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  • 1.
    Alev, Uellar
    et al.
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Kalamees, Targo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Eskola, Lari
    Aalto Univ, Dept Energy Technol, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Arumägi, Endrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation. Tallinn Univ Technol, Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Jokisalo, Juha
    Aalto Univ, Dept Energy Technol, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Siren, Kai
    Aalto Univ, Dept Energy Technol, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Indoor hygrothermal condition and user satisfaction in naturally ventilated historic houses in temperate humid continental climate around the Baltic Sea2016In: Architectural Science Review, ISSN 0003-8628, E-ISSN 1758-9622, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 53-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor climate and user satisfaction were analysed by field measurement and a questionnaire in 67 traditional rural houses in Estonia, Finland and Sweden. Our findings showed that the indoor climate in all the investigated historic rural houses needs improvement. The room temperature was mainly too low during winter. Leaky houses had also a larger vertical temperature difference. The relative humidity in the unheated and periodically heated houses was high during winter and caused risk for mould growth in 17% of all houses and 33% of unheated houses. Significant differences of indoor humidity loads in different houses were revealed depending on the living density and usage profile. During the winter period, the design value of moisture excess was 4-5g/m(3) and the average moisture load was 2-3.5g/m(3). The indoor humidity load in historic houses was similar to that in modern houses. The results of the questionnaire showed that main problems were related to unstable or too low temperatures. At the same time, inhabitants rated the overall indoor climate as healthy and no statistically important relations were found between average indoor temperature and complaints about too cold or too warm indoor temperatures.

  • 2.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Eriksson, Petra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Learning traditional building techniques by practical work and implemented theory2016In: Innovation of teaching in materials and structures / [ed] Per Golterman, RILEM Publication S.A.R.L , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Om kalkindustrin på Gotland 2: Ur den gotländska kalkindustrins historia, åren 1942-19452015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gotland has a very long tradition of lime burning. Traces of lime burning on Gotland stretch back to the 12th century. An inventory of all the lime kilns in Gotland was made in 1942. Since then the market, the use and the tradition of lime burning have changed significantly. By the start of WW2 a shortage of black coal occurred. This meant that the large, traditional lime kilns could no longer be operated with the same capacity. The small, wood-burning kilns were the only furnaces that survived. With the cement's entry the demand for lime mortar got heavily reduced, which in turn meant the end for the last lime kilns. The cement quickly proved inadequate in many situations, especially in the field of monument care​​, and the demand for traditional lime mortar increased again already in the 1960s. Since then, three lime kilns were taken into use on Gotland; two smaller, traditional lime kilns and one large, industrial kiln.

    This thesis intends to follow up on the inventory that was made in 1942 in order to create a basis for further discussion of the historical values the lime kilns possesses and how these values can be cared for.

    In order to ensure the being of cultural heritage of the traditional lime industry, it requires popular demand, care and knowledge of the furnace, its use and production and its product.

  • 4.
    Berg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Cultural Heritage Res NIKU, Dept Bldg, Oslo, Norway.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Energy Performance Certificates and Historic Apartment Buildings: A Method to Encourage User Participation and Sustainability in the Refurbishment Process2019In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 224-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents and discusses the challenges of refurbishing historic apartment buildings by correlating findings from research projects LEAF and CulClim. Our aim is to shed light on how residents can partake in and optimise the refurbishment process after energy performance certificates (EPC) have been conducted. The background is that historic apartment buildings are generally more complex than single family buildings with respect to the energy efficiency process as they often have multiple owners with different priorities. The case studies from Norway and Sweden have conceptually contrasting energy performance certificate (EPC) systems. Identified advantages and shortcomings concerning both systems are discussed. In Sweden, the restrained recommendation of measures can lead to national mitigation targets not being realised. In Norway, excessive and unqualified recommendations risk reducing the cultural heritage values of the existing building stock as well as having a negative environmental impact on greenhouse gas emissions. A bottom-up approach incorporating the resident's objectives is presented and discussed. Results suggest that improved EPC-systems and a broadened procedural approach to decision making will ease the process and improve the outcome of the refurbishment with respect to both energy and heritage aspects.

  • 5.
    Berg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Cultural Heritage Res NIKU, Pb 736 Sentrum, N-0105 Oslo, Norway..
    Flyen, Anne-Cathrine
    Norwegian Inst Cultural Heritage Res NIKU, Pb 736 Sentrum, N-0105 Oslo, Norway..
    Godbolt, Asne Lund
    SINTEF Bldg & Infrastruct, Pb 124 Blindern, N-0314 Oslo, Norway..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    User-driven energy efficiency in historic buildings: A review2017In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 28, p. 188-195Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper draws from the general literature on energy efficiency and historic buildings to explain the importance and potential of user-driven energy efficiency in historic buildings. It is the first review that places the user as a central object of study in the research field of historic buildings and energy efficiency. Relevant interdisciplinary topics and research results that make up the core of the field are presented and discussed in relation to user behaviour and its impact on energy consumption. The paper also investigates how user behaviour aspects can be integrated in a procedural approach to energy refurbishment in historic buildings. Research and experience from the building stock in general clearly shows how a user's awareness and behaviour, such as choice of temperature, zone heating and controlled airing, can have a significant effect on energy demand yet have no physical impact on the building. However, this has not received enough attention with regards to the historic building stock, where many physical energy efficiency measures can have negative impacts on the historic qualities of the building. Modification of user behaviour can therefore be a way not only to reduce energy demand but also to minimise the physical impact of increasing energy efficiency on historic buildings. The paper concludes that the current research agenda on historic buildings and energy efficiency has broken much ground but remains focused more on technical solutions than bottom-up user perspectives. Two main topics are identified as key barriers and future research fields: First, energy performance modelling is identified as a general barrier to developing sustainable strategies that promote user impact in historic buildings. Accurate energy modelling of historic buildings is a complex field reliant on the thermal interplay between user-building and building-district. Improved knowledge and intensified research is necessary to avoid distorted energy modelling results and unwanted rebound effects. Practical tools also require that the modelling can be used for trade-off scenarios where other sustainability aspects such as cultural heritage and economy are weighed in. Second, awareness raising in order to foster a deeper understanding and knowledge about the construction, system and cultural heritage values of a building is proposed as a key ingredient and driver for improved and sustainable energy behaviour. The paper argues that while user-driven energy efficiency represents an important resource for fostering less energy-demanding and less intrusive interventions in historic buildings, there are no guarantees for achieving the planned level of energy efficiency without taking into account user behaviour and the actual operation and energy performance of the historic building. To do this without risking negative consequences, improved decision-making processes are needed on policy, building and user level. An interdisciplinary bottom-up approach to energy refurbishment is presented. The essence of the model is that users and residents should always play a central role in the decision-making process because the well-being of the historic building will always depend on its day-to-day users, and vice versa.

