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  • 1.
    Backman, Samuel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Maharjan, Rajani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Falk Delgado, Alberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Crona, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Cupisti, Kenko
    Marien Hosp, Dept Surg, Euskirchen, Germany..
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Global DNA Methylation Analysis Identifies Two Discrete clusters of Pheochromocytoma with Distinct Genomic and Genetic Alterations2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 44943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare and frequently heritable neural-crest derived tumours arising from the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal chromaffin cells respectively. The majority of PPGL tumours are benign and do not recur with distant metastases. However, a sizeable fraction of these tumours secrete vasoactive catecholamines into the circulation causing a variety of symptoms including hypertension, palpitations and diaphoresis. The genetic landscape of PPGL has been well characterized and more than a dozen genes have been described as recurrently mutated. Recent studies of DNA-methylation have revealed distinct clusters of PPGL that share DNA methylation patterns and driver mutations, as well as identified potential biomarkers for malignancy. However, these findings have not been adequately validated in independent cohorts. In this study we use an array-based genome-wide approach to study the methylome of 39 PPGL and 4 normal adrenal medullae. We identified two distinct clusters of tumours characterized by different methylation patterns and different driver mutations. Moreover, we identify genes that are differentially methylated between tumour subcategories, and between tumours and normal tissue.

  • 2.
    Backman, Samuel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Skogseid, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Crona, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Detection of Somatic Mutations in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Using Targeted Deep Sequencing2017In: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, E-ISSN 1791-7530, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 705-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutations affecting the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) signalling pathway are frequent in human cancer and have been identified in up to 15% of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Grade A evidence supports the efficacy of MTOR inhibition with everolimus in pancreatic NETs. Although a significant proportion of patients experience disease stabilization, only a minority will show objective tumour responses. It has been proposed that genomic mutations resulting in activation of MTOR signalling could be used to predict sensitivity to everolimus.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with NETs that underwent treatment with everolimus at our Institution were identified and those with available tumour tissue were selected for further analysis. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to re-sequence 22 genes that were selected on the basis of documented involvement in the MTOR signalling pathway or in the tumourigenesis of gastroenterpancreatic NETs. Radiological responses were documented using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours.

    RESULTS: Six patients were identified, one had a partial response and four had stable disease. Sequencing of tumour tissue resulted in a median sequence depth of 667.1 (range=404-1301) with 1-fold coverage of 95.9-96.5% and 10-fold coverage of 87.6-92.2%. A total of 494 genetic variants were discovered, four of which were identified as pathogenic. All pathogenic variants were validated using Sanger sequencing and were found exclusively in menin 1 (MEN1) and death domain associated protein (DAXX) genes. No mutations in the MTOR pathway-related genes were observed.

    CONCLUSION: Targeted NGS is a feasible method with high diagnostic yield for genetic characterization of pancreatic NETs. A potential association between mutations in NETs and response to everolimus should be investigated by future studies.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Peyman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Pacak, K.
    NIH, Eunice Kennedy Shriver Natl Inst Child Hlth & Hum, Sect Med Neuroendocrinol Program Reprod & Adult E, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Crona, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Precision medicine in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current and future concepts2016In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 286, no 6, p. 559-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare diseases but are also amongst the most characterized tumour types. Hence, patients with PPGL have greatly benefited from precision medicine for more than two decades. According to current molecular biology and genetics-based taxonomy, PPGL can be divided into three different clusters characterized by: Krebs cycle reprogramming with oncometabolite accumulation or depletion (group 1a); activation of the (pseudo)hypoxia signalling pathway with increased tumour cell proliferation, invasiveness and migration (group 1b); and aberrant kinase signalling causing a pro-mitogenic and anti-apoptotic state (group 2). Categorization into these clusters is highly dependent on mutation subtypes. At least 12 different syndromes with distinct genetic causes, phenotypes and outcomes have been described. Genetic screening tests have a documented benefit, as different PPGL syndromes require specific approaches for optimal diagnosis and localization of various syndrome-related tumours. Genotype-tailored treatment options, follow-up and preventive care are being investigated. Future new developments in precision medicine for PPGL will mainly focus on further identification of driver mechanisms behind both disease initiation and malignant progression. Identification of novel druggable targets and prospective validation of treatment options are eagerly awaited. To achieve these goals, we predict that collaborative large-scale studies will be needed: Pheochromocytoma may provide an example for developing precision medicine in orphan diseases that could ultimately aid in similar efforts for other rare conditions.

  • 4. Cromer, M. Kyle
    et al.
    Starker, Lee F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Choi, Murim
    Udelsman, Robert
    Nelson-Williams, Carol
    Lifton, Richard P.
    Carling, Tobias
    Identification of Somatic Mutations in Parathyroid Tumors Using Whole-Exome Sequencing2012In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, no 9, p. E1774-E1781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The underlying molecular alterations causing sporadic parathyroid adenomas that drive primary hyperparathyroidism have not been thoroughly defined.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of somatic mutations driving tumor formation and progression in sporadic parathyroid adenoma using whole-exome sequencing.

    Design: Eight matched tumor-constitutional DNA pairs from patients with sporadic parathyroid adenomas underwent whole-exome capture and high-throughput sequencing. Selected genes were analyzed for mutations in an additional 185 parathyroid adenomas.

    Results: Four of eight tumors displayed a frame shift deletion or nonsense mutation in MEN1, which was accompanied by loss of heterozygosity of the remaining wild-type allele. No other mutated genes were shared among the eight tumors. One tumor harbored a Y641N mutation of the histone methyltransferase EZH2 gene, previously linked to myeloid and lymphoid malignancy formation. Targeted sequencing in the additional 185 parathyroid adenomas revealed a high rate of MEN1 mutations (35%). Furthermore, this targeted sequencing identified an additional parathyroid adenoma that contained the identical, somatic EZH2 mutation that was found by exome sequencing.

    Conclusion: This study confirms the frequent role of the loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 11 and MEN1 gene alterations in sporadic parathyroid adenomas and implicates a previously unassociated methyltransferase gene, EZH2, in endocrine tumorigenesis.

  • 5.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Backman, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Kugelberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Maharjan, Rajani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Multiregion Analysis Reveal Evolutionary Patterns and a Chromosomal Instability Signature in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Backman, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Maharjan, Rajani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Mayrhofer, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity Characterizes the Genetic Landscape of Pheochromocytoma and Defines Early Events in Tumorigenesis.2015In: Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN 1078-0432, E-ISSN 1557-3265, Vol. 21, no 19, p. 4451-4460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) patients display heterogeneity in the clinical presentation and underlying genetic cause. The degree of inter- and intratumor genetic heterogeneity has not yet been defined.

    EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In PPGLs from 94 patients, we analyzed LOH, copy-number variations, and mutation status of SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, NF1, RET, TMEM127, MAX, and HRAS using high-density SNP array and targeted deep sequencing, respectively. Genetic heterogeneity was determined through (i) bioinformatics analysis of individual samples that estimated absolute purity and ploidy from SNP array data and (ii) comparison of paired tumor samples that allowed reconstruction of phylogenetic trees.

