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  • 1.
    Alev, Uellar
    et al.
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Kalamees, Targo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Eskola, Lari
    Aalto Univ, Dept Energy Technol, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Arumägi, Endrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation. Tallinn Univ Technol, Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Jokisalo, Juha
    Aalto Univ, Dept Energy Technol, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Siren, Kai
    Aalto Univ, Dept Energy Technol, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Indoor hygrothermal condition and user satisfaction in naturally ventilated historic houses in temperate humid continental climate around the Baltic Sea2016In: Architectural Science Review, ISSN 0003-8628, E-ISSN 1758-9622, Vol. 59, no 1, 53-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor climate and user satisfaction were analysed by field measurement and a questionnaire in 67 traditional rural houses in Estonia, Finland and Sweden. Our findings showed that the indoor climate in all the investigated historic rural houses needs improvement. The room temperature was mainly too low during winter. Leaky houses had also a larger vertical temperature difference. The relative humidity in the unheated and periodically heated houses was high during winter and caused risk for mould growth in 17% of all houses and 33% of unheated houses. Significant differences of indoor humidity loads in different houses were revealed depending on the living density and usage profile. During the winter period, the design value of moisture excess was 4-5g/m(3) and the average moisture load was 2-3.5g/m(3). The indoor humidity load in historic houses was similar to that in modern houses. The results of the questionnaire showed that main problems were related to unstable or too low temperatures. At the same time, inhabitants rated the overall indoor climate as healthy and no statistically important relations were found between average indoor temperature and complaints about too cold or too warm indoor temperatures.

  • 2.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Eriksson, Petra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Learning traditional building techniques by practical work and implemented theory2016In: Innovation of teaching in materials and structures / [ed] Per Golterman, RILEM Publication S.A.R.L , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Om kalkindustrin på Gotland 2: Ur den gotländska kalkindustrins historia, åren 1942-19452015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gotland has a very long tradition of lime burning. Traces of lime burning on Gotland stretch back to the 12th century. An inventory of all the lime kilns in Gotland was made in 1942. Since then the market, the use and the tradition of lime burning have changed significantly. By the start of WW2 a shortage of black coal occurred. This meant that the large, traditional lime kilns could no longer be operated with the same capacity. The small, wood-burning kilns were the only furnaces that survived. With the cement's entry the demand for lime mortar got heavily reduced, which in turn meant the end for the last lime kilns. The cement quickly proved inadequate in many situations, especially in the field of monument care​​, and the demand for traditional lime mortar increased again already in the 1960s. Since then, three lime kilns were taken into use on Gotland; two smaller, traditional lime kilns and one large, industrial kiln.

    This thesis intends to follow up on the inventory that was made in 1942 in order to create a basis for further discussion of the historical values the lime kilns possesses and how these values can be cared for.

    In order to ensure the being of cultural heritage of the traditional lime industry, it requires popular demand, care and knowledge of the furnace, its use and production and its product.

  • 4.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kulturarv i skottgluggen2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ANALYS Den Islamiska staten attacker mot Palmyra och andra kulturarv i Syrien och Irak har fått stor uppmärksamhet i internationella medier. Men attacker mot kulturarv i väpnade konflikter är inte unikt för IS, och dessa attacker kan ha en rad olika syften. Det skriver Johan Brosché, Joakim Kreutz och Mattias Legner utifrån ett nytt tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt.

  • 5.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Department of Political Science, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Heritage under Attack: motives for targeting cultural property during armed conflict2017In: International Journal of Heritage Studies (IJHS), ISSN 1352-7258, E-ISSN 1470-3610, Vol. 23, no 3, 248-260 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although attacks on cultural property have caused international outcry,our understanding of this phenomenon is still limited. In particular, littleresearch has been directed towards exploring the motivations for suchattacks. Therefore, we ask: What are the motives for attacking sites, buildingsor objects representing cultural heritage? By combining insights from peaceand conflict research with findings from heritage studies we present atypology of motivations for attacking cultural property. We identify four,not mutually exclusive, broad groups of motives: (i) attacks related to conflictgoals, in which cultural property is targeted because it is connected to theissue the warring parties are fighting over (ii), military-strategic attacks, inwhich the main motivation is to win tactical advantages in the conflict (iii),signalling attacks, in which cultural property is targeted as a low-risk targetthat signals the commitment of the aggressor, and (iv) economic incentiveswhere cultural property provides funding for warring parties. Our typologyoffers a theoretical structure for research about why, when, and by whom,cultural property is targeted. This is not only likely to provide academicbenefits, but also to contribute to the development of more effective toolsfor the protection of cultural property during armed conflict.

  • 6.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Berg, Fredrik
    Bygningsavdelingen - Norsk institutt for kulturminneforskning, NIKU.
    For the categorisation of historic buildings to determine energy saving2017In: AGATHON International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, ISSN 2464-9309, Vol. 1, 135-142 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical characteristics and cultural values affect the possibility of saving energy in the historic building stock. The issue has been addressed and studied in monumental buildings. For the majority of historic buildings, defined in this research as traditional constructions built before 1945 when the building sector became more industrialised, there is still a need for further studies. In order to study a large building stock it is necessary to make generalisations. To break down the stock into a few statistically representative categories is one way of doing that.

    The aim of this article is to present the development of a method to categorise a historic building stock with the ability to identify the potential for energy saving and preservation of cultural values. By studying building categories and typical buildings in detail the results can be extrapolated to represent a large building stock.

    The method for categorisation is done in three steps: building inventory, categorisation and selection of typical buildings. The inventory is when data on the building stock is gathered and compiled. This is necessary in order to have a sound statistical basis for the following steps of the method. The categorisation is done by dividing the buildings in groups based on their basic characteristics; for example size and number of adjoining walls. A delimitation is done, if necessary, in order to exclude atypical buildings.

    Typical buildings from each category are then selected by letting the medium values within the categories decide the characteristics of the typical buildings. Other characteristics such as age, use, construction type etc. can be determined for the typical buildings and motivated statistically based on the data in the inventory.

    A case study has been carried out on the historic building stock in the town Visby in Sweden, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. When applying the method for categorisation on the buildings built before 1945 in Visby the results show that 70 % of the buildings’ volume is represented by 87 % of the buildings. The study shows that it is possible to generalise some aspects even in a relatively richly nuanced building stock by letting the basic characteristics constitute the first common denominators in a categorisation.