  • 6.
    Bravaglieri, Simona
    et al.
    Conservazione dei Beni Architettonici, Politecnico di Milano.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Ristic, Mirjana
    Department of History and Social Sciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Kosovo: Quelle statue che dividono2018In: Ananke 83: Idoli infranti: Intollerances 2017 / [ed] Marco Dezzi Bardeschi, Milano: Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento ABC , 2018, p. 24-25Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The use of monuments in urban space is often bounded to political power and social hierarchy; through spatial distribution, form and meanings of public statues one social group can convey political myths and stabilize or legitimize political authority. In Mitrovica, the divided city of Kosovo, since the conflict of 1999, and during the apartheid-like regime preceding it, uses of the past became more and more entangled with present-day political objectives connected to territory and national identity. here different interpretations of the past are manifested in public space by Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo Albanians. 

  • 7.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kulturarv i skottgluggen2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ANALYS Den Islamiska staten attacker mot Palmyra och andra kulturarv i Syrien och Irak har fått stor uppmärksamhet i internationella medier. Men attacker mot kulturarv i väpnade konflikter är inte unikt för IS, och dessa attacker kan ha en rad olika syften. Det skriver Johan Brosché, Joakim Kreutz och Mattias Legner utifrån ett nytt tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt.

  • 8.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Department of Political Science, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Heritage under Attack: motives for targeting cultural property during armed conflict2017In: International Journal of Heritage Studies (IJHS), ISSN 1352-7258, E-ISSN 1470-3610, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 248-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although attacks on cultural property have caused international outcry,our understanding of this phenomenon is still limited. In particular, littleresearch has been directed towards exploring the motivations for suchattacks. Therefore, we ask: What are the motives for attacking sites, buildingsor objects representing cultural heritage? By combining insights from peaceand conflict research with findings from heritage studies we present atypology of motivations for attacking cultural property. We identify four,not mutually exclusive, broad groups of motives: (i) attacks related to conflictgoals, in which cultural property is targeted because it is connected to theissue the warring parties are fighting over (ii), military-strategic attacks, inwhich the main motivation is to win tactical advantages in the conflict (iii),signalling attacks, in which cultural property is targeted as a low-risk targetthat signals the commitment of the aggressor, and (iv) economic incentiveswhere cultural property provides funding for warring parties. Our typologyoffers a theoretical structure for research about why, when, and by whom,cultural property is targeted. This is not only likely to provide academicbenefits, but also to contribute to the development of more effective toolsfor the protection of cultural property during armed conflict.

  • 9.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Berg, Fredrik
    Bygningsavdelingen - Norsk institutt for kulturminneforskning, NIKU.
    For the categorisation of historic buildings to determine energy saving2017In: AGATHON International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, ISSN 2464-9309, Vol. 1, p. 135-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical characteristics and cultural values affect the possibility of saving energy in the historic building stock. The issue has been addressed and studied in monumental buildings. For the majority of historic buildings, defined in this research as traditional constructions built before 1945 when the building sector became more industrialised, there is still a need for further studies. In order to study a large building stock it is necessary to make generalisations. To break down the stock into a few statistically representative categories is one way of doing that.

    The aim of this article is to present the development of a method to categorise a historic building stock with the ability to identify the potential for energy saving and preservation of cultural values. By studying building categories and typical buildings in detail the results can be extrapolated to represent a large building stock.

    The method for categorisation is done in three steps: building inventory, categorisation and selection of typical buildings. The inventory is when data on the building stock is gathered and compiled. This is necessary in order to have a sound statistical basis for the following steps of the method. The categorisation is done by dividing the buildings in groups based on their basic characteristics; for example size and number of adjoining walls. A delimitation is done, if necessary, in order to exclude atypical buildings.

    Typical buildings from each category are then selected by letting the medium values within the categories decide the characteristics of the typical buildings. Other characteristics such as age, use, construction type etc. can be determined for the typical buildings and motivated statistically based on the data in the inventory.

    A case study has been carried out on the historic building stock in the town Visby in Sweden, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. When applying the method for categorisation on the buildings built before 1945 in Visby the results show that 70 % of the buildings’ volume is represented by 87 % of the buildings. The study shows that it is possible to generalise some aspects even in a relatively richly nuanced building stock by letting the basic characteristics constitute the first common denominators in a categorisation.

    The result of the categorisation facilitates the identification of representative typical buildings that can be used for energy modelling. The six groups of typical buildings identified in Visby are presented at the end of the article.

    This study has been conducted within the multi-disciplinary projects Potential and policies for energy efficiency in Swedish buildings built before 1945, financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and Energy Efficiency for EU Historic Districts, funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme.

  • 10.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Nilsen, LisaLisa Nilsen Kulturvård, Stockholm.Carlsten, SusannaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We proudly present the postprints of the third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, held in Visby, Sweden September 26th to 27th, 2018.

    The conference was organized jointly by the Swedish Energy Agency, Uppsala University and the Swedish National Heritage Board as part of their collaboration in the Swedish national research program on energy efficiency in historic buildings. The Region of Gotland kindly sponsored the conference dinner.

