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  • 1.
    Andersen, Randi Dovland
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Nursing, Stockholm, Sweden;Telemark Hosp, Dept Child & Adolescent Hlth Serv, POB 2900 Kjorbekk, N-3710 Skien, Norway.
    Munsters, Josanne M. A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Vederhus, Bente Johanne
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Pediat, Bergen, Norway.
    Gradin, Maria
    Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Paediat, Orebro, Sweden.
    Pain assessment practices in Swedish and Norwegian neonatal care units2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 1074-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The use of measurement scales to assess pain in neonates is considered a prerequisite for effective management of pain, but these scales are still underutilised in clinical practice.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare pain assessment practices including the use of pain measurement scales in Norwegian and Swedish neonatal care units.

    Methods

    A unit survey investigating practices regarding pain assessment and the use of pain measurement scales was sent to all neonatal units in Sweden and Norway (n = 55). All Norwegian and 92% of Swedish units responded.

    Results

    A majority of the participating units (86.5%) assessed pain. Swedish units assessed and documented pain and used pain measurement scales more frequently than Norwegian units. The most frequently used scales were different versions of Astrid Lindgren's Pain Scale (ALPS) in Sweden and Echelle Douleur Inconfort Noveau-Ne (EDIN), ALPS and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) in Norway. Norwegian head nurses had more confidence in their pain assessment method and found the use of pain measurement scales more important than their Swedish colleagues.

    Conclusion

    The persisting difference between Swedish and Norwegian units in pain assessment and the use of pain measurement scales are not easily explained. However, the reported increased availability and reported use of pain measurement scales in neonatal care units in both countries may be seen as a contribution towards better awareness and recognition of pain, better pain management and potentially less suffering for vulnerable neonates.

  • 2.
    Angelhoff, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Div Nursing Sci, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Norrkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Paediat, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Ylva Thernström
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Helmer, Charlotte Sahlen
    Linkoping Univ, Div Nursing Sci, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Norrkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Paediat, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Olsson, Emma
    Orebro Univ, Dept Pediat, Orebro, Sweden;Orebro Univ, Ctr Hlth Care Sci, Orebro, Sweden.
    Shorey, Shefaly
    Natl Univ Singapore, Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Alice Lee Ctr Nursing Studies, Singapore, Singapore.
    Frostell, Anneli
    Linkoping Univ, Div Psychol, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Mörelius, Evalotte
    Linkoping Univ, Div Nursing Sci, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Norrkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Effect of skin-to-skin contact on parents' sleep quality, mood, parent-infant interaction and cortisol concentrations in neonatal care units: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 7, article id e021606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Separation after preterm birth is a major stressor for infants and parents. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is a method of care suitable to use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to minimise separation between parents and infants. Less separation leads to increased possibilities for parent-infant interaction, provided that the parents' sleep quality is satisfactory. We aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous SSC on sleep quality and mood in parents of preterm infants born <33 weeks of gestation as well as the quality of parent-infant interaction and salivary cortisol concentrations at the time of discharge.

    Methods and analysis: A randomised intervention study with two arms-intervention versus standard care. Data will be collected from 50 families. Eligible families will be randomly allocated to intervention or standard care when transferred from the intensive care room to the family-room in the NICU. The intervention consists of continuous SSC for four consecutive days and nights in the family-room. Data will be collected every day during the intervention and again at the time of discharge from the hospital. Outcome measures comprise activity tracker (Actigraph); validated self-rated questionnaires concerning sleep, mood and bonding; observed scorings of parental sensitivity and emotional availability and salivary cortisol. Data will be analysed with pairwise, repeated measures, Mann Whitney U-test will be used to compare groups and analysis of variance will be used to adjust for different hospitals and parents' gender.

    Ethics and dissemination: The study is approved by the Regional Research Ethics Board at an appropriate university (2016/89-31). The results will be published in scientific journals. We will also use conferences and social media to disseminate our findings.

  • 3.
    Askelöf, Ulrica
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Obstet & Gynecol, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Swedish Natl Umbil Cord Blood Bank, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Andersson, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Unit Pediat, Umea, Sweden..
    Fasth, Anders
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Swedish Natl Umbil Cord Blood Bank, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Pediat, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hallberg, Boubou
    Karolinska Inst, CLINTEC, Dept Neonatol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Div Obstet & Gynecol, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Swedish Natl Umbil Cord Blood Bank, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westgren, Magnus
    Karolinska Inst, Div Obstet & Gynecol, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Swedish Natl Umbil Cord Blood Bank, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wiklund, Ingela E.
    Danderyd Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gotherstrom, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Div Obstet & Gynecol, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Swedish Natl Umbil Cord Blood Bank, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wait a minute?: An observational cohort study comparing iron stores in healthy Swedish infants at 4 months of age after 10-, 60-and 180-second umbilical cord clamping2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 12, article id e017215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a valuable stem cell source used for transplantation. Immediate umbilical cord (UC) clamping is widely practised, but delayed UC clamping is increasingly advocated to reduce possible infant anaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate an intermediate UC clamping time point and to evaluate iron status at the age of 4 months in infants who had the UC clamped after 60 s and compare the results with immediate and late UC clamping.

    Design: Prospective observational study with two historical controls.

    Setting: A university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, and a county hospital in Halland, Sweden.

    Methods: Iron status was assessed at 4 months in 200 prospectively recruited term infants whose UC was clamped 60 s after birth. The newborn baby was held below the uterine level for the first 30 s before placing the infant on the mother’s abdomen for additional 30 s. The results were compared with data from a previously conducted randomised controlled trial including infants subjected to UC clamping at ≤10 s (n=200) or ≥180 s (n=200) after delivery.

    Results: After adjustment for age differences at the time of follow-up, serum ferritin concentrations were 77, 103 and 114 µg/L in the 10, 60 and 180 s groups, respectively. The adjusted ferritin concentration was significantly higher in the 60 s group compared with the 10 s group (P=0.002), while the difference between the 60 and 180 s groups was not significant (P=0.29).

    Conclusion: In this study of healthy term infants, 60 s UC clamping with 30 s lowering of the baby below the uterine level resulted in higher serum ferritin concentrations at 4 months compared with 10 s UC clamping. The results suggest that delaying the UC clamping for 60 s reduces the risk for iron deficiency.

  • 4. Backes, Carl
    et al.
    Söderström, Fanny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Ågren, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Sindelar, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Bartlett, CV
    Rivera, BK
    Mitchell, CC
    Shepherd, Edward
    Nelin, Leif
    Normann, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Outcomes Following a Comprehensive versus a Selective Approach for Infants Born at 22 Weeks of Gestation.2018In: Journal of Perinatology, ISSN 0743-8346, E-ISSN 1476-5543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine outcomes at two institutions with different approaches to care among infants born at 22 weeks of gestation.

    Study design: Retrospