nutrient levels will likely be negatively affected.

  • 38.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jagerbrand, Annika K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, p. e406-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-termresponses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years. The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity-diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant-plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

  • 39.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jagerbrand, Annika K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

  • 40.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ostapenko, Oksana V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    The Swedish system: The image cracking when taking a closer look2014In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 53, p. 82-83Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a high international profile regarding social issues and projects an image as one of the best countries in the world in terms of social indicators. Here we argue for a revised view as the reality is that Swedish system is very segregated, particularly in terms of (1) relative lack of women in positions of high influence, (2) it is the worst country in the EU28 regarding long-term unemployment for people born outside the country, and (3) it has a education system that after a number of reforms is involved in a "race towards the bottom" to profit from students. At the same time Sweden undervalues foreign academic qualifications and getting work largely depends on "who you know", not "what you know".

  • 41. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Eriksson, D.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Larsson, K.
    EXPLOITATION COMPETITION INFLUENCES THE USE OF FORAGING SITES BY TITS - EXPERIMENTAL-EVIDENCE1987In: Ecology, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Eriksson, D.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Larsson, K.
    Exploitation competition influences the use of foraging sites by tits: experimental evidence.1987In: Ecology, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Eriksson, D.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN PIED AND COLLARED FLYCATCHERS - SEXUAL SELECTION AND SPECIATION THEORY1990In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 3, no 5-6, p. 375-389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    GENETIC COMPONENT OF MORPHOLOGICAL-DIFFERENTIATION IN COAL TITS UNDER COMPETITIVE RELEASE1988In: Evolution, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 200-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Linden, M.
    Lundberg, A.
    INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION AND NICHE SHIFTS IN TITS AND THE GOLDCREST - AN EXPERIMENT1985In: Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 977-984Article in journal (Refereed)