    RESULTS: Mutations were found in 61% of the tumors and correlated with specific patterns of somatic copy-number aberrations (SCNA) and degree of nontumoral cell admixture. Intratumor genetic heterogeneity was observed in 74 of 136 samples using absolute bioinformatics estimations and in 22 of 24 patients by comparison of paired samples. In addition, a low genetic concordance was observed between paired primary tumors and distant metastases. This allowed for reconstructing the life history of individual tumors, identifying somatic mutations as well as copy-number loss of 3p and 11p (VHL subgroup), 1p (Cluster 2), and 17q (NF1 subgroup) as early events in PPGL tumorigenesis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Genomic landscapes of PPGL are specific to mutation subtype and characterized by genetic heterogeneity both within and between tumor lesions of the same patient.

  • 7.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Welin, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Kozlovacki, Gordana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Öberg, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Treatment, prognostic markers and survival in thymic neuroendocrine tumours: A study from a single tertiary referral centre2013In: Lung Cancer, ISSN 0169-5002, E-ISSN 1872-8332, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 289-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thymic neuroendocrine tumours (TNETs) are uncommon but malignant neoplasms, usually associated with a poor prognosis. The number of cases reported is limited to a few hundreds and there are few prognostic factors available. All 28 patients (22 male, 6 female; median age 46.5 years) with thymic neuroendocrine tumour, treated at the Department of Endocrine Oncology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden between 1985 and 2011 were studied. The overall 3, 5 and 10-year survival was 89%, 79% and 41% respectively. Ki67<10% (p=0.018) as well as surgical resection (p=0.001) and macroscopically radical primary surgery (p=0.034) was associated with increased survival. Staging & grading according to Masaoka and ENETS systems did not correlate with survival. However, a modified ENETS grading showed a positive correlation (p=0.015). Median time to progression was 20.5 months with Temozolomide and 18 months with platinum based therapy. Partial responses were noted in three patients (38%) treated with platinum based therapy and in two patients (20%) treated with Temozolomide based therapy. High proliferative rate, measured by Ki67 index, and absence of macroscopically radical primary resection as well as no surgical resection are three negative prognostic factors in patients with TNETs. Temozolomide or Platinum based chemotherapy should be considered as first-line medical therapy in patients with metastatic or non-resectable tumours.

  • 8.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Welin, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Secondary Hormonal Syndromes in Patients with Sporadic Neuroendocrine Tumors2014In: Neuroendocrinology, ISSN 0028-3835, E-ISSN 1423-0194, Vol. 99, no 3-4, p. 240-240Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Fanola, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Lindholm, Daniel P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Antonodimitrakis, Pantelis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Öberg, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Effect of Temozolomide in Patients with Metastatic Bronchial Carcinoids2013In: Neuroendocrinology, ISSN 0028-3835, E-ISSN 1423-0194, Vol. 98, no 2, p. 151-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Metastatic bronchial carcinoids are rare neoplasms, where efforts of medical treatment so far have been disappointing. A previous study from our center indicated that temozolomide might be of value. Materials and Methods: All patients with progressive metastatic bronchial carcinoid treated with tennozolomide as monotherapy at our center between 2004 and 2010 (n = 31) were included in this retrospective study. 14 tumors were classified as typical and 15 as atypical carcinoids, whereas 2 tumors could not be classified. Temozolomide was given on 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks. Toxicity was evaluable in 28 of 31 patients, and 22 patients were evaluable by RECIST 1.1. Results: There were no complete responses. A partial response was seen in 3 patients (14%), stable disease in 11(52%) and progressive disease in 7 patients (33%). Median progression-free survival was 5.3 months and median overall survival was 23.2 months from the start of temozolomide. Toxcities grade 3-4 were noted in 4 patients, thrombocytopenia (n =3) and leukopenia (n = 1). Conclusion: Temozolomide as monotherapy shows activity in metastatic bronchial carcinoids. Regimens combining tennozolomide with other agents (e.g. capecitabine and/or bevacizumab, everolimus, radiolabeled somatostatin analogues) should be further studied in these patients. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 10.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Metastases from Neuroendocrine Tumors to the Breast Are More Common than Previously Thought. A Diagnostic Pitfall?2013In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1701-1706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metastases from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to the breast have been described as a rare phenomenon. Presentation, imaging results, and cytopathologic findings of these tumours may closely mimic those of a mammary carcinoma. This study was a retrospective review of 661 patients with metastatic NETs, of whom 280 were females, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. Patients with pathological breast lesions were identified. Histopathological slides from available NET breast lesions were analyzed for mammary carcinoma and neuroendocrine markers. We have identified 20 female patients with NET metastases to the breast, 11/235 with small intestinal NETs, 8/55 with lung NETs, and 1/6 with thymic NETs. There were no male patients with NET metastatic to the breast. Four patients had their breast lesion initially diagnosed as mammary carcinoma. Retrospectively, these lesions showed negative staining for mammary carcinoma markers. Metastases to the breast from neuroendocrine tumors may be more common than previously thought. Patients with a lesion to the breast and symptoms typical for NET may benefit from additional histopathological investigation, because NET metastases and mammary carcinoma have different immunohistochemical profiles.

  • 11.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Gustavsson, Tobias
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Edfeldt, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Åkerström, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Somatic Mutations and Genetic Heterogeneity at the CDKN1B Locus in Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors.2015In: Annals of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 1068-9265, E-ISSN 1534-4681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Until recently, the genetic landscape of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) was limited to recurrent copy number alterations, most commonly a loss on chromosome 18. Intertumor heterogeneity with nonconcordant genotype in paired primary and metastatic lesions also is described, further contributing to the difficulty of unraveling the genetic enigma of SI-NETs. A recent study analyzing 55 SI-NET exomes nominated CDKN1B (p27) as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene.

    METHODS: This study aimed to determine the frequency of CDKN1B inactivation and to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations. It investigated 362 tumors from 200 patients. All samples were resequenced for mutations in CDKN1B using automated Sanger sequencing. The expression of p27 was investigated in 12 CDKN1B mutant and nine wild type tumors.

    RESULTS: Some 8.5 % (17/200) of patients had tumors with pathogenic mutations in CDKN1B including 13 insertion deletions, four nonsense variants, and one stop-loss variant. All variants with available nontumoral DNA were classified as somatic. Inter- and intratumor heterogeneity at the CDKN1B locus was detected respectively in six of ten and two of ten patients. Patients with CDKN1B mutated tumors had both heterogeneous disease presentation and diverse prognosis. Expression of the p27 protein did not correlate with CDKN1B mutation status, and no differences in the clinical characteristics between CDKN1B mutated and CDKN1B wild type tumor carriers were found.

    CONCLUSION: This study corroborates the finding of CDKN1B as a potential haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor gene characterized by inter- and intratumor heterogeneity in SI-NETs.