    The result of the categorisation facilitates the identification of representative typical buildings that can be used for energy modelling. The six groups of typical buildings identified in Visby are presented at the end of the article.

    This study has been conducted within the multi-disciplinary projects Potential and policies for energy efficiency in Swedish buildings built before 1945, financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and Energy Efficiency for EU Historic Districts, funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme.

  • 7.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    van Schijndel, Jos
    Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, .
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    National museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Energy efficient climate control in historic buildings2014In: Climate for culture: Built culturalheritage in times of climate change / [ed] Johanna Leissner, Urban Kaiser, Ralf Kilian, Leipzig: Fraunhofer MOEZ , 2014, 29-32 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Colfach, Peder
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    3D Laserskanning: Verktyg för antikvarisk dokumentation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to figure out if there is any heritage aspect when documenting heritage buildings with 3D laser scanning in Sweden. The paper is based on three case studies of two privately owned and one public building where the purpose for 3D scanning has had different goals. In simple words this paper aims to describe what laser scanning is and how you work with the laser scanning in the field.  Through comparing results from prior studies on the matter, this study also aims to describe the advantages that come from using 3D laser scanning on heritage buildings. This study finally wants to bring up the subject and discuss the terms and uses of fulfilling a building heritage documentation that suites our time.

  • 9.
    Dennis, Rispling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Vardagsrummet: Tekniken i fokus?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the 20th century technological objects such as television and radio appeared and changed the home ideals. These changed the way people socialized, furnished and used their homes. In addition to changing the design and the appliances of the kitchen, electricity also transformed the sitting room. The living room became the center of the home where technological objects such as the gramophone, the radio and especially the television were being used. The issues addressed in this paper include what people’s homes looked like and how the Swedes related to the ideals based on a study of photographs from a digital archive. Did all Swedes have technology as the main focus of their homes or did it take a few years before all Swedes embraced these innovations? This bachelor thesis deals with the Swedish homes based on an analysis of photographs from the digital archive digitaltmuseum.se. Through the analysis I will be able to see how the Swedes used and furnished their living rooms during the time period 1950-1970. The main focus of this thesis is to see if the classic objects that are said to have changed the way people decorated the living room existed in actual homes, or if they are part of an ideal image of how living rooms were portrayed and used.  The result was that the technological progress was not very visible on the photos from digital museum except the fact that the furniture's placement in the home changed and that there is not a clear change in the form of technology although gramophones, radios and a few televisions are visible on a few images.

  • 10.
    Folkesson, Emmelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Glober i Sverige: En undersökning av globers konstruktion och kontext mellan åren 1800 till 19502015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on Swedish globe production or globes offered on the Swedish market is not widespread. International research on globes has largely focused on the period from about 1400 to 1800. The structure and context of globes during the 1800s is mentioned only briefly, while globes produced during the 1900s are not mentioned at all. Therefore, the survey has a holistic approach to globes appearing on the Swedish market during the years 1800-1950. The questions seek answers regarding the materials, map design, tripod and instruments of globes. Also the types of globes, pricing, clients, vendors and manufacturers are examined. 21 globes have been observed at the Center for History of Science, the National Library of Sweden and the Maritime Museum in Stockholm. Advertisements, price lists and exhibition catalogs mentioning globes have been collected through archives. The survey shows that new materials and new types of globes appears in the Swedish market, while the associated instruments had a reduced importance.

  • 11.
    Fägerhall, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Lasersvetsning: En undersökning av autenticitet och dess påverkan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim to investigate how an object's authenticity is affected by the renovation/restoration, the interpretations of three authors respective views on the concept of authenticity is applied to two restored wristwatches. The renovation or restoration method that has been examined is laser welding, which is rapidly growing as a result of its positive qualities. Since wristwatches economic value rises in line with the public interest becomes greater, the study of the renovation or restoration method that is usually discussed in the context of economic value is relevant. Although the authors positions may differ, there seems to be a common denominator to the concept of authenticity as highly subjective. This has led to the conclusion that the concept of authenticity is often too individual and that it possibly should be avoided when discussing issues of preservation, restoration and renovation.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Museums: An incubator for sustainable social development and environmental protection2017In: International Journal of Development and Sustainability, ISSN 2186-8662, Vol. 5, no 9, 446-462 p., IJDS16111401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to contribute to the debate on the socio-cultural impact of museums on sustainable regional development. Museums play a significant role within socio-cultural and environmental sustainability contexts. Specifically, they foster a collective sense of place, collective memory, social integration, education and environmental awareness. They help sustain cities as dynamic socio-cultural centers, acting as “instruments” for cities in the revitalization process. In addition, they encourage cohesiveness among different sectors of society, tolerance, democracy, and economic growth. The authors recommend that governmental and non-governmental institutions include cultural heritage and museums as key factors in their future priorities in pursuing sustainable development at local, regional, and national levels. 

  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Museums – A Catalyst for Sustainable Economic Development in Sweden2017In: International Journal of Innovative Development & Policy Studies, ISSN 2354-2926, Vol. 5, no 2, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Museums have a great impact on the cultural economy of every country and museums have a very significant meaning for social integration within socio-cultural and socio-economic contexts. Studies have shown that the impact of museums may vary from one city to another, and from one country to another, at local, regional or national level. The role of museums in the cultural economy is very important, because they sustain cities in promoting themselves as cultural center‟s in the domestic and regional market by fulfilling their demands and expectations of visitors and investors. One can say that museums act as “the instruments” for cities in the regeneration process. Over time, it was considered that museums were created with the purpose of education, collecting, preservation and research, but because society evolved, the economic role of museums became increasingly important. Consequently, the role of museums has become more diverse in the 21st century, and they become key partners in the heritage and culture tourism industry and the creative and innovative industries as well. This paper seeks to explore the impact of museums on regional development in sustainable way. The Authors argue that museums have a multiplier effects on regional development and become an important tool for regional economies