    There were close to one hundred abstracts submitted to the conference. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from the Scientific Committee in the review process.

    Our thanks to Lisa Nilsen who has been the conference coordinator and editor of the papers, Susanna Carlsten who has been in charge of information and conference planning and Alice Sunnebäck who finished the layout of the papers and the report as a whole.

    The organizing committee for EEHB2018,

    Tor Broström Uppsala University

    Jörgen Sjödin Swedish Energy Agency

    Camilla Altahr-Cederberg Swedish National Heritage Board

  • 11.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    van Schijndel, Jos
    Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, .
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    National museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Energy efficient climate control in historic buildings2014In: Climate for culture: Built culturalheritage in times of climate change / [ed] Johanna Leissner, Urban Kaiser, Ralf Kilian, Leipzig: Fraunhofer MOEZ , 2014, p. 29-32Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Carlsten, Susanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    ”Back to Glory”: Renoveringen av Pera Palace2017In: Dragomanen: Förflutet och bevarat / [ed] Olof Heilo, Svenska Forskningsinstitutet Istanbul , 2017, 19, p. 71-87Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Pera Palace byggdes i slutet av 1800-talet som ett exklusivt internationellt hotell för Orientexpressens Istanbulresenärer. Med moderna faciliteter inbäddade i ett skal av både jugend och orientalism förkroppsligade hotellet föreställningen om ”öst” som möter ”väst”. Hotellet och stadsdelen Pera kom under årens lopp att förändras både vad gällde invånare, gäster och status, och Pera Palace stod kvar som ett minne över en svunnen tid, en guldålder som hade passerat. Hotellet omgavs tidigt av en mytbildning kring byggnaden och dess kända gäster, men samtidigt ansågs hotellets forna glans ha bleknat. 2008 påbörjades en påkostad renovering och omgestaltning med syfte att återuppliva dess status.

    Denna artikel syftar till att undersöka vilka berättelser och minnen som genom tiderna återgetts i reseskildringar och medierapportering om Pera Palace samt hur dessa kan ha påverkat renoveringens gestaltning. Som komplement har fotografier av interiören från olika tidsperioder analyserats med syfte att få en bild av hotellets ursprungliga utseende och förändringar. Historikern Geoffrey Cubitt menar att materiell kultur kan definieras som kulturellt minne, som fysiska lämningar vilka uppfattas ha symbolisk betydelse i ett samhälle eller för en grupp. Kulturhistoriska objekt eller platser är ofta starka minnesbärare och kan hjälpa individer till orientering i det förgångna såväl som i samtid och framtid. Bevarande – t.ex. restaurering och i viss mån renovering – kan ses som ett sätt att hålla minnen vid liv. Restaureringsideologi är en form av minneshantering, men också en materiell artikulering av minnen. De val som görs vid en renovering eller restaurering kan både lyfta fram, tona ner eller exkludera minnen, vilket i sin tur påverkar vilka minnen som överlever.

  • 13.
    Carlsten, Susanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    “Property of the Swedish people" - The basis and change of the Swedish export control in relation to current cultural policy objectives2017In: Historical perspective of heritage legislation.: Balance between laws and values. / [ed] Riin Alatalu, Anneli Randla, Laura Ingerpuu, Diana Haapsal, Tallinn: ICOMOS Estonia NC; ICLAFI; Estonian Academy of Arts , 2017, p. 126-130Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heritage legislation in general has a long tradition in Sweden. When it comes to export control of cultural goods the tradition is a bit shorter. A temporary proclamation in 1927 came to work as the first export control in the country. Since then the legislation has been updated several times. New threats, goals and cultural policy have all had an influence on what objects to protect and what the outspoken motives for the export legislation has been. But the changes have always been built on top of the same foundation and structure. This foundation was built in and affected by an ideologically nationalistic era. Today cultural heritage policy has a new approach including objectives relating to pluralism and diversity. The article aims to question and challenge the Swedish export control by asking; how does current cultural policy objectives relate to the foundation? Are there still ideological nationalistic ideas and structures left in the export control?

  • 14.
    Colfach, Peder
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    3D Laserskanning: Verktyg för antikvarisk dokumentation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to figure out if there is any heritage aspect when documenting heritage buildings with 3D laser scanning in Sweden. The paper is based on three case studies of two privately owned and one public building where the purpose for 3D scanning has had different goals. In simple words this paper aims to describe what laser scanning is and how you work with the laser scanning in the field.  Through comparing results from prior studies on the matter, this study also aims to describe the advantages that come from using 3D laser scanning on heritage buildings. This study finally wants to bring up the subject and discuss the terms and uses of fulfilling a building heritage documentation that suites our time.

  • 15.
    Dahl, Humla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Solcellspaneler på kulturhistoriska tak – En skänk från ovan?: En komparativ fallstudie om Fläckebo kyrka och Stuguns nya kyrka2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande undersökning är en komparativ fallstudie av två tillståndsansökningar, genomförda i enlighet med Kulturmiljölag 1988:950, gällande solcellspaneler på kyrkligt kulturminne. Undersökningar belyser Fläckebo kyrka i Västmanlands län och Stuguns nya kyrka i Jämtlands län och studerar hur dessa fått avslag, respektive bifall till montering av solcellspaneler på kyrkobyggnadernas tak. Syftet med undersökningen är att studera om KML-relaterade ärenden bedöms olika i tid och rum.För att förklara skillnaderna mellan fallen används analysmetoden ”Most Similar Systems Design”. Undersökningen visar att rättspraxis är oförändrat men att praxis vid handläggning av dessa ärenden skiljer sig åt.