  • 12.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Ljungström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Welin, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Walz, Martin K.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Bioinformatic Challenges in Clinical Diagnostic Application of Targeted Next Generation Sequencing: Experience from Pheochromocytoma2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0133210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated equal quality of targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) compared to Sanger Sequencing. Whereas these novel sequencing processes have a validated robust performance, choice of enrichment method and different available bioinformatic software as reliable analysis tool needs to be further investigated in a diagnostic setting. Methods DNA from 21 patients with genetic variants in SDHB, VHL, EPAS1, RET, (n=17) or clinical criteria of NF1 syndrome (n=4) were included. Targeted NGS was performed using Truseq custom amplicon enrichment sequenced on an Illumina MiSEQ instrument. Results were analysed in parallel using three different bioinformatics pipelines; (1) Commercially available MiSEQ Reporter, fully automatized and integrated software, (2) CLC Genomics Workbench, graphical interface based software, also commercially available, and ICP (3) an in-house scripted custom bioinformatic tool. Results A tenfold read coverage was achieved in between 95-98% of targeted bases. All workflows had alignment of reads to SDHA and NF1 pseudogenes. Compared to Sanger sequencing, variant calling revealed a sensitivity ranging from 83 to 100% and a specificity of 99.9-100%. Only MiSEQ reporter identified all pathogenic variants in both sequencing runs. Conclusions We conclude that targeted next generation sequencing have equal quality compared to Sanger sequencing. Enrichment specificity and the bioinformatic performance need to be carefully assessed in a diagnostic setting. As acceptable accuracy was noted for a fully automated bioinformatic workflow, we suggest that processing of NGS data could be performed without expert bioinformatics skills utilizing already existing commercially available bioinformatics tools.

  • 13.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Maharjan, Rajani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Delgado Verdugo, Alberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    MAX mutations status in Swedish patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumours2014In: Familial Cancer, ISSN 1389-9600, E-ISSN 1573-7292, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 121-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and Paraganglioma are rare tumours originating from neuroendocrine cells. Up to 60 % of cases have either germline or somatic mutation in one of eleven described susceptibility loci, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, RET, NF1, TMEM127 and MYC associated factor-X (MAX). Recently, germline mutations in MAX were found to confer susceptibility to PCC and paraganglioma (PGL). A subsequent multicentre study found about 1 % of PCCs and PGLs to have germline or somatic mutations in MAX. However, there has been no study investigating the frequency of MAX mutations in a Scandinavian cohort. We analysed tumour specimens from 63 patients with PCC and PGL treated at Uppsala University hospital, Sweden, for re-sequencing of MAX using automated Sanger sequencing. Our results show that 0 % (0/63) of tumours had mutations in MAX. Allele frequencies of known single nucleotide polymorphisms rs4902359, rs45440292, rs1957948 and rs1957949 corresponded to those available in the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database. We conclude that MAX mutations remain unusual events and targeted genetic screening should be considered after more common genetic events have been excluded.

  • 14.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Nordling, Margareta
    Maharjan, Rajani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Integrative Genetic Characterization and Phenotype Correlations in Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Tumours2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1, p. e86756-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: About 60% of Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and Paraganglioma (PGL) patients have either germline or somatic mutations in one of the 12 proposed disease causing genes; SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, RET, NF1, TMEM127, MAX and H-RAS. Selective screening for germline mutations is routinely performed in clinical management of these diseases. Testing for somatic alterations is not performed on a regular basis because of limitations in interpreting the results. Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate genetic events and phenotype correlations in a large cohort of PCC and PGL tumours. Methods: A total of 101 tumours from 89 patients with PCC and PGL were re-sequenced for a panel of 10 disease causing genes using automated Sanger sequencing. Selected samples were analysed with Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and/or SNParray. Results: Pathogenic genetic variants were found in tumours from 33 individual patients (37%), 14 (16%) were discovered in constitutional DNA and 16 (18%) were confirmed as somatic. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was observed in 1/1 SDHB, 11/11 VHL and 3/3 NF1-associated tumours. In patients with somatic mutations there were no recurrences in contrast to carriers of germline mutations (P = 0.022). SDHx/VHL/ EPAS1 associated cases had higher norepinephrine output (P = 0.03) and lower epinephrine output (P<0.001) compared to RET/NF1/H-RAS cases. Conclusion: Somatic mutations are frequent events in PCC and PGL tumours. Tumour genotype may be further investigated as prognostic factors in these diseases. Growing evidence suggest that analysis of tumour DNA could have an impact on the management of these patients.

  • 15.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Antonodimitrakis, Pantelis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Welin, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine oncology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine oncology.
    Multiple and Secondary Hormone Secretion in Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours2016In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 445-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT:

    As a group, neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) secrete many different peptide hormones, yet heretofore each NET patient is typically thought to produce at most one hormone that causes a distinct hormonal syndrome. A minority of patients have multiple hormones at diagnosis and may also develop secondary hormone secretion at a later stage.

    OBJECTIVES:

    The objectives of the study were to determine the frequency and to describe the impact of multiple and secondary hormone secretion in sporadic gasteroenteropancreatic NET patients.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

    This was a retrospective analysis of patients (n = 972) with gasteroenteropancreatic NET treated at Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. Patients with the secretion of multiple hormones at diagnosis and/or those developing secondary hormone secretion during the disease course were identified and studied in further detail.

    RESULTS:

    In pancreatic NETs (PNETs), a total of 19 of 323 patients (6%) had secretion of multiple hormones at diagnosis, and 14 of 323 (4%) had secondary changes during the disease course. These phenomena occurred exclusively in patients with an advanced disease stage, and secondary hormones were detected in a close time span with progressive disease. Patients with secondary insulin hypersecretion had increased morbidity as well as reduced survival (P < .002). In contrast, multiple and secondary hormone secretion was rarely seen in NETs of the small intestine with 0 and 1 of 603 cases, respectively.

    CONCLUSION:

    Diversity of PNET hormone secretion either at diagnosis or during the disease course occurred in a minority of patients (9.3%). These phenomena had a major impact on patient outcome both through increased morbidity and mortality. Our results support that patients with metastatic PNETs should be monitored for clinical symptoms of secondary hormone secretion during the disease course.

  • 16.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Welin, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Targeted Next Generation Sequencing in the Screening for Familial Neuroendocrine Tumor Syndromes: A Tool for Personalized Medicine2014In: Neuroendocrinology, ISSN 0028-3835, E-ISSN 1423-0194, Vol. 99, no 3-4, p. 253-253Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Verdugo, Alberto Delgado
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Welin, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Next-generation sequencing in the clinical genetic screening of patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma2013In: Endocrine connections, ISSN 2049-3614, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Recent findings have shown that up to 60% of pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are caused by germline or somatic mutations in one of the 11 hitherto known susceptibility genes: SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, HIF2A (EPAS1), RET, NF1, TMEM127 and MAX. This list of genes is constantly growing and the 11 genes together consist of 144 exons. A genetic screening test is extensively time consuming and expensive. Hence, we introduce next-generation sequencing (NGS) as a time-efficient and cost-effective alternative.

    METHODS:

    Tumour lesions from three patients with apparently sporadic PCC were subjected to whole exome sequencing utilizing Agilent Sureselect target enrichment system and Illumina Hi seq platform. Bioinformatics analysis was performed in-house using commercially available software. Variants in PCC and PGL susceptibility genes were identified.