  • 14.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Urban Ecology Concept and its Implication for Studying Social Integration: Case Study of the Palestinian Refugees2015In: International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, ISSN 2006-988X, Vol. 7, no 1, 7BE04DC49905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyze the phenomena of urban segregation and social integration in the Palestinian refugee camps. The arguments are based on a theoretical basis as well as findings from the author’s fieldwork taken where he used to live in the Gaza refugee camp. The main argument of this paper claims that residential segregation and the creation of informal settlements in the city boundaries are exclusively associated with cultural, urban poverty, socio-political and historical aspects that reflect on the urban fabric of the camps. The author’s proposes that the roots of the phenomena of urban segregation and integration are an outcome of the constructed social strata, which can be theorized within two interrelated socio-political new situation of the refugees, and the historical, identity aspects; one defines them as refugees who should preserve their right and identity to go back home where the urban camp and social structure and fabric reflected this situation, and the other identifies the Israeli regime, social obstacles and life conditions in the received society as the negative factors that prevented the refugees to have the opportunity of assimilation. Additionally, the paper suggests that the ‘traditional approach’ in urban geography, based on Park’s premise, as having the basic hypothesis that the greater the degree of difference between spatial distribution of groups within the urban context, the greater their social distance from the other. This approach, in essence, views the integration process of the Palestinian refugees and the resettlement goals that the refugees struggled to achieve it temporarily to have the same opportunities as assimilated citizens in the West Bank and Gaza. The ecological approach of the Chicago School will be use to study the integration and assimilation phenomena.

  • 15.
    Ijla, Akram
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    The Sustainable Viability of Adaptive Reuse of Historic Buildings: the experiences of Two World Heritage Old Cities; Bethlehem in Palestine and Visby in Sweden2015In: International Invention Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, ISSN 2408-7238, Vol. 2, no 4, 52-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at investigating the viability of adaptive reuse of abandoned buildings (religious, Nobel Architecture, residential, commercial, and other) and the impact it has on the sustainability of existing environment in Bethlehem and Visby. There are many historic buildings in Bethlehem and Visby that are unique in their history, architecture, and built environment. This paper explores the importance of adaptive reuse by looking at several examples of reused historic buildings in both cities. The examples illustrate the viability of adaptive reuse in terms of sustainability; economic impact, affordable function, vitality of social life, and usability of existing urban resources and energy saving. The paper advocates policy makers is to increase the adaptive reuse policy within abandoned old cities as an integral tool of regeneration and sustainability policies. A comparative study of Palestine (Bethlehem) and Sweden (Visby) focuses on the experiences of two cities where conversions have registered a significant impact in terms of new facilities and businesses creation and has had a positive impact on the life both city centers. A survey of building owners, governors and local community leadership in Bethlehem old city and the old city of Visby, interviews, and a review of literature concerning adaptive reuse of historic buildings are used as a tool of conducting qualitative and comparative research. The researcher’s perception is that adaptive reuse with social life regeneration, economic development activities, and energy efficiency serve the key concepts of sustainability; in addition to the local community perception of adaptive reuse as a viable option to demolition and redevelopment of existing facilities. The research recommends key implications for local governments in Sweden and Palestine as they eventually provide a theoretical framework that can be incorporated in the decision-making processes for adaptive reuse projects.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Från slott till koja: En studie av det svenska murteglets historia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The complete history of Swedish bricks has not yet been fully compiled. This paper is written with the intention to assemble the historic puzzle which can tell the story of how bricks have been used, who has used them and how their appearance has changed over the course of time. To do this, extensive literature studies have been made, with sources stretching over a period of 2000 years. Bits of each source have been taken to create a chronological picture of its history. The results showed that catholic monks took the knowledge of brick working to Sweden in the 12th century. Soon, the royal power and the church started using brick as well. Despite this, bricks did not get its biggest breakthrough until the 18th century, when a new church law made children learn how to read. Instruction books got released and were read by a fairly large portion of the Swedish population. In the 1870s, the brickyard industry got mechanized, which made the branch sensitive to changes in the country’s economy. From this, the conclusion is drawn that literacy rate and industrial revolution led to the two biggest blooms in the history of bricks. Ironically, the industrial revolution also lead to the descent of the brick industry, partly because of the economic sensitivity, partly because the concrete was allowed to take over.

  • 17.
    Karlstrom, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Authenticity Rhetorics of Preservation and the Experience of the Original2015In: Heritage keywords: Rhetoric and redescription in cultural heritage, Univ Press Colorado , 2015, 29-46 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Karlström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    UNESCO in Southeast Asia: World Heritage Sites in comparative perspective2017In: International Journal of Heritage Studies (IJHS), ISSN 1352-7258, E-ISSN 1470-3610, Vol. 23, no 5, 489-491 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Klint, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Bungemuseet: En kvalitativ studie om Bungemuseets verksamhet och dess plats i de gotländska skolorna2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on communication between museum activities and school operations are not widespread, how to reach the schools is not entirely obvious and schools is a difficult target to reach for all the country's museums. The essay deals with this phenomenon with the case study and the open air museum- Bunge Museum at Gotland as a concrete example. Bunge Museum has undergone a reorganization due to greatly reduced visitor numbers and in connection with the reorganization did Henrik Zipsane an investigation into the business. The study intends to follow up Zipsanes investigation of the business, by going ahead with the claim that "there is a need to carefully examine the audiences they want and can achieve and what they are asking (---) and there is only one way to find it out: Ask them! ". A qualitative study with interviews have been made to operate in Bunge Museum, Fårösund Södervärn School and the School of Gotland around what they asking for. The studie deals with Bunge museum's business and what they offer, what the reduction of schoolchildren depend on what the school asks for and how this reduction may be counteracted. This study highlight the issue around the communication between the sector of schools and museums and on supply and demand. In a final discussion and analysis performed ago any proposals on how further development in this area can look like. The results indicate that the communication between education - and museums is the most essential to promote visits digits. A solution to increase the number of visitors is to adapt the business to the schools' needs and what they want and this is done only by the sectors is communicate and collaborate with each other.

  • 20.
    Langwagen, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Bjurfors bruk: Lämningar med guldkant2016Student paper second term, 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the 17th century, a handful of brassworks were founded in Sweden as a result of a royal decree. These brassworks are today mainly to be found in the swedish midlands, in a region called Bergslagen. Although a small industry, it was a big and heavy player in the swedish economy, and its goods were exported all over Europe.

    Even though it is an important part of Swedish industrial history, the brassworks of the Stuart era are badly recorded, and many of the industrial sites are long gone. The national archives sits on huge quantities of information, and yet it is seldomly used for research purposes.