  • 16.
    Dennis, Rispling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Vardagsrummet: Tekniken i fokus?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the 20th century technological objects such as television and radio appeared and changed the home ideals. These changed the way people socialized, furnished and used their homes. In addition to changing the design and the appliances of the kitchen, electricity also transformed the sitting room. The living room became the center of the home where technological objects such as the gramophone, the radio and especially the television were being used. The issues addressed in this paper include what people’s homes looked like and how the Swedes related to the ideals based on a study of photographs from a digital archive. Did all Swedes have technology as the main focus of their homes or did it take a few years before all Swedes embraced these innovations? This bachelor thesis deals with the Swedish homes based on an analysis of photographs from the digital archive digitaltmuseum.se. Through the analysis I will be able to see how the Swedes used and furnished their living rooms during the time period 1950-1970. The main focus of this thesis is to see if the classic objects that are said to have changed the way people decorated the living room existed in actual homes, or if they are part of an ideal image of how living rooms were portrayed and used.  The result was that the technological progress was not very visible on the photos from digital museum except the fact that the furniture's placement in the home changed and that there is not a clear change in the form of technology although gramophones, radios and a few televisions are visible on a few images.

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Petra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Character defining elements: Relations between heritage regulations, user perspectives and energy saving objectives2018In: Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen and Susanna Carlsten, Uppsala University, 2018, p. 549-556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge to convert the Swedish building stock to the energy targets as it is set out in national building regulations applies to all buildings. Likewise planning and building legislation states that all buildings should be treated with caution regarding actions that could cause losses of technical, historical, environmental and cultural values. By using the world heritage city of Visby as a case study this paper aims to deepen the understanding of how these values are embedded in the physical expressions through identifying the character defining elements, of buildings. This is performed by examining what is stated by experts in official documents and by non-experts through questionnaires and workshops with house owners and inhabitants. By a transparent designation of character defining elements the advantages of energy improvements can be more clearly balanced with possible losses of value. The outcome of this study will contribute to a method where the better understanding of how heritage values are defined by characteristic elements, from both a top down and a bottom up perspective can help to improve policies and guidelines for adopting energy improvements in existing buildings.

  • 18. Femenías, P.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Petra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Thuvander, L.
    Mörk, K.
    Wahlgren, P.
    Johansson, P.
    Value creation by re-renovation: Focus on the user perspective2018In: Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen and Susanna Carlsten, Uppsala University, 2018, p. 172-181Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ferilli, Guido
    et al.
    IULM University, Milan, Italy.
    Gustafsson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Sacco, Pier Luigi
    IULM University, Milan, Italy; Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Cognitive Keynesianism: Heritage conservation as a platform for structural anti-cyclic policy. The case of the Halland Region, Sweden2017In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 27, p. 10-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the case study of the so called Halland Model, a pioneering example of strategic inter-sector coordination focused upon cultural heritage conservation, which has solved a major structural crisis of the local economy in the early 90s through an original public administration-driven, capability building-centred approach. We argue that this example can be taken as the prototype of a more general, structural approach to counter-cyclic policies that we call Cognitive Keynesianism (CK), and that CK in turn can be usefully read in the context of the more general class of culture-led local development models known as System-Wide Cultural Districts (SWCD). The paper analyses how the Halland model case fits into the CK and SWCD frameworks, and draws implications in terms of directions for future research and policy design in the current context of Europe's low growth trajectories.

  • 20.
    Folkesson, Emmelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Glober i Sverige: En undersökning av globers konstruktion och kontext mellan åren 1800 till 19502015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on Swedish globe production or globes offered on the Swedish market is not widespread. International research on globes has largely focused on the period from about 1400 to 1800. The structure and context of globes during the 1800s is mentioned only briefly, while globes produced during the 1900s are not mentioned at all. Therefore, the survey has a holistic approach to globes appearing on the Swedish market during the years 1800-1950. The questions seek answers regarding the materials, map design, tripod and instruments of globes. Also the types of globes, pricing, clients, vendors and manufacturers are examined. 21 globes have been observed at the Center for History of Science, the National Library of Sweden and the Maritime Museum in Stockholm. Advertisements, price lists and exhibition catalogs mentioning globes have been collected through archives. The survey shows that new materials and new types of globes appears in the Swedish market, while the associated instruments had a reduced importance.

  • 21.
    Fägerhall, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Lasersvetsning: En undersökning av autenticitet och dess påverkan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim to investigate how an object's authenticity is affected by the renovation/restoration, the interpretations of three authors respective views on the concept of authenticity is applied to two restored wristwatches. The renovation or restoration method that has been examined is laser welding, which is rapidly growing as a result of its positive qualities. Since wristwatches economic value rises in line with the public interest becomes greater, the study of the renovation or restoration method that is usually discussed in the context of economic value is relevant. Although the authors positions may differ, there seems to be a common denominator to the concept of authenticity as highly subjective. This has led to the conclusion that the concept of authenticity is often too individual and that it possibly should be avoided when discussing issues of preservation, restoration and renovation.

  • 22.
    Geijer, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Isacson, MathsUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Det svarta järnet: Bergslagens vapenindustri under 1900-talet2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Building conservation as a catalyst for regional sustainable development. Halland model as planning and acting sphere2018In: Innovative Built Heritage Models / [ed] VanBalen, K Vandesande, A, CRC PRESS-BALKEMA , 2018, p. 161-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, conservation of built cultural heritage has been understood as a driver for sustainable growth and is no longer just recognized as an obstacle to development. Sustainable integrated conservation is regarded as an important strategic investment for the entirely society and as a catalyst for sustainable development. Halland Model states that utilizing "trading zone" as a democratic pluralistic arena in historic conservation's decision-making process is the catalyst for sustainable regional development. The model developed where the "trading zone" defined as an active melting pot aiming at assisting various actors for making sense together. This paper proposes changes and enhancement for the model in order to achieve an integrated vision of historic preservation within regional development planning process. In this way, collective governance sphere "the enhanced model" is constitute by the stakeholders and the members of an inter-communicating community, situated in the particularities of time, place, and regulations aiming at guiding and managing sustainable long-term actions.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Museums – A Catalyst for Sustainable Economic Development in Sweden2017In: International Journal of Innovative Development & Policy Studies, ISSN 2354-2926, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Museums have a great impact on the cultural economy of every country and museums have a very significant meaning for social integration within socio-cultural and socio-economic contexts. Studies have shown that the impact of museums may vary from one city to another, and from one country to another, at local, regional or national level. The role of museums in the cultural economy is very important, because they sustain cities in promoting themselves as cultural center‟s in the domestic and regional market by fulfilling their demands and expectations of visitors and investors. One can say that museums act as “the instruments” for cities in the regeneration process. Over time, it was considered that museums were created with the purpose of education, collecting, preservation and research, but because society evolved, the economic role of museums became increasingly important. Consequently, the role of museums has become more diverse in the 21st century, and they become key partners in the heritage and culture tourism industry and the creative and innovative industries as well. This paper seeks to explore the impact of museums on regional development in sustainable way. The Authors argue that museums have a multiplier effects on regional development and become an important tool for regional economies