    RESULTS:

    We have identified 16 unique genetic variants in PCC susceptibility loci in three different PCC, spending less than a 30-min hands-on, in-house time. Two patients had one unique variant each that was classified as probably and possibly pathogenic: NF1 Arg304Ter and RET Tyr791Phe. The RET variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    NGS can serve as a fast and cost-effective method in the clinical genetic screening of PCC. The bioinformatics analysis may be performed without expert skills. We identified process optimization, characterization of unknown variants and determination of additive effects of multiple variants as key issues to be addressed by future studies.

  • 18.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Verdugo, Alberto Delgado
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Maharjan, Rajani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Stalberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Somatic Mutations in H-RAS in Sporadic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Identified by Exome Sequencing2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 7, p. E1266-E1271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Up to 60% of pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are associated with either somatic or germline mutations in established PCC and PGL susceptibility loci. Most unexplained cases are characterized by an increased activity of the RAS/RAF/ERK signaling pathway. Mutations in RAS subtypes H, K, and N are common in human cancers; however, previous studies have been inconsistent regarding the mutational status of RAS in PCC and PGL. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify novel disease causing genes in PCC and PGL tumors. Design, setting, and participants: Four benign and sporadic PCC and PGL tumors were subjected to whole exome sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq Platform. Sequences were processed by CLC genomics 4.9 bioinformatics software and the acquired list of genetic variants was filtered against the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer database. Findings were validated in an additional 78 PCC and PGL tumor lesions. Results: Exome sequencing identified 2 cases with somatic mutations in the H-RAS. In total, 6.9% (n = 4/58) of tumors negative for mutations in major PCC and PGL loci had mutations in H-RAS: G13R, Q61K, and Q61R. There were 3 PCC and 1 PGL; all had sporadic presentation with benign tumor characteristics and substantial increases in norepinephrine and/or epinephrine. H-RAS tumors were exclusively found in male patients (P = .007). Conclusions: We identified recurrent somatic H-RAS mutations in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Tumors with H-RAS mutations had activation of the RAS/RAF/ERK signaling pathway and were associated with male PCC patients having benign and sporadic disease characteristics. H-RAS could serve as a prognostic and predictive marker as well as a novel therapeutic target.

  • 19.
    Dumanski, Jan P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Rasi, Chiara
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Davies, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Ali, Abir S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine oncology.
    Grönberg, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine oncology.
    Welin, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine oncology.
    Sorbye, Halfdan
    Grønbæk, Henning
    Cunningham, Janet L
    Forsberg, Lars A.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Tiensuu Janson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    A MUTYH germline mutation is associated with small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors2017In: Endocrine-Related Cancer, ISSN 1351-0088, E-ISSN 1479-6821, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 427-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genetics behind predisposition to small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) is largely unknown, but there is growing awareness of a familial form of the disease. We aimed to identify germline mutations involved in the carcinogenesis of SI-NETs. The strategy included next-generation sequencing of exome- and/or whole-genome of blood DNA, and in selected cases, tumor DNA, from 24 patients from 15 families with the history of SI-NETs. We identified seven candidate mutations in six genes that were further studied using 215 sporadic SI-NET patients. The result was compared with the frequency of the candidate mutations in three control cohorts with a total of 35,688 subjects. A heterozygous variant causing an amino acid substitution p.(Gly396Asp) in the MutY DNA glycosylase gene (MUTYH) was significantly enriched in SI-NET patients (minor allele frequencies 0.013 and 0.003 for patients and controls respectively) and resulted in odds ratio of 5.09 (95% confidence interval 1.56-14.74; P value = 0.0038). We also found a statistically significant difference in age at diagnosis between familial and sporadic SI-NETs. MUTYH is involved in the protection of DNA from mutations caused by oxidative stress. The inactivation of this gene leads to specific increase of G:C- > T:A transversions in DNA sequence and has been shown to cause various cancers in humans and experimental animals. Our results suggest that p.(Gly396Asp) in MUTYH, and potentially other mutations in additional members of the same DNA excision-repair pathway (such as the OGG1 gene) might be involved in driving the tumorigenesis leading to familial and sporadic SI-NETs.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Juhlin, Christofer
    Backman, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Edfeldt, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Garmo, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    TFF3 in primary tumours has a negative impact on survival in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumoursIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Fonseca, Annabelle L.
    et al.
    Kugelberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Starker, Lee F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Scholl, Ute
    Choi, Murim
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Lifton, Richard P.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Carling, Tobias
    Comprehensive DNA methylation analysis of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors2012In: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, ISSN 1045-2257, E-ISSN 1098-2264, Vol. 51, no 10, p. 949-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular pathogenesis of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (ACT) is incompletely clarified. The role of DNA methylation in adrenocortical tumorigenesis has not been analyzed in an unbiased, systematic fashion. Using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, the DNA methylation levels of 27,578 CpG sites were investigated in bisulfite-modified DNA from 6 normal adrenocortical tissue samples, 27 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), and 15 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC). Genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and transcriptional regulation of known or putative importance in the development of adrenal tumors showed significant and frequent hypermethylation. Such genes included CDKN2A, GATA4, BCL2, DLEC1, HDAC10, PYCARD, and SCGB3A1/HIN1. Comparing benign versus malignant ACT, a total of 212 CpG islands were identified as significantly hypermethylated in ACC. Gene expression studies of selected hypermethylated genes (CDKN2A, GATA4, DLEC1, HDAC10, PYCARD, SCGB3A1/HIN1) in 6 normal and 16 neoplastic adrenocortical tissues (10 ACA and 6 ACC), displayed reduced gene expression in benign and malignant ACT versus normal adrenocortical tissue. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine of adrenocortical cancer H-295R cells increased expression of the hypermethylated genes CDKN2A, GATA4, DLEC1, HDAC10, PYCARD, and SCGB3A1/HIN1. In conclusion, the current study represents the first unbiased, quantitative, genome-wide study of adrenocortical tumor DNA methylation. Genes with altered DNA methylation patterns were identified of putative importance to benign and malignant adrenocortical tumor development. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 22. Goh, Gerald
    et al.
    Scholl, Ute
    Healy, James
    Choi, Murim
    Prasad, Manju L
    Nelson-Williams, Carol
    Kuntsman, John W
    Korah, Reju
    Suttorp, Anna-Carinna
    Dietrich, Dimo
    Haase, Mathias
    Willenberg, Holger S
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Carling, Tobias
    Lifton, Richard P
    Recurrent activating mutation in PRKACA in cortisol-producing adrenal tumors2014In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 613-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adrenal tumors autonomously producing cortisol cause Cushing's syndrome1, 2, 3, 4. We performed exome sequencing of 25 tumor-normal pairs and identified 2 subgroups. Eight tumors (including three carcinomas) had many somatic copy number variants (CNVs) with frequent deletion of CDC42 and CDKN2A, amplification of 5q31.2 and protein-altering mutations in TP53 and RB1. Seventeen tumors (all adenomas) had no somatic CNVs or TP53 or RB1 mutations. Six of these had known gain-of-function mutations in CTNNB1 (β-catenin)5, 6 or GNAS (Gαs)7, 8. Six others had somatic mutations in PRKACA (protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit) resulting in a p.Leu206Arg substitution. Further sequencing identified this mutation in 13 of 63 tumors (35% of adenomas with overt Cushing's syndrome). PRKACA, GNAS and CTNNB1 mutations were mutually exclusive. Leu206 directly interacts with the regulatory subunit of PKA, PRKAR1A9, 10. Leu206Arg PRKACA loses PRKAR1A binding, increasing the phosphorylation of downstream targets. PKA activity induces cortisol production and cell proliferation11, 12, 13, 14, 15, providing a mechanism for tumor development. These findings define distinct mechanisms underlying adrenal cortisol-producing tumors.