    This study focuses on the brassworks at Bjurfors, and lists its historical devlopment in the region. The individual workshops are mainly described by its appearances and functions. Finally i rise the discussion concerning the situation of today , and the problems in preserving the ruins for the future

  • 21.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Konstruktionen av en minnesplats: Bruket av Burmeisterska huset i Visby2016In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, Vol. 71, no 1, 22-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article deals with how a 17th-century building in Visby, the Burmeister House, has been used as a site of memory since the end of the 19th century. The theoretical starting point is the concept by the French historian Pierre Nora on how historians actively create sites of memory (les lieux de mémoire). We can regard the house as a site of memory to try and understand the historical significance previously ascribed to it and how the house is seen today. A site can be conserved or preserved through alteration, which emphasizes a selection of its characteristics that become tangible expressions of abstract

    narratives about the national or local community. This is the case with Burmeister House,

    which, after being bought by Visby council in 1904, went from being a private home to a public museum, tourist office, restaurant, and reading room, later becoming a listed building and a visitor centre for the World Heritage Site. Hand in hand with the house becoming a place that provided experiences by way of guided tours, and where various kinds of merchandise were sold, the building underwent a number of major renovations. These were designed to reinforce the impression of a well-preserved merchant’s home from the early period of Swedish control on Gotland. Reminders of the post-18th-century history of the house can be seen in various places. The building has an almost 90-year history as a tourist centre and travel agency, yet we can glimpse this narrative only by way of various “forgotten” objects. An increasingly respectful attitude to the building’s 17th-century wall paintings, viewed through the lens of cultural history, led to the tourist centre moving out in around 1993. At the beginning of the 21st century the building became a visitor centre for the newly designated World Heritage Site of the Hanseatic town of Visby. This led to a shift in focus for this site of memory, away from the building itself towards the conceptualization of the World Heritage Site and notions of Visby’s unique nature. At the end of the article the author discusses problems and possibilities if the building were to be used more actively again. The article draws on records held by the Antiquarian-Topographical Archive, Gotland Tourist Association, Military Archives in Stockholm, Gotlands fornvänner, Museum of Gotland and Region Gotland.

  • 22.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    När krig raderar ­historiens spår2016In: Svenska DagbladetArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I krig som syftar till etnisk rensning utplånas samtidigt ofta byggnader och andra kulturarv som vittnar om ett multikulturellt förflutet. En ny bok kartlägger den systematiska förstörelsen av moskéer och ­monument ­under Balkankrigen på 1990-talet.

  • 23.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kulturarvsbruk i väpnade konflikter2016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 4, 658-672 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Behandlingen av kulturminnen under första världskriget: dokumentation, debatt, propaganda2016In: Gutilandorum Universitas Scholarium et Magistrorum: Tidskrift för Högskolan på Gotlands historiska förening / [ed] Gunilla Jonsson & Torsten Daun, Visby: Historiska föreningen på Gotland. Alumnerna , 2016, 9-48 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Treatment of Historical Monuments in World War I: Documentation, Debate, Propaganda

    Mattias Legnér

     

    The purpose of this article is to investigate why historical monuments such as churches, monasteries, libraries and museums were attacked and damaged in World War I. These kinds of buildings were targeted by both sides throughout the war despite their lack of strategic importance for the war, and despite a relative consensus among the European countries that cultural institutions should be protected from the ravages of war. Several blatant attacks on churches, museums and libraries were publicly criticised and debated both during the war and after its end. The theoretical basis of our days' conventions on the protection of cultural heritage developed during the war and later in the twentieth century. The article begins by explaining the development of laws on war in the later part of the nineteenth century. A review of previous interpretations and views on the destruction of cultural heritage in World War I follows. It becomes apparent that the view of older research, that historical monuments were targeted to a very limited extent needs to be modified. Empirical research of recent years has shown that destruction was more widespread and intentional than previously recognized. The article then goes on to treat the beginnings of the war and the German and Austrian invasion of Belgium and France. The infamous German attacks on the towns of Leuven and Rheims are analysed. These attacks were followed by vicious propaganda in France and the United Kingdom, and by counter-propaganda produced in Germany. War on the eastern front was more brutal than fighting in Belgium and France, with looting of churches and the persecution of ethnic minority groups conducted primarily by Russian troops. Cultural heritage was targeted for several reasons throughout the war on both fronts: to weaken the moral of the enemy, to take revenge by destroying visible traces of enemy culture, but also to loot for economic purposes. Even in the Versailles peace treaty national heritage became an asset as Germany had to surrender valuable works of art to Belgium.

  • 25.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Recension av Ove Bring, Parthenonsyndromet. Kampen om kulturskatterna2016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 3, 549-551 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Attacker mot kulturarv i väpnade konflikter: En forskningsöversikt2016In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, 131-160 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kulturarvsbruk i väpnade konflikter2016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 4, 658-672 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Cultural Heritage and the Promotion of Peace: Cultural Heritage without Borders in Kosovo, 2001–20112016In: ACHS 2016 - What does heritage change?: Association of Critical Heritage Studies. Third Biennial Conference, Montreal, Canada, 3-8 June, 2016., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural Heritage and the Promotion of Peace: Cultural Heritage without Borders in Kosovo, 2001–2011 

    Mattias Legnér

     

    This paper will deal with approaches to cultural heritage used in the Balkans, specifically Kosovo, in the first decade of the 21st century. Built cultural heritage was at the centre of the Kosovo conflict of the 1990s, symbolising either Serbian or Albanian ethnicity. As they had become heavily politicised, Orthodox churches, mosques and historic dwellings became targets for attacks before, during and after the Kosovo War 1998-99. That the war ended did not mean that the destruction of buildings stopped. In 2004 violence broke out again and was aimed against the Serbian minority and its cultural heritage. Furthermore, there has been extensive demolition of historic buildings after the war due to unchecked urban development.

    A theoretical point of departure is the idea that cultural heritage should be understood as a choice of perspective, rather than as a mass of buildings and objects existing regardless of users or observers. Depending on the perspective used cultural heritage perspectives may be used in the wake of armed conflict to make social and economic development possible, and to foster dialogue, human rights and democracy in communities plagued by violent conflict. General aims of using cultural heritage in post-conflict reconstruction have been to promote peaceful coexistence or reconciliation, economic improvements such as the creation of jobs through tourism or handicrafts, or democratic institutions and social equality.