  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Museums: An incubator for sustainable social development and environmental protection2017In: International Journal of Development and Sustainability, ISSN 2186-8662, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 446-462, article id IJDS16111401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to contribute to the debate on the socio-cultural impact of museums on sustainable regional development. Museums play a significant role within socio-cultural and environmental sustainability contexts. Specifically, they foster a collective sense of place, collective memory, social integration, education and environmental awareness. They help sustain cities as dynamic socio-cultural centers, acting as “instruments” for cities in the revitalization process. In addition, they encourage cohesiveness among different sectors of society, tolerance, democracy, and economic growth. The authors recommend that governmental and non-governmental institutions include cultural heritage and museums as key factors in their future priorities in pursuing sustainable development at local, regional, and national levels. 

  • 26.
    Haugen, Annika
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Cultural Heritage Res, Oslo, Norway.
    Bertolin, Chiara
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Architecture & Design, Dept Architecture & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Olstad, Tone
    Norwegian Inst Cultural Heritage Res, Oslo, Norway.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    A Methodology for Long-Term Monitoring of Climate Change Impacts on Historic Buildings2018In: Geosciences, ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new methodology for long-term monitoring of climate change impacts on historic buildings and interiors has been developed. This paper proposes a generic framework for how monitoring programs can be developed and describes the planning and arrangement of a Norwegian monitoring campaign. The methodology aims to make it possible to establish a data-driven decision making process based on monitored decay related to climate change. This monitoring campaign includes 45 medieval buildings distributed over the entirety of Norway. Thirty-five of these buildings are dated to before 1537 and include wooden buildings as well as 10 medieval churches built in stone while the remaining 10 buildings are situated in the World Heritage sites of Bryggen, in Bergen on the west coast of Norway, and in Røros, which is a mining town in the inland of the country. The monitoring is planned to run for 30 to 50 years. It includes a zero-level registration and an interval-based registration system focused on relevant indicators, which will make it possible to register climate change-induced decay at an early stage.

  • 27.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Urban Ecology Concept and its Implication for Studying Social Integration: Case Study of the Palestinian Refugees2015In: International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, ISSN 2006-988X, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 7BE04DC49905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyze the phenomena of urban segregation and social integration in the Palestinian refugee camps. The arguments are based on a theoretical basis as well as findings from the author’s fieldwork taken where he used to live in the Gaza refugee camp. The main argument of this paper claims that residential segregation and the creation of informal settlements in the city boundaries are exclusively associated with cultural, urban poverty, socio-political and historical aspects that reflect on the urban fabric of the camps. The author’s proposes that the roots of the phenomena of urban segregation and integration are an outcome of the constructed social strata, which can be theorized within two interrelated socio-political new situation of the refugees, and the historical, identity aspects; one defines them as refugees who should preserve their right and identity to go back home where the urban camp and social structure and fabric reflected this situation, and the other identifies the Israeli regime, social obstacles and life conditions in the received society as the negative factors that prevented the refugees to have the opportunity of assimilation. Additionally, the paper suggests that the ‘traditional approach’ in urban geography, based on Park’s premise, as having the basic hypothesis that the greater the degree of difference between spatial distribution of groups within the urban context, the greater their social distance from the other. This approach, in essence, views the integration process of the Palestinian refugees and the resettlement goals that the refugees struggled to achieve it temporarily to have the same opportunities as assimilated citizens in the West Bank and Gaza. The ecological approach of the Chicago School will be use to study the integration and assimilation phenomena.

  • 28.
    Ijla, Akram
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    The Sustainable Viability of Adaptive Reuse of Historic Buildings: the experiences of Two World Heritage Old Cities; Bethlehem in Palestine and Visby in Sweden2015In: International Invention Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, ISSN 2408-7238, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 52-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at investigating the viability of adaptive reuse of abandoned buildings (religious, Nobel Architecture, residential, commercial, and other) and the impact it has on the sustainability of existing environment in Bethlehem and Visby. There are many historic buildings in Bethlehem and Visby that are unique in their history, architecture, and built environment. This paper explores the importance of adaptive reuse by looking at several examples of reused historic buildings in both cities. The examples illustrate the viability of adaptive reuse in terms of sustainability; economic impact, affordable function, vitality of social life, and usability of existing urban resources and energy saving. The paper advocates policy makers is to increase the adaptive reuse policy within abandoned old cities as an integral tool of regeneration and sustainability policies. A comparative study of Palestine (Bethlehem) and Sweden (Visby) focuses on the experiences of two cities where conversions have registered a significant impact in terms of new facilities and businesses creation and has had a positive impact on the life both city centers. A survey of building owners, governors and local community leadership in Bethlehem old city and the old city of Visby, interviews, and a review of literature concerning adaptive reuse of historic buildings are used as a tool of conducting qualitative and comparative research. The researcher’s perception is that adaptive reuse with social life regeneration, economic development activities, and energy efficiency serve the key concepts of sustainability; in addition to the local community perception of adaptive reuse as a viable option to demolition and redevelopment of existing facilities. The research recommends key implications for local governments in Sweden and Palestine as they eventually provide a theoretical framework that can be incorporated in the decision-making processes for adaptive reuse projects.