  • 23.
    Hellman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Åkerström, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Molecular derangements in primary aldosteronism2014In: Primary Aldosteronism: Molecular Genetics, Endocrinology, and Translational Medicine, New York: Springer, 2014, p. 45-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lejonklou, Margareta Halin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Botling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Bisphenol A increases cortisol production by enhancing phosphorylation of CREB in normal human adrenocortical cells2014In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 229, p. S243-S243Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Lejonklou, Margareta Halin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Botling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Induction of LINE-1 promoter hypomethylation, a hallmark of tumorigenesis, in normal human adrenocortical cells by Bisphenol A2014In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 229, p. S149-S149Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Maharjan, Rajani
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Backman, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Åkerström, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Comprehensive analysis of CTNNB1 in adrenocortical carcinomas: Identification of novel mutations and correlation to survival2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 8610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway is one of the most frequently altered pathways in adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the status of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway by analyzing the expression level of β-Catenin and the mutational status of APC, AXIN2, CTNNB1, and ZNRF3 in ACCs. Mutations in APC, CTNNB1, ZNRF3 and homozygous deletions in ZNRF3 were observed in 3.8% (2/52), 11.5% (6/52), 1.9% (1/52) and 17.3% (9/52) of the cohort respectively. Novel interstitial deletions in CTNNB1 spanning intron 1 to exon 3/intron 3 were also found in 7.7% (4/52) of the tumours. All the observed alterations were mutually exclusive. Nuclear accumulation of β-Catenin, increased expression of Cyclin D1 and significantly higher expression of AXIN2 (p = 0.0039), ZNRF3 (p = 0.0032) and LEF1(p = 0.0090) observed in the tumours harbouring the deletion in comparison to tumours without CTNNB1 mutation demonstrates that the truncated β-Catenin is functionally active and erroneously activates the downstream targets. Significantly lower overall survival rate in patients with tumours harbouring alterations in APC/CTNNB1/ZNRF3 in comparison to those without mutation was observed. In conclusion, the discovery of novel large deletions in addition to the point mutations in CTNNB1 infers that activation of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway via alterations in CTNNB1 occurs frequently in ACCs. We also confirm that alterations in Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway members have a negative effect on overall survival of patients.

  • 27. Malenczyk, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Keimpema, Erik
    Piscitelli, Fabiana
    Calvigioni, Daniela
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Mackie, Kenneth
    Di Marzo, Vincenzo
    Hökfelt, Tomas G M
    Dobrzyn, Agnieszka
    Harkany, Tibor
    Fetal endocannabinoids orchestrate the organization of pancreatic islet microarchitecture2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 45, p. E6185-E6194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocannabinoids are implicated in the control of glucose utilization and energy homeostasis by orchestrating pancreatic hormone release. Moreover, in some cell niches, endocannabinoids regulate cell proliferation, fate determination, and migration. Nevertheless, endocannabinoid contributions to the development of the endocrine pancreas remain unknown. Here, we show that α cells produce the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in mouse fetuses and human pancreatic islets, which primes the recruitment of β cells by CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) engagement. Using subtractive pharmacology, we extend these findings to anandamide, a promiscuous endocannabinoid/endovanilloid ligand, which impacts both the determination of islet size by cell proliferation and α/β cell sorting by differential activation of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and CB1Rs. Accordingly, genetic disruption of TRPV1 channels increases islet size whereas CB1R knockout augments cellular heterogeneity and favors insulin over glucagon release. Dietary enrichment in ω-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation in mice, which permanently reduces endocannabinoid levels in the offspring, phenocopies CB1R(-/-) islet microstructure and improves coordinated hormone secretion. Overall, our data mechanistically link endocannabinoids to cell proliferation and sorting during pancreatic islet formation, as well as to life-long programming of hormonal determinants of glucose homeostasis.

  • 28.
    Norlén, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Edfeldt, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Peritoneal carcinomatosis from small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors: Clinical course and genetic profiling2014In: Surgery, ISSN 0039-6060, E-ISSN 1532-7361, Vol. 156, no 6, p. 1512-1522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. One-fifth of all patients with small-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) present with or develop peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Our aim was to determine the prognosis and genetic profiles of tumors in patients with PC compared with tumors in patients without PC. Methods. We included SI-NET patients (cases with PC, n = 73, and controls without PC, n = 468) who underwent operation between 1985 and 2012. The Lyon prognostic index was used to correlate the amount of PC to survival. DNA samples from patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 7) PC were analyzed with a single-nucleotide polymorphism array (HumanOmni2.5 BeadChip, Illumina) to investigate genetic disparities between groups. Results. Patients with PC had poorer survival (median 5.1 years) than controls (11.1 years). An advanced postoperative Lyon prognostic index was a negative prognostic marker for survival by multivariable analysis (P = .042). Patients with and without PC clustered differently based on loss of heterozygosity and copy number variation data from single-nucleotide polymorphism array of the primary tumors (P = .042). Conclusion. SI-NET patients with PC have poor survival, which diminishes with increasing PC load after surgery. Clustering based on copy number variation and loss of heterozygosity data suggests different genotypes in primary tumors comparing patients with and without PC.