    An overall aim of the paper is to analyse the approaches to cultural heritage in post-conflict reconstruction by the Swedish non-governmental organization Cultural Heritage without Borders (CHwB) in the period 2001-11.

    Cultural heritage remains ethnically defined in Kosovo, even if CHwB has worked to promote heritage as a "common value for all". What does this mean in practice and how was this approach practiced in the early 2000s? I argue that during the period in question there was a gradual shift in CHwB's aims from promoting a common Kosovar heritage by way of conserving buildings, to the use of cultural heritage for promoting local ownership and economic development.

  • 29.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Cultural heritage as a means of development in the wake of ethnic conflict: Kosovo, 2000-20082016In: 7th Annual Conference on Heritage Issues in Contemporary Society: Nature and Culture. Heritage in Context / [ed] Elizabeth Brabec et al, 2016, 30-30 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Standardizing the Indoor Climate in Swedish Churches: Opportunities, Challenges and Ways ForwardManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardization for indoor climate control in historic buildings has recently taken a new direction with standards and guidelines that focus more on decision processes than outcomes. The objective of the paper is to explore and discuss how standards can evolve to both fit and guide decision processes to facilitate a sustainable managementof Swedish churches. Interviews with engineersand heritage professionals in the Church of Sweden in combination with indoor climate monitoring were used to understand the technical and organizational context.The results show that the development of process standards solves some of the problems related to the conventional outcome-oriented approach by opening up for a wider set of solutions. However, available guidelines are difficult to apply and integrate in the existing management of churches. A stronger focus on strategic feedback and an increased use of local guidelines are suggested.

  • 31.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Bevarandeklimat i historiska byggnader - Några kunskapsluckor2009In: Meddelser om konservering, ISSN 0106-469x, no 1, 22-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The indoor climate in a number of Scandinavian historic buildings such as churches, castles and manor houses deviates considerably from climate recommendations given for museums. Nonetheless, these buildings accommodate fragile and valuable movable and immovable objects. In the present article, a brief literature review of the risk of mechanical damages to art objects caused by fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity is given. Two cases are presented to illustrate the problems with indoor climates that deviates from common standards. The two cases were chosen because they are interesting from an energy saving perspective. The first case is an intermittently heated church in northern Sweden, typical for a Scandinavian rural church used only for services. The second case is a completely unheated building with an indoor climate closely following the fluctuations of the outdoor climate, including sub-zero temperatures in winter. The research about mechanical damages is discussed with reference to these cases. Two areas are identified where more research is needed. There is limited knowledge on the correlation between a fluctuating indoor climate and the risk of mechanical damages, i.e. the rate of temperature and relative humidity changes. Secondly, the knowledge of how low temperatures affect the risk of mechanical damages is inadequate.

  • 32.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Energideklaration – hot eller möjlighet?2007In: Byggnadskultur, ISSN 0348-6885, E-ISSN 1677-6976, Vol. 1, 16-17- p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Making sense of climate risk information: The case of future indoor climate risks in Swedish churches2016In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 13, 76-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations and institutions managing built heritage have to make use of increasingly detailed, elaborate and complex climate change impact assessments. It is a challenge to determine how, when and by whom climate predictions should be translated into risk estimates usable for decision-making. In this paper results from the Climate for Culture project are used to study how heritage decision-makers interpret future indoor climate-related risks to Swedish churches. Different sets of risk maps were presented to ten engineers, ten building conservators and five experts on indoor climate related risks. Interviews were used to understand how the interviewees made sense of the presented information and if they associated it with a perceived need for adaptation. The results show that the risks were interpreted and assessed largely dependent on their pre-understanding and familiarity with the individual risks. The magnitude of change and the lack of uncertainty estimates were subordinate to the overall impression of the information as being credible and salient. The major conclusion is that the dissemination of risk information, also from projects which at the outset have aimed at producing knowledge relevant for end-users, should be both customized and tested in collaborative efforts by stakeholders and scientists.

  • 34.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Bertolin, C
    Camuffo, D
    Leissner, J
    Antretter, F
    Winkler, M
    Kotova, L
    Mikolajewicz, U
    Jacob, D
    van Schijndel, A.W.M.
    Schellen, Henk
    Broström, Tor
    Ashley-Smith, Jonathan
    Results of the EU Project Climate For Culture: Future Climate-induced Risks to Historic Buildings and their Interiors2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU funded Climate for Culture (CfC) Project is finalized to forecast the impact ofclimate change on either indoor or outdoor Cultural Heritage and advise on relatedrisks. CfC has produced high-resolution thematic maps over Europe to highlight theexpected changes and related risks for a number of key materials, building types,deterioration mechanisms for the near and far future based on two emissionscenarios as developed by IPCC. The procedure to obtain a thematic map is asfollows: to simulate outdoor climate change; to pass from outdoor to indoor climatechange through building simulation and case studies measurements; to use damagefunctions and literature results to evaluate potential risk for buildings and objects; tomap the above results for advice and stakeholders use. This methodology hasproduced 55,650 thematic maps of future climate induced risks to historic buildingsand collections in their interiors. The results can be used for climate change impactassessments and for planning adaption and mitigation measures in view ofpreventive conservation or other applications, e.g. human health, energyconsumption, cultural tourism. This paper presents some of the main projectoutcomes.

  • 35.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Broström, Tor
    Kyrkobyggnader och klimatförändringar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att identifiera och värdera framtida inneklimatre-laterade risker i kyrkobyggnader på grund av framtida klimatförändringar samt att undersöka hur informationen om framtida risker kan användas. Vidare diskuteras styrkor och svagheter med befintlig fastighetsförvaltning med avseende på klimatanpassning. Undersökningen bygger på resultat från det europeiska projektet Climate for Culture där framtida risker, förknippade med klimatförändringar, pre-senteras i form av riskkartor. Som komplement till detta genomfördes en intervjuundersökning med ett tjugotal personer inom Svenska kyrkan som arbetar med fastighetsförvaltning.Undersökningen visar att risker för mögel och insektsangrepp ökar sig-nifikant medan andra risker, t ex mekaniska skador på bemålat trä, inte ökar. Följdfrågan blir då, vilka åtgärder kan eller bör vidtas i nuläget? För-fattarnas uppfattning är att klimatförändringarna förstärker betydelsen av förebyggande åtgärder och regelbundna kontroller för att förhindra innekli-matrelaterade skador. Vid långsiktiga insatser och investeringar, till exem-pel vid nyinstallation av uppvärmnings- eller avfuktningsanläggningar, bör kommande klimatförändringar beaktas vid dimensioneringen. Vidare borde Svenska kyrkan, i samverkan med andra nationella aktörer, överväga att införa ett program för långsiktiga uppföljningar av effekter på inneklimat och skador i kyrkor.