  • 29.
    Isacson, Maths
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Geijer, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Försvarsindustrin som kulturarv2018In: Det svarta järnet: Bergslagens vapenindustri under 1900-talet / [ed] Geijer, Mia & Isacson, Maths, Stockholm: Walborg Bokförlag , 2018, 1, p. 199-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Johansson, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Från slott till koja: En studie av det svenska murteglets historia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The complete history of Swedish bricks has not yet been fully compiled. This paper is written with the intention to assemble the historic puzzle which can tell the story of how bricks have been used, who has used them and how their appearance has changed over the course of time. To do this, extensive literature studies have been made, with sources stretching over a period of 2000 years. Bits of each source have been taken to create a chronological picture of its history. The results showed that catholic monks took the knowledge of brick working to Sweden in the 12th century. Soon, the royal power and the church started using brick as well. Despite this, bricks did not get its biggest breakthrough until the 18th century, when a new church law made children learn how to read. Instruction books got released and were read by a fairly large portion of the Swedish population. In the 1870s, the brickyard industry got mechanized, which made the branch sensitive to changes in the country’s economy. From this, the conclusion is drawn that literacy rate and industrial revolution led to the two biggest blooms in the history of bricks. Ironically, the industrial revolution also lead to the descent of the brick industry, partly because of the economic sensitivity, partly because the concrete was allowed to take over.

  • 31. Johansson, P.
    et al.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Strandberg, P.
    Performance of insulation materials for historic buildings: Case studies comparing a super insulation material and hemp-lime2018In: Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen and Susanna Carlsten, Uppsala University, 2018, p. 80-88Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Karlstrom, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Authenticity Rhetorics of Preservation and the Experience of the Original2015In: Heritage keywords: Rhetoric and redescription in cultural heritage, Univ Press Colorado , 2015, p. 29-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Karlström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    UNESCO in Southeast Asia: World Heritage Sites in comparative perspective2017In: International Journal of Heritage Studies (IJHS), ISSN 1352-7258, E-ISSN 1470-3610, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 489-491Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Klint, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Bungemuseet: En kvalitativ studie om Bungemuseets verksamhet och dess plats i de gotländska skolorna2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on communication between museum activities and school operations are not widespread, how to reach the schools is not entirely obvious and schools is a difficult target to reach for all the country's museums. The essay deals with this phenomenon with the case study and the open air museum- Bunge Museum at Gotland as a concrete example. Bunge Museum has undergone a reorganization due to greatly reduced visitor numbers and in connection with the reorganization did Henrik Zipsane an investigation into the business. The study intends to follow up Zipsanes investigation of the business, by going ahead with the claim that "there is a need to carefully examine the audiences they want and can achieve and what they are asking (---) and there is only one way to find it out: Ask them! ". A qualitative study with interviews have been made to operate in Bunge Museum, Fårösund Södervärn School and the School of Gotland around what they asking for. The studie deals with Bunge museum's business and what they offer, what the reduction of schoolchildren depend on what the school asks for and how this reduction may be counteracted. This study highlight the issue around the communication between the sector of schools and museums and on supply and demand. In a final discussion and analysis performed ago any proposals on how further development in this area can look like. The results indicate that the communication between education - and museums is the most essential to promote visits digits. A solution to increase the number of visitors is to adapt the business to the schools' needs and what they want and this is done only by the sectors is communicate and collaborate with each other.

  • 35.
    Langwagen, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Bjurfors bruk: Lämningar med guldkant2016Student paper second term, 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the 17th century, a handful of brassworks were founded in Sweden as a result of a royal decree. These brassworks are today mainly to be found in the swedish midlands, in a region called Bergslagen. Although a small industry, it was a big and heavy player in the swedish economy, and its goods were exported all over Europe.

    Even though it is an important part of Swedish industrial history, the brassworks of the Stuart era are badly recorded, and many of the industrial sites are long gone. The national archives sits on huge quantities of information, and yet it is seldomly used for research purposes.

    This study focuses on the brassworks at Bjurfors, and lists its historical devlopment in the region. The individual workshops are mainly described by its appearances and functions. Finally i rise the discussion concerning the situation of today , and the problems in preserving the ruins for the future

  • 36.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    1700-talets ortsbeskrivningar2017In: Läroverkssamlingen i ljuset: Almedalsbibliotekets äldre samling / [ed] Maja Markhouss, Uppsala: Uppsala universitetsbibliotek , 2017, 1, p. 15-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eighteenth century topographical descriptions

     

    The gymnasium library in Visby contains a number of volumes from the time before 1800 describing places (parishes, towns, counties) in Sweden. These topographical descriptions cover topics such as the landscape, customs, history and economic development. In the eighteenth century writing such descriptions became a popular pastime among priests and burghers, and it was seen as an appropriate topic for university students writing their thesis. In the course of the century more than 300 such descriptions were printed in Sweden (including Finland). Some of these descriptions are found in this collection, and three of them are dealt with in the article. The first one was a description of Uppsala and its environs authored by the royal antiquarian Johan Peringskiöld in the early eighteenth century, focusing entirely on the antiquities of the place. The second description was one of the antiquities of Gotland, written in 1730s and 1740s by the superintendent Jöran Wallin. The third one is an account of the county Stora Kopparberg from 1757, written by the merchant Abraham Abrahamsson Hülphers who also published an extensive description of northern Sweden.  