  • 29.
    Smith-Anttila, Casey J. A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Genetics. Univ Newcastle, John Hunter Childrens Hosp, Dept Paediat Endocrinol & Diabet, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.;Univ Newcastle, Fac Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Dept Anat & Neurosci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Bensing, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Autoimmunity. Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alimohammadi, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
    Dalin, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Oscarson, Mikael
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zhang, Ming-Dong
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Mol Neurobiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Perheentupa, Jaakko
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Hosp Children & Adolescents, Helsinki, Finland..
    Husebye, Eystein S.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Med, Bergen, Norway..
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Endocrinology. U.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Fransson, Anette
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Meloni, Antonella
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Biomed Biotechnol Sci, Cagliari, Italy..
    Scott, Rodney J.
    Univ Newcastle, Informat Based Med, Hunter Med Res Inst, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.;Univ Newcastle, Sch Biomed Sci, Fac Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.;Hunter Area Pathol Serv, Div Mol Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia..
    Hokfelt, Tomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Crock, Patricia A.
    Univ Newcastle, John Hunter Childrens Hosp, Dept Paediat Endocrinol & Diabet, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.;Univ Newcastle, Fac Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia..
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Autoimmunity. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Hunter Area Pathol Serv, Div Mol Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia..
    Identification of endothelin-converting enzyme-2 as an autoantigen in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 12017In: Autoimmunity, ISSN 0891-6934, E-ISSN 1607-842X, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare monogenic autoimmune disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. High titer autoantibodies are a characteristic feature of APS1 and are often associated with particular disease manifestations. Pituitary deficits are reported in up to 7% of all APS1 patients, with immunoreactivity to pituitary tissue frequently reported. We aimed to isolate and identify specific pituitary autoantigens in patients with APS1. Immunoscreening of a pituitary cDNA expression library identified endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-2 as a potential candidate autoantigen. Immunoreactivity against ECE-2 was detected in 46% APS1 patient sera, with no immunoreactivity detectable in patients with other autoimmune disorders or healthy controls. Quantitative-PCR showed ECE-2 mRNA to be most abundantly expressed in the pancreas with high levels also in the pituitary and brain. In the pancreas ECE-2 was co-expressed with insulin or somatostatin, but not glucagon and was widely expressed in GH producing cells in the guinea pig pituitary. The correlation between immunoreactivity against ECE-2 and the major recognized clinical phenotypes of APS1 including hypopituitarism was not apparent. Our results identify ECE-2 as a specific autoantigen in APS1 with a restricted neuroendocrine distribution.

  • 30.
    Staaf, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Åkerström, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Ljungström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Skogseid, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Bergsten, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Hög tid att söka till nya MD/PhD-programmet vid Uppsala universitet: Tidig bro mellan preklinisk forskning och klinik2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 17-18, p. 898-898Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Stalberg, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Crona, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Razmara, Masoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Taslica, Diana Lizuca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Skogseid, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Integrative Genetic Analysis On Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Archived Ovarian Serous Carcinoma Shows A Correlation Between Genomic Instability And Long-Term Survival2015In: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, ISSN 1048-891X, E-ISSN 1525-1438, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 641-642Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Starker, Lee F
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery. Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA .
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Theoharis, Constantine
    Long, William D
    Carling, Tobias
    Udelsman, Robert
    Clinical and histopathological characteristics of hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis2011In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 331-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The clinical and pathological characteristics of hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis (HIHC) are incompletely described. The present study was designed to elucidate the nature and effects of HIHC in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy in our unit.

    METHODS:

    A prospective database of 1,754 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) who underwent parathyroidectomy from 1991-2009 identified 67 (41 women) patients presenting with HIHC. Hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis was defined as symptoms and signs of acute calcium intoxication with a concomitant total albumin corrected calcium level>13.5 mg/dl (range: 8.8-10.2 mg/dl). Clinical and pathological characteristics were evaluated. Data are expressed as mean±SEM.

    RESULTS:

    Mean age at presentation was 56.7±2.2 years. Twenty-four of 67 patients (35%) required preoperative in-hospital management. Of these, all were treated with saline resuscitation, whereas 20/24 (83%) were treated pharmacologically. Neurocognitive derangements and nephrolithiasis with associated hematuria were the most common presenting symptoms and signs. Preoperative serum calcium and the intact parathyroid hormone level (PTH) were 14.0±0.19 mg/dl and 393±43 pg/ml (reference range: 12-65 pg/ml), respectively. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy under local cervical block was performed in 28/67 patients (42%); the remainder underwent standard cervical exploration. All patients had postoperative normalization of serum calcium and intact PTH. Hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis was due to parathyroid carcinoma in 3/67 patients (4.5%), whereas the remainder of patients displayed a single parathyroid adenoma (n=57) or multiglandular hyperplasia (n=7). Histopathological evaluation from HIHC patients revealed a chief cell microcystic pattern in 15/21 (71.4%) of examined parathyroid tumors.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis is most commonly due to a single parathyroid adenoma, often associated with a microcystic histopathological pattern. The condition is optimally managed with saline hydration and urgent parathyroidectomy.

  • 33.
    Starker, Lee F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Delgado-Verdugo, Alberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Udelsman, Robert
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Carling, Tobias
    Expression and somatic mutations of SDHAF2 (SDH5), a novel endocrine tumor suppressor gene in parathyroid tumors of primary hyperparathyroidism2010In: Endocrine, ISSN 0969-711X, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 397-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the SDHAF2 gene and its effect on primary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid tumors causing primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) are one of the more common endocrine neoplasias. Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 11q13 is the most common chromosomal aberration in parathyroid tumors occurring in about 40% of sporadic tumors. Only 15-19% display somatic mutations in the MEN1 gene, which suggest that this chromosomal region may harbor additional genes of importance in parathyroid tumor development. The SDHAF2 (formerly SDH5) gene is a recently identified neuroendocrine tumor suppressor gene at this locus, and inherited mutations of the SDHAF2 gene has been linked to familial paraganglioma. We demonstrate that the SDHAF2 gene is expressed in parathyroid tissue using RT-PCR. Because detection of inactivating mutations is the major criterion for validating a candidate tumor suppressor, we used automated sequencing of the coding region and intron/exon boundaries in 80 sporadic parathyroid adenomas from patients with pHPT. A known polymorphisms (A to G substitution; rs879647) was identified in 9/80 parathyroid tumors but no tumor-specific somatic mutational aberrations, such as nonsense, frameshift, or other inactivating mutations were identified. The SDHAF2 gene is expressed in parathyroid tissue. However, somatic mutations of the SDHAF2 tumor suppressor gene are unlikely to frequently contribute to parathyroid tumor development in sporadic pHPT.

  • 34.
    Starker, Lee F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Fonseca, Annabelle
    Åkerstom, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Carling, Tobias
    Evidence of a stabilizing mutation of beta-catenin encoded by CTNNB1 exon 3 in a large series of sporadic parathyroid adenomas2012In: Endocrine (Basingstoke), ISSN 1355-008X, E-ISSN 1559-0100, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 612-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aberrant accumulation of beta-catenin plays an important role in a variety of human neoplasms. This can be caused by stabilizing mutation of beta-catenin (CTNNB1, exon 3) or by mutation or deregulated expression of other components of the WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Accumulation of non-phosphorylated active beta-catenin has been reported to commonly occur in parathyroid adenomas from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), either due to the aberrantly spliced internally truncated WNT receptor LRP5 (LRP5 Delta) or to a stabilizing mutation of beta-catenin. The S37A mutation was reported to occur in 7.3 % in a single study of parathyroid adenomas, while in other studies no stabilizing mutations of beta-catenin exon 3 were identified. The aim of this study was to determine the mutational frequency of the CTNNB1 gene, specifically exon 3 in a large series of parathyroid adenomas. One hundred and eighty sporadic parathyroid adenomas were examined for mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 by direct DNA sequencing, utilizing previously published primer sequences. The mutation S33C (TCT > TGT) was detected by direct-DNA sequencing of PCR fragments in 1 out of 180 sporadic parathyroid adenomas (0.68 %). Like serine 37, mutations of serine 33 have been reported in many neoplasms with resulting beta-catenin stabilization, enhanced transcription, and oncogenic activities. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an overexpression of the beta-catenin protein in the lone mutant tumor. Taking also previous studies into account we conclude that activating mutations of the regulatory GSK-3 beta phosphorylation sites serine 33 and 37, encoded by CTNNB1 exon 3, rarely occur in parathyroid adenomas from patients with pHPT.