  • 36.
    Leissner, Johanna
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Kilian, Ralf
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Kotova, Lola
    Helmholtz Ctr Geesthacht, Climate Serv Ctr 20, D-20095 Hamburg, Germany..
    Jacob, Daniela
    Helmholtz Ctr Geesthacht, Climate Serv Ctr 20, D-20095 Hamburg, Germany..
    Mikolajewicz, Uwe
    Max Planck Inst Meteorol, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Ashley-Smith, Jonathan
    Schellen, Henk L.
    Tech Univ Eindhoven, NL-5612 AZ Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Martens, Marco
    Tech Univ Eindhoven, NL-5612 AZ Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    van Schijndel, Jos
    Tech Univ Eindhoven, NL-5612 AZ Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Antretter, Florian
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Winkler, Matthias
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Bertolin, Chiara
    CNR ISAC Padova, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Camuffo, Dario
    CNR ISAC Padova, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Simeunovic, Goran
    Czech Tech Univ, Prague 16636 6, Czech Republic..
    Vyhlidal, Tomas
    Czech Tech Univ, Prague 16636 6, Czech Republic..
    Climate for Culture: assessing the impact of climate change on the future indoor climate in historic buildings using simulations2015In: Heritage Science, E-ISSN 2050-7445, Vol. 3, 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The present study reports results from the large-scale integrated EU project "Climate for Culture". The full name, or title, of the project is Climate for Culture: damage risk assessment, economic impact and mitigation strategies for sustainable preservation of cultural heritage in times of climate change. This paper focusses on implementing high resolution regional climate models together with new building simulation tools in order to predict future outdoor and indoor climate conditions. The potential impact of gradual climate change on historic buildings and on the vast collections they contain has been assessed. Two moderate IPCC emission scenarios A1B and RCP 4.5 were used to predict indoor climates in historic buildings from the recent past until the year 2100. Risks to the building and to the interiors with valuable artifacts were assessed using damage functions. A set of generic building types based on data from existing buildings were used to transfer outdoor climate conditions to indoor conditions using high resolution climate projections for Europe and the Mediterranean. Results The high resolution climate change simulations have been performed with the regional climate model REMO over the whole of Europe including the Mediterranean region. Whole building simulation tools and a simplified building model were developed for historic buildings; they were forced with high resolution climate simulations. This has allowed maps of future climate-induced risks for historic buildings and their interiors to be produced. With this procedure future energy demands for building control can also be calculated. Conclusion With the newly developed method described here not only can outdoor risks for cultural heritage assets resulting from climate change be assessed, but also risks for indoor collections. This can be done for individual buildings as well as on a larger scale in the form of European risk maps. By using different standardized and exemplary artificial buildings in modelling climate change impact, a comparison between different regions in Europe has become possible for the first time. The methodology will serve heritage owners and managers as a decision tool, helping them to plan more effectively mitigation and adaption measures at various levels.

  • 37.
    Lindqvist, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Målkonflikter i kulturmiljövården: När Kulturmiljölagen utmanas - en fallstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the casestudy is to illustrate the problematic of conflict of goals between legislations in cultural heritage and other laws. Based on the Östigården case, and a few other cases where conflict of goals of different kinds has occurred, are the developement and the contents of a conflict of goals investigated, and the consequences that may follow are looked in to. Theoretical basis for analysis of the results has been inspired from The Halland model where the author of the thesis concludes that collaboration in negotiation - "The trading zone" - where the parties are attentive to what the opponent wants and adapt to it, to find a common focus, provides greater opportunity to get their interests met. The study is based on archive studies, case review, literature studies and an inspection of Östigården. E-mail interviews has been conducted with the Cultural Heritage unit and Nature and wildlife unit at the County Administrative Board of Gävleborg. Considerable cultural values have been lost in the Östigården case, due to problems with damages, caused by protected bats, being ignored for a long period of time. Cause of damages were not properly investigated at the time of discovery in the 1990s. No moves for collaboration with Nature and wildlife unit occurred until 2015 as a joint inspection were carried out. In May 2016 application was sent for exemption from Artskyddsförordningen (spieces protection law) to be able to shut the bats out from the building. The consequences for the building has been substantial, from a cultural heritage as well as an economic point of view, while the bats have not suffered any damage that is known of. The study indicates that collaboration across sectors at an early stage in the process is desirable and possibly even necessary. To achieve this and ensure important values, clarification in case management such as procedures with appropriate and significant checklists may be required.

  • 38.
    Luciani, Andrea
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Architecture and Urban Studies (DAStU), Italy.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    The influence of air exchange on the stability of the indoor climate in Skokloster castle2013In: e-Preservation Science, ISSN 1854-3928, E-ISSN 1581-9280, ISSN 1581-9280, Vol. 10, 77-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skokloster Castle is a historic masonry building without any active climate control and hosting an important and heterogeneous collection of artefacts. Despite being cited as a good passive preservation environment, conservators are observing decay in the collections related to the indoor climate that may call for a re-evaluation of the climate control strategy. Air exchange is generally considered one of the driving forces influencing the indoor climate in unheated historic buildings. This study was developed to better understand and evaluate its influence on the indoor climate stability of the castle. The present study has outlined an experimental procedure for the assessment of the influence of air exchange that can be used in historic buildings in general. Air exchange rate was measured in seven rooms using tracer gas passive sampling. The results were related to an analysis of the variability of indoor temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and mixing ratio (MR). A connection with short-term RH fluctuations, considered the most dangerous for hygroscopic materials, was identified. Problems connected with mould growth and high RH levels were also considered and discussed.