  • 37.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    1900-talet öppnade ögonen för klimatet2017In: Rivstart: B2 + C1 Textbok / [ed] Paula Levy Scherrer, Karl Lindemalm, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, 1, p. 260-265Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Attacker mot kulturarv i väpnade konflikter: En forskningsöversikt2016In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, p. 131-160Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Behandlingen av kulturminnen under första världskriget: dokumentation, debatt, propaganda2016In: Gutilandorum Universitas Scholarium et Magistrorum: Tidskrift för Högskolan på Gotlands historiska förening / [ed] Gunilla Jonsson & Torsten Daun, Visby: Historiska föreningen på Gotland. Alumnerna , 2016, p. 9-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Treatment of Historical Monuments in World War I: Documentation, Debate, Propaganda

    Mattias Legnér

     

    The purpose of this article is to investigate why historical monuments such as churches, monasteries, libraries and museums were attacked and damaged in World War I. These kinds of buildings were targeted by both sides throughout the war despite their lack of strategic importance for the war, and despite a relative consensus among the European countries that cultural institutions should be protected from the ravages of war. Several blatant attacks on churches, museums and libraries were publicly criticised and debated both during the war and after its end. The theoretical basis of our days' conventions on the protection of cultural heritage developed during the war and later in the twentieth century. The article begins by explaining the development of laws on war in the later part of the nineteenth century. A review of previous interpretations and views on the destruction of cultural heritage in World War I follows. It becomes apparent that the view of older research, that historical monuments were targeted to a very limited extent needs to be modified. Empirical research of recent years has shown that destruction was more widespread and intentional than previously recognized. The article then goes on to treat the beginnings of the war and the German and Austrian invasion of Belgium and France. The infamous German attacks on the towns of Leuven and Rheims are analysed. These attacks were followed by vicious propaganda in France and the United Kingdom, and by counter-propaganda produced in Germany. War on the eastern front was more brutal than fighting in Belgium and France, with looting of churches and the persecution of ethnic minority groups conducted primarily by Russian troops. Cultural heritage was targeted for several reasons throughout the war on both fronts: to weaken the moral of the enemy, to take revenge by destroying visible traces of enemy culture, but also to loot for economic purposes. Even in the Versailles peace treaty national heritage became an asset as Germany had to surrender valuable works of art to Belgium.

  • 40.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Cultural Heritage and the Promotion of Peace: Cultural Heritage without Borders in Kosovo, 2001–20112016In: ACHS 2016 - What does heritage change?: Association of Critical Heritage Studies. Third Biennial Conference, Montreal, Canada, 3-8 June, 2016., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural Heritage and the Promotion of Peace: Cultural Heritage without Borders in Kosovo, 2001–2011 

    Mattias Legnér

     

    This paper will deal with approaches to cultural heritage used in the Balkans, specifically Kosovo, in the first decade of the 21st century. Built cultural heritage was at the centre of the Kosovo conflict of the 1990s, symbolising either Serbian or Albanian ethnicity. As they had become heavily politicised, Orthodox churches, mosques and historic dwellings became targets for attacks before, during and after the Kosovo War 1998-99. That the war ended did not mean that the destruction of buildings stopped. In 2004 violence broke out again and was aimed against the Serbian minority and its cultural heritage. Furthermore, there has been extensive demolition of historic buildings after the war due to unchecked urban development.

    A theoretical point of departure is the idea that cultural heritage should be understood as a choice of perspective, rather than as a mass of buildings and objects existing regardless of users or observers. Depending on the perspective used cultural heritage perspectives may be used in the wake of armed conflict to make social and economic development possible, and to foster dialogue, human rights and democracy in communities plagued by violent conflict. General aims of using cultural heritage in post-conflict reconstruction have been to promote peaceful coexistence or reconciliation, economic improvements such as the creation of jobs through tourism or handicrafts, or democratic institutions and social equality.

    An overall aim of the paper is to analyse the approaches to cultural heritage in post-conflict reconstruction by the Swedish non-governmental organization Cultural Heritage without Borders (CHwB) in the period 2001-11.

    Cultural heritage remains ethnically defined in Kosovo, even if CHwB has worked to promote heritage as a "common value for all". What does this mean in practice and how was this approach practiced in the early 2000s? I argue that during the period in question there was a gradual shift in CHwB's aims from promoting a common Kosovar heritage by way of conserving buildings, to the use of cultural heritage for promoting local ownership and economic development.

  • 41.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Cultural heritage as a means of development in the wake of ethnic conflict: Kosovo, 2000-20082016In: 7th Annual Conference on Heritage Issues in Contemporary Society: Nature and Culture. Heritage in Context / [ed] Elizabeth Brabec et al, 2016, p. 30-30Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    (In)Securing the past: On the connections between heritage interventions and security practices2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Konstruktionen av en minnesplats: Bruket av Burmeisterska huset i Visby2016In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 22-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article deals with how a 17th-century building in Visby, the Burmeister House, has been used as a site of memory since the end of the 19th century. The theoretical starting point is the concept by the French historian Pierre Nora on how historians actively create sites of memory (les lieux de mémoire). We can regard the house as a site of memory to try and understand the historical significance previously ascribed to it and how the house is seen today. A site can be conserved or preserved through alteration, which emphasizes a selection of its characteristics that become tangible expressions of abstract

    narratives about the national or local community. This is the case with Burmeister House,

    which, after being bought by Visby council in 1904, went from being a private home to a public museum, tourist office, restaurant, and reading room, later becoming a listed building and a visitor centre for the World Heritage Site. Hand in hand with the house becoming a place that provided experiences by way of guided tours, and where various kinds of merchandise were sold, the building underwent a number of major renovations. These were designed to reinforce the impression of a well-preserved merchant’s home from the early period of Swedish control on Gotland. Reminders of the post-18th-century history of the house can be seen in various places. The building has an almost 90-year history as a tourist centre and travel agency, yet we can glimpse this narrative only by way of various “forgotten” objects. An increasingly respectful attitude to the building’s 17th-century wall paintings, viewed through the lens of cultural history, led to the tourist centre moving out in around 1993. At the beginning of the 21st century the building became a visitor centre for the newly designated World Heritage Site of the Hanseatic town of Visby. This led to a shift in focus for this site of memory, away from the building itself towards the conceptualization of the World Heritage Site and notions of Visby’s unique nature. At the end of the article the author discusses problems and possibilities if the building were to be used more actively again. The article draws on records held by the Antiquarian-Topographical Archive, Gotland Tourist Association, Military Archives in Stockholm, Gotlands fornvänner, Museum of Gotland and Region Gotland.