  • 35.
    Starker, Lee F
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery. Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Mahajan, Amit
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery. Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Sze, Gordon
    Udelsman, Robert
    Carling, Tobias
    4D parathyroid CT as the initial localization study for patients with de novo primary hyperparathyroidism2011In: Annals of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 1068-9265, E-ISSN 1534-4681, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1723-1728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Preoperative localization of parathyroid tumors of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is required for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP). Parathyroid four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) has mainly been used as an adjunct to other imaging modalities in the remedial setting. 4DCT was evaluated as the initial localization study in de novo patients with pHPT.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:

    A total of 87 consecutive patients underwent parathyroidectomy for pHPT from August 2008 to November 2009. 4DCT was introduced as the preferred imaging modality instead of sestamibi with SPECT (SeS) in April 2009. Results of the imaging studies [4DCT, SeS, and ultrasonography (US)], operative and, pathologic findings, and biochemical measurements were evaluated.

    RESULTS:

    In this study, 84% of patients (73 of 87) underwent an US, 59.8% (52 of 87) a SeS, and 38.0% (33 of 87) had a 4DCT. 4DCT had improved sensitivity (85.7%) over SeS (40.4%) and US (48.0%) to localize parathyroid tumors to the correct quadrant of the neck (P < 0.005) as well as to localize (lateralize) the parathyroid lesions to one side of the neck (93.9% for 4DCT vs. 71.2% for US and 61.5% for SeS; P < 0.005). 4DCT correctly predicted multiglandular disease (MGD) in 85.7% (6 of 7) patients, whereas US and SeS were unable to detect MGD in any case. All patients achieved cure based on intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurements and normalization of intact PTH and S-Ca during follow-up.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    4DCT provides significantly greater sensitivity than SeS and US for precise localization of parathyroid tumors of pHPT. Additionally, it correctly predicted MGD in a majority of patients.

  • 36.
    Starker, Lee F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Svedlund, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Udelsman, Robert
    Dralle, Henning
    Åkerstrom, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Lifton, Richard P.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Carling, Tobias
    The DNA Methylome of Benign and Malignant Parathyroid Tumors2011In: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, ISSN 1045-2257, E-ISSN 1098-2264, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 735-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of DNA methylation of CpG islands in parathyroid tumorigenesis has not been analyzed in an unbiased, systematic fashion. DNA was isolated from normal and pathologic parathyroid tissues, bisulphite modified and analyzed using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Distinct hierarchical clustering of genes with altered DNA methylation profiles in normal and pathologic parathyroid tissue was evident. Comparing normal parathyroid tissue with parathyroid adenomas, 367 genes were significantly altered, while 175 genes significantly differed when comparing parathyroid carcinomas and normal parathyroid tissues. A comparison between parathyroid adenomas and parathyroid carcinomas identified 263 genes with significantly distinct methylation levels. Results were confirmed for certain genes in a validation cohort of 40 parathyroid adenomas by methylation-specific PCR. Genes of known or putative importance in the development of parathyroid tumors showed significant and frequent hypermethylation. DNA hypermethylation of CDKN2B, CDKN2A, WT1, SFRP1, SFRP2, and SFRP4 was associated with reduced gene expression in both benign and malignant parathyroid tumors. Treatment with 5-aza-2 '-deoxycytidine of primary cell cultures restores expression of hypermethylated genes in benign and malignant parathyroid tumors. In conclusion, the unbiased, genome-wide study of the parathyroid tumor DNA methylome identified a number of genes with altered DNA methylation patterns of putative importance to benign and malignant parathyroid tumorigenesis.

  • 37.
    Starker, Lee F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Åkerström, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Long, William D
    Delgado-Verdugo, Alberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Donovan, Patricia
    Udelsman, Robert
    Lifton, Richard P
    Carling, Tobias
    Frequent germ-line mutations of the MEN1, CASR, and HRPT2/CDC73 genes in young patients with clinically non-familial primary hyperparathyroidism2012In: Hormones & Cancer, ISSN 1868-8497, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 44-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Familial primary hyperparathyroidism (FPHPT) may occur due to an underlying germ-line mutation in the MEN1, CASR, or HRPT2/CDC73 genes. The disease may be undiagnosed in the absence of a history suggestive of FHPT. Young PHPT patients (≤45 years of age) are more likely to harbor occult FPHPT. A total of 1,161 (136 were ≤45 years of age) PHPT patients underwent parathyroidectomy from 2001 to 2009. Thirty-four patients declined participation. Sixteen patients were diagnosed in the clinical routine with FPHPT (11 MEN1, four MEN2A, and one HPT-JT) and were not included in the genetic analysis. Eighty-six young (≤45 years of age) patients with clinically non-syndromic PHPT underwent genetic analysis. Sanger sequencing of all coding regions of the MEN1, CASR, and the HRPT2/CDC73 genes was performed. Eight of 86 (9.3%) young patients with clinically non-familial PHPT displayed deleterious germ-line mutations in the susceptibility genes (4 MEN1, 3 CASR, and 1 HRPT2/CDC73). There was one insertion, one deletion, two nonsense, and four missense mutations, all predicted to be highly damaging to protein function and absent in 3,244 control chromosomes. Germ-line mutations in known susceptibility genes within young patients with PHPT, including those diagnosed in the clinical routine, was 24/102 (23.5%; 15 MEN1, four RET, three CASR, and two HRPT2/CDC73). We demonstrate that germ-line inactivating mutations in susceptibility genes are common in young patients with clinically non-familial PHPT. Thus, enhanced use of genetic analysis may be warranted in clinically non-familial young PHPT patients.

  • 38.
    Stålberg, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Crona, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Razmara, Masoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Taslica, Diana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Skogseid, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Ståhlberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    An Integrative Genomic Analysis of Formalin Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Archived Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Comparing Long-term and Short-term Survivors2016In: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, ISSN 1048-891X, E-ISSN 1525-1438, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 1027-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    This study aimed to perform an integrative genetic analysis of patients with matched serous ovarian cancer having long-term or short-term survival using formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples.

    METHODS:

    All patients with serous ovarian carcinoma who underwent surgery between 1998 and 2007 at the Department of Gynaecology, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden were considered. From this cohort, we selected biomaterial from 2 groups of patients with long-term and short-term survival matched for age, stage, histologic grade, and outcome of surgery. Genomic DNA from FFPE sample was analyzed with SNP array and targeted next-generation sequencing of 26 genes.

    RESULTS:

    Forty-three samples (primary tumors and metastases) from 23 patients were selected for genomic profiling, the survival in the subgroups were 134 and 36 months, respectively. We observed a tendency toward increased genomic instability in those with long-term survival with higher proportion of somatic copy number alterations (P = 0.083) and higher average ploidy (P = 0.037). TP53 mutations were found in 50% of the patients. Frequency of TP53 mutations did not differ between the survival groups (P = 0.629).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    We validated both previous genomic findings in ovarian cancer and the proposed association between increased genomic instability and better survival. These results exemplify that analysis of genomic biomarkers is feasible on archived FFPE tissue.