  • 39.
    Napp, Margus
    et al.
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Chair Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kalamees, Targo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Chair Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Adaptive ventilation for climate control in a medieval church in cold climate2016In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 15, no 1, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Old medieval churches hold objects of great historical and cultural value: organs, altars, paintings. But they have no systems for indoor climate control or the church may be heated only at services. These conditions are inadequate for the preservation of cultural heritage. The objective of this paper is to assess an adaptive ventilation (AV) solution in a church for reduction of the relative humidity (RH) in an unheated church to prevent mould growth and disintegration of wooden parts. The operation principle of the system is to ensure ventilation in the church when water vapour content in the outdoor air is lower than that indoors, to lower the RH in the church. A case study in Hangvar Church in Gotland, Sweden, was conducted to test the performance of AV to reduce the RH in the church. Field measurements showed that AV has a positive impact on the indoor RH of the church. During the measurement period without climate control, the RH in the church was higher than 70% of 98% of the time; with AV, the indoor RH was higher than 70% only 78% of the time. Building simulation was carried out to test the performance and energy consumption of AV under different conditions. The simulations showed that auxiliary heating and airflow rate both have high impact on the system performance. The higher the heating power, the more effective the system is; thus, lower airflow rates are needed. Infiltration has also high impact on the system performance: the lower the infiltration rate, the better the AV performance is.

  • 40.
    Nerman, Solveig
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Utställningspedagogik möter neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar: Nordiska museet under luppen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A goal in conservation is that cultural heritage should be for everyone and therefore should be experienced by everyone. With ramps, lifts, Braille exhibitions, sign language interpreted tours, tours for the visually impaired, etc., adaptions are made for people with physical disabilities. The purpose of this paper is to highlight how the Nordic Museum works to reach people with neuropsychiatric disorders along with the specific needs and disabilities which may need to be met by the museum. The case study will aim to highlight problems and opportunities in pedagogy of exhibitions focused on neuropsychiatric disorders. Moreover, it provides an indication of how the works with these issues at the museums are implemented, etc., which can create a greater awareness for the various professions in museums and conservations. This has been examined by the means of interviews, with the unions that advocate groups of neuropsychiatric disorders, and observations of selected exhibitions and shows, museum space, some audioguide-tours and part of the museum's website. In addition, other interviews are made with a museum educator with experience in the subject and a museum educator and head of the department of hosts and shops from the Nordic Museum. The materials which are used are mainly written public reports, as for example the Nordic museum Annual 2015. The museum caterers mostly focus on physical disability. They have also focused on reading disabilities and dementia, in addition to the physical functional limitations. The museum does its best and have a desire to improve themselves, which is shown at their website. The educational tools and approaches, etc. is well thought through, but the focus here is primarily on children and not adults. Something that may be because they have more impressions for children than for adults, if one example is taken. Some of the unions advocate “design for all” and more focus on a different view from the society, as well as personal attitudes to face persons with neuropsychiatric disabilities. They believe this will also affect the museum's education in general. Also, the use of different types of media and interactions in the exhibitions, as well as peace in the museum hall will make an impact in the pedagogy of the museum. The conclusions are that it probably always will be development potential in the pedagogy of the museum. The Nordic Museum has come a long way in the use of several media, but the design could in some cases be fine-tuned. Awareness of neuropsychiatric disorders could also be developed, both in society and in museums.

  • 41.
    Nordström, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    ”Ett vackert hem börjar med golvet”: Linoleummattan i Sverige under tidigt 1900- tal2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the uses, appearance and making of Linoleum in Sweden in the twentieth century with focus on Linoleum as a part of the modernistic movement. 


    Linoleum was invented by Fredrick Walton in the eighteen-sixties and had one hundred years of popularity until its decline in the nineteen-sixties. It is composed of oxidised linseed oil mixed with cork or wooden flour and pigment. Patterns are made in several different ways. The most common method was to make prints on linoleum. This way it was possible to achieve complicated and detailed patterns using many different colours, and to an affordable price. Many of the patterns of the early twentieth century were made to imitate more exclusive materials such as carpets and parquet wooden flooring. Tile and stone imitations were also common. A more durable pattern could be created by mixing different coloured granulats and produce a streaked pattern such as granite, marble or jaspé. Inlaid linoleum is the third version of making patterns. It is made my puzzling different coloured pieces together by hand or in a mold.

    Sweden has only had one linoleum factory. This is Forshaga Linoleum, a company that was established in 1891. There was a lot of collaborations between Forshaga Linoleum and the manufacturers in the rest of Europe, as the knowledge and the machines were all imported from already existing factories. In 1928 there was a business treaty between Forshaga linoleum and thirteen other factories in Europe, among them Deutsche linoleum werke (DLW). DLW exited the organisation at the start of World War II.

    There were also other similar resilient flooring materials invented during this period. During World War II there was a shortage of linseed oil and there were experiments with other binders. For the Swedish factory this resulted in a material known as forbolin, a material based on cellulose nitrate that was produced 1942-44. Another material produced was the felt base flooring, a flooring that only has a thin printed protective surface and is made as a cheap and less lasting alternative. Vinyl flooring also began being produced in the nineteen-forties, and eventually came to dominate the market.

    In the very beginning of the twentieth century linoleum was a very novel and exclusive material. In Swedish middle class homes it was often bought as a smaller carpet and given a prominent place under the dining room table. A few decades later this had changed and linoleum had become an ordinary flooring often used in kitchens and hallways where easy cleaning was essential. Modernism in Sweden brought big changes regarding how linoleum was viewed and how it was used in homes and public spaces. It was the perfect material for the new architecture, since it was practical, affordable and very versatile as it came in various colours and patterns. Forshaga Linoleum wanted to be closely associated with the modernism movement and this is visible in their marketing strategies. Due to Sweden’s strong economic growth there was big increase in housing construction with the intention to improve living standards for the population, and linoleum was widely used in the new architecture.


  • 42.
    Ribohn, Mio
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Fredsmuseer & Försvarsmuseer: Två perspektiv på fred och säkerhet inom kulturvården2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis explores wether peace- and conflict studies theories can be linked to peace and war museums. Previous research on these multidisciplinary subject areas merged together is deficient, a situation which could be an adverse impact on what the museums conveys to their visitors. If the peace and war museums aren’t consciously choosing either peace- and conflict studies theory to base their work on, they could inadvertency give their visitors an one-sided and skewed view of the world. The thesis analysis describes Fredens Hus  and Armémuseum from a peace- and conflict studies analysis tool set, designed to determine how they interpret and convey security. The two theoretical perspectives, the traditional perspective realism and the critical perspective feminism, is then used to analyse wether either museum actually conveys either two theories. In the conclusion of the thesis it is apparent that Fredens Hus conveys a perspective that coincides with feminism and that Armémuseum coincides with realism.