  • 44.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kulturarvsbruk i väpnade konflikter2016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 4, p. 658-672Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kulturarvsbruk i väpnade konflikter2016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 4, p. 658-672Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Museerna och första världskriget2018In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, p. 114-118Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Recension av Christina Kott och Bénédicte Savoy (Hg.), Mars & Museum: Europäische Museum im Erste Weltkrieg, Köln m fl, Böhlau Verlag 2016. 

  • 47.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Not Just a Summer Temple: The Development of Conservation and Indoor Climate in Nationalmuseum, Sweden2019In: Addressing the Climate in Modern Age's Construction History: Between Architecture and Building Services Engineering / [ed] Carlo Manfredi, Springer, 2019, 1, p. 147-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    This essay examines the building and management of Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. Today the building has just recently been reopened after years of renovation and fitting of a new system that will control the indoor climate. This means deep interventions in a nineteenth-century building that was not designed to be airtight or to be heated all year around. The renovation gives a reason to ponder on how the building originally was designed and constructed, but also how it was managed over time. The climate of the house has been an issue ever since the building was constructed in the early years of the 1860s. It was fitted with a central heating system already then, but the building proved difficult to heat in winter and to ventilate in summer. There were continuous problems with dehydration of organic materials in the art collections in winter-time, and with too much sunlight exposing fragile art in the warmer season. Curiously, the introduction of artificial humidification first around 1930 and then again in the 1950s did not solve the problem of dehydration. On the contrary climate problems became ever more complex around the mid-20thcentury because of the introduction of motor traffic with its exhausts, and increasing demands on a stable indoor climate in art museums. 

    How did museums balance the needs of their collections, against the needs of staff and visitors? What considerations where made when choosing heating and ventilation for a museum at this time? In order to illuminate these questions, archival sources from Nationalmuseum, Riksarkivet (National State Archives) and the engineering and architectural company SWECO have been used. Överintendentsämbetet (Board of Public Works and Buildings, abbreviated ÖIÄ) was the custodian of government buildings, followed by Kungliga Byggnadsstyrelsen (Board of Building and Planning, abbreviated KBS) after an organizational shift in 1918. The museum was thus responsible for the management of its collections but not of its building. Until 1939 there was also a second museum housed in the bottom floor: Statens Historiska Museum, the National Historical Museum.  

    If the museum had a complaint on the performance of the building or the heating system, it would have to notify ÖIÄ (or KBS after 1918), which then would decide how to act. Judging by archive sources, it becomes evident that ÖIÄ had small means to make more demanding interventions in existing buildings, and often complaints seem to have been more or less ignored because of lack of resources. By studying the correspondence it is possible to gain a better understanding of how museum management perceived indoor climate and how ÖIÄ responded. 

    The purpose of the essay is to explore how the construction and management of the indoor climate was shaped by technological development and how views on the running of a museum building shifted. Nationalmuseum was fitted with a hot water central heating system. In the early 1860s this was something hardly heard of in Sweden at this time. In general, the central heating systems used at that time were caloriphers, furnaces that heated the air that was then circulated through the building.  

    There were firms in Stockholm installing piping, but none of them was considered competent enough to do the installations in Nationalmuseum. Most entrepreneurs in Stockholm worked with gas piping, not with water or sewer piping.[1]In the early 1860s it was still not evident that a public building should be equipped with this kind of heating, despite the relatively long and cold winters in Stockholm. Public buildings in general were heated with local fireplaces, most often tile stoves produced in the city.  

    Today it is well known that control of indoor climate is key to the management of collections. Too much heat makes the air dry, which may cause damage to fragile objects such as paintings on panels or wooden furniture with veneer. Too little heat makes the air very humid, which promotes mold, vermin, corrosion and rot. What is considered "too little" or "too much", however, has changed since the nineteenth century.[2]The essay explores why central heating was installed in the museum, what the expectations on its functioning were, and how building and museum management (they were – and are – separate from each other) continuously commented on its performance in the decades following the opening of the museum, up until the 1970s when air pollution had become a serious problem demanding a technical solution.

    [1]G. Stålbom, Varmt och vädrat. VVS-teknik i äldre byggnader, Sveriges VVS Museum – SBUF – VVS Företagen, Stockholm 2010, 15. In 1861 Stockholm opened its first waterworks with 30 km of piping. 

    [2]M. Legnér, "Conservation versus thermal comfort – conflicting interests?: The issue of church heating, Sweden c. 1918–1975",Konsthistorisk Tidskrift 2014 (e-publication ahead of print).

  • 48.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    När krig raderar ­historiens spår2016In: Svenska DagbladetArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I krig som syftar till etnisk rensning utplånas samtidigt ofta byggnader och andra kulturarv som vittnar om ett multikulturellt förflutet. En ny bok kartlägger den systematiska förstörelsen av moskéer och ­monument ­under Balkankrigen på 1990-talet.

  • 49.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Post-conflict reconstruction and the heritage process2018In: Journal of Architectural Conservation, ISSN 1355-6207, E-ISSN 2326-6384, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 78-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite that large investments have been made by the European Union in restoring and preserving heritage damaged after the Kosovo War 1998–99, there have been no previous attempts to gain more in-depth knowledge about the implementation and success of the interventions. Organisations involved in funding and facilitating architectural interventions in post-conflict zones may have differing aims and agendas that influence selection and methods, and ultimately the results. This paper aims to shed light on a pioneering project carried out on damaged kullas, massive masonry towers connected to farmsteads, in Kosovo 2001–02. Kullas were systematically attacked and burned during the conflict. The methodology is based on interviews with involved people and on documentation that is publically available, since it is crucial to uncover the aims and agendas of involved actors if one wishes to understand how and why decisions were made. In the end, what was deemed most important in the process was not the reconstruction in itself, but rather the development of craftsmen's skills and the need to create a dialogue on the values of Kosovo heritage. The paper shows how the reconstruction of built heritage can facilitate processes of dialogue in conflict areas.

  • 50.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Recension av Ove Bring, Parthenonsyndromet. Kampen om kulturskatterna2016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 3, p. 549-551Article, book review (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 91
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