  • 39.
    Svedlund, Jessica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Barazeghi, Elham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    The histone methyltransferase EZH2, an oncogene common to benign and malignant parathyroid tumors2014In: Endocrine-Related Cancer, ISSN 1351-0088, E-ISSN 1479-6821, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 231-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) resulting from parathyroid tumors is a common endocrine disorder with incompletely understood etiology. In renal failure, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) occurs with multiple tumor development as a result of calcium and vitamin D regulatory disturbance. The aim of the study was to investigate a potential role of the histone 3 lysine 27 methyltransferase EZH2 in parathyroid tumorigenesis. Parathyroid tumors from patients with pHPT included adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands from patients with HPT secondary to uremia, and normal parathyroid tissue specimens were included in the study. Quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, bisulfite pyrosequencing, colony formation assay, and RNA interference was used. EZH2 was overexpressed in a subset of the benign and in all malignant parathyroid tumors as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. Overexpression was explained by EZH2 gene amplification in a large fraction of tumors. EZH2 depletion by RNA interference inhibited sHPT-1 parathyroid cell line proliferation as determined by tritium-thymidine incorporation and colony formation assay. EZH2 depletion also interfered with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by increased expression of growth-suppressive Axin 2, a negative regulator of β-catenin stability. Indeed, EZH2 contributed to the total level of aberrantly accumulated transcriptionally active (nonphosphylated) β-catenin in the parathyroid tumor cells. To our knowledge EZH2 gene amplification presents the first genetic aberration common to parathyroid adenomas, secondary hyperplastic parathyroid glands, and parathyroid carcinomas. This supports the possibility of a common pathway in parathyroid tumor development.

  • 40.
    Svedlund, Jessica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Koskinen Edblom, Susanne
    Marques, Victor E.
    Chemical Biology Laboratory Center for Cancer Research, Frederick, USA.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1), a tumor suppressor gene epigenetically deregulated in hyperparathyroid tumors by histone H3 lysine modification2012In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, no 7, p. E1307-E1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT:

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) resulting from parathyroid tumors is a common endocrine disorder with incompletely understood etiology. In renal failure, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) occurs with multiple tumor development as a result of calcium and vitamin D regulatory disturbance.

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIC1 may act as a tumor suppressor in the parathyroid glands and whether deregulated expression involves epigenetic mechanisms.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS:

    Parathyroid tumors from patients with pHPT included single adenomas, multiple tumors from the same patient, and cancer. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands from patients with sHPT and hypercalcemia and normal parathyroid tissue specimens were included in the study. Quantitative RT-PCR, bisulfite pyrosequencing, colony formation assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and RNA interference was used.

    RESULTS:

    HIC1 was generally underexpressed regardless of the hyperparathyroid disease state including multiple parathyroid tumors from the same patient, and overexpression of HIC1 led to a decrease in clonogenic survival of parathyroid tumor cells. Only the carcinomas showed a high methylation level and reduced HIC1 expression. Cell culture experiments, including use of primary parathyroid tumor cells prepared directly after operation, the general histone methyltransferase inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and RNA interference of DNA methyltransferases and EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), supported a role of repressive histone H3 modifications (H3K27me2/3) rather than DNA methylation in repression of HIC1.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The results strongly support a growth-regulatory role of HIC1 in the parathyroid glands and suggest that perturbed expression of HIC1 may represent an early event during tumor development. Repressive histone modification H3K27me2/3 is involved in repression of HIC1 expression in hyperparathyroid tumors.

  • 41.
    Åkerström, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Crona, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Verdugo, Alberto Delgado
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Starker, Lee F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Cupisti, Kenko
    Willenberg, Holger S.
    Knoefel, Wolfram T.
    Saeger, Wolfgang
    Feller, Alfred
    Ip, Julian
    Soon, Patsy
    Anlauf, Martin
    Alesina, Pier F.
    Schmid, Kurt W.
    Decaussin, Myriam
    Levillain, Pierre
    Wangberg, Bo
    Peix, Jean-Louis
    Robinson, Bruce
    Zedenius, Jan
    Backdahl, Martin
    Caramuta, Stefano
    Iwen, K. Alexander
    Botling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Kraimps, Jean-Louis
    Dralle, Henning
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Sidhu, Stan
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Lehnert, Hendrik
    Walz, Martin K.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Carling, Tobias
    Choi, Murim
    Lifton, Richard P.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Comprehensive Re-Sequencing of Adrenal Aldosterone Producing Lesions Reveal Three Somatic Mutations near the KCNJ5 Potassium Channel Selectivity Filter2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, p. e41926-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aldosterone producing lesions are a common cause of hypertension, but genetic alterations for tumorigenesis have been unclear. Recently, either of two recurrent somatic missense mutations (G151R or L168R) was found in the potassium channel KCNJ5 gene in aldosterone producing adenomas. These mutations alter the channel selectivity filter and result in Na+ conductance and cell depolarization, stimulating aldosterone production and cell proliferation. Because a similar mutation occurs in a Mendelian form of primary aldosteronism, these mutations appear to be sufficient for cell proliferation and aldosterone production. The prevalence and spectrum of KCNJ5 mutations in different entities of adrenocortical lesions remain to be defined.

    Materials and Methods: The coding region and flanking intronic segments of KCNJ5 were subjected to Sanger DNA sequencing in 351 aldosterone producing lesions, from patients with primary aldosteronism and 130 other adrenocortical lesions. The specimens had been collected from 10 different worldwide referral centers.

    Results: G151R or L168R somatic mutations were identified in 47% of aldosterone producing adenomas, each with similar frequency. A previously unreported somatic mutation near the selectivity filter, E145Q, was observed twice. Somatic G151R or L168R mutations were also found in 40% of aldosterone producing adenomas associated with marked hyperplasia, but not in specimens with merely unilateral hyperplasia. Mutations were absent in 130 non-aldosterone secreting lesions. KCNJ5 mutations were overrepresented in aldosterone producing adenomas from female compared to male patients (63 vs. 24%). Males with KCNJ5 mutations were significantly younger than those without (45 vs. 54, respectively; p < 0.005) and their APAs with KCNJ5 mutations were larger than those without (27.1 mm vs. 17.1 mm; p < 0.005).

    Discussion: Either of two somatic KCNJ5 mutations are highly prevalent and specific for aldosterone producing lesions. These findings provide new insight into the pathogenesis of primary aldosteronism.

  • 42.
    Åkerström, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Maharjan, Rajani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Willenberg, Holger Sven
    Cupisti, Kenko
    Ip, Julian
    Moser, Ana
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Robinson, Bruce
    Iwen, Alexander K
    Dralle, Henning
    Walz, Martin K.
    Lehnert, Hendrik
    Sidhu, Stan
    Gomez-Sanchez, Celso
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.