  • 43.
    Stengård, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Påverkare och Påverkade: En diskursanalys av relationen mellan Sida och Kulturarv utan Gränser utifrån deras arbete i Bosnien och Hercegovina 1996-20082017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines two things, first the relationship between the aid agency Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida) and the Swedish foundation Cultural Heritage without Borders (CHwB) by examine the discourses that occur in the communication between them. The second aim is to see what part the two organizations play in the construction of the cultural heritage during the reconstruction process after the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The material for the survey consisted of documents related to project applications such as applications them self’s, decisions and reports. To analyze my material, I use Ashworth and Tunbridge's model describing the process behind the construction of cultural heritage. To see the relationship between CHwB and Sida, I have used Norman Fairclough's critical discourse analysis to visualize the discourses CHwB and Sida operates within and how they are influenced by other discourses but also by the social practice. For more than 10 years, Sida is CHwB's main financier during the foundation's work with restoration of buildings, development of competence and institution building to re-build and strengthen the cultural heritage sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The starting point is that the relationship between Sida and CHwB was fundamentally uneven because the foundation was financially dependent on Sida. The result of the survey shows that, due to its financial advantage, Sida completely transformed CHwB during the reviewed time-period. From focusing on working for the conservation and protection of cultural heritage, the Foundation's focus is shifting towards focusing on working with cultural heritage as a resource for further social and economic development

  • 44.
    Strandberg, Paulien
    et al.
    Lund University, Faculty of Engineering, Division of Building Materials.
    Balksten, Kristin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Sustainable insulation of historical wooden and stone buildings with lime-hemp2017In: ICBBM 2017 Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Bio-Based Building Materials / [ed] Sofiane Amziane; Mohammed Sonebi; Karine Charlet, 2017, 651-655 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this multidisciplinary project lime-hemp is studied as a thermal insulating material for the renovation of historic timber and brick buildings*). Focus is on buildings in the historic city of Visby on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic sea. Many historic buildings in Visby have over the past decades been thermally insulated with materials such as mineral wools and polystyrene. Due to this, damage caused by moisture and microbial growth has increased. As a consequence, cultural and historical values have been damaged. Lime-hemp is a sustainable building material that consists of hemp shiv and building limes. It works differently than conventional insulating materials; in addition to good thermal insulation properties, it also has good thermal mass and moisture buffering capacity. This project will study the durability of the lime-hemp, especially microbial growth and moisture problems, and opportunities for renovation of historic buildings, while creating a good indoor climate and preserving historical values. Lab-studies as well as full-scale studies are conducted. The aim of the project is to sustainably improve energy efficiency while preserving historical values, without durability problems.*) The project started in September 2016 and results are not expected until earliest autumn 2017. The article will therefore give an outline of the project and some preliminary findings.

  • 45.
    Vyhlidal, Tomas
    et al.
    Department of Innstrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech republic.
    Zitek, Pavel
    Department of Innstrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech republic.
    Camuffo, Dario
    Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche - Istituto di Scienze dell' atmosfera e del Clima, Italy..
    Simeunovic, Goran
    Department of Innstrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech republic.
    Sladek, Otto
    Kybertec, Czech Republic.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Relative humidity control in historical buildings allowing the safe natural indoor-climate fluctuations2013In: EWCHP 2013 / [ed] Alexandra Troi, Elena Lucchi, Bozen / Bolzano: European Academy of Bozen / Bolzano (EURAC) , 2013, 77-84 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the paper, we present a method of relative humidity control in historical buildings based on the specifications of the European standard EN 15757. The approach follows the concept of acclimatization of the objects containing hygroscopic materials to the fluctuations of historical environment, which in general should not change substantially if the control is introduced. Only large fluctuations from the natural seasonal cycles of the indoor climate should be removed by the control system. Thus, the set point for the dehumidifier and humidifier are not constant, but follow the natural (seasonal) cycles of the interior microclimate. Next to the theoretical background, simulation experiments are provided and the application issues, including implementation on a programmable controller, are discussed.

  • 46.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    Nationalmuseet, Denmark.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Solar energy augmented adaptive ventilation in historic buildings2014In: NSB 2014 / [ed] Jesper Arfvidsson, Lars-Erik Harderup, Anders Kumlin, Bitte Rosencrantz, Lund, 2014, 648-655 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many historic buildings suffer from problems related to moisture and high relative humidity. Adaptive ventilation can be a low-energy and low impact solution to mitigate these problems. Previous studies have shown that adaptive ventilation can have a significant drying effect. However due to the covariance of temperature and absolute humidity in the outside air, the effect on relative humidity inside a buildings is limited in the short term. The present paper presents results from a medieval stone church where a novel integration of solar heating and adaptive ventilation has been implemented. Solar energy is collected in the day and stored. In the night, when the outside air generally is drier (in absolute terms), outside air is preheated using the energy stored in the daytime and added to the building.

    The results show that adaptive ventilation can be a low-cost and low-energy option as compared to conventional humidity control.The average relative humidity and mould risk has decreased significantly. Auxiliary measures, such as dehumidification, would be needed, mainly in the summer. The energy from the photovoltaic elements has mitigated the cooling effect of the outside air.

  • 47.
    Åkesson, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    "Samhällets minne": En mångfaldsinriktad analys av samlingar och aktörer vid Gotlands Museum2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares registered objects with what was outlined in the Gotland Museum's annual reports during four management periods during the 1900s. The primary goal has been to get an idea of whether the priorities concerning the collection and highlighted objects can be linked to the managers', the employees' or the board members' professional skills and areas of interest. Furthermore, the paper intends to decide whether these relationships are so profound that these people could be considered dominant operators. The survey consists of a compilation of registered objects during the selected survey periods, which is shown through statistics. The statistics are then compared with what was conveyed in the museum's annual reports during the same periods. Interpretations of the results based on articles and other archive materials have also been made in order to identify as many potential reasons for what the statistics convey as possible. The results show tendencies that some operators may have influenced the selection of what was collected and highlighted in the annual reports more than others, but more than one possible cause for each event exists. The results also lead to a discussion of how the collections can be managed going forward and proposals for how the management of the collections can be developed and expanded to reflect diversity are presented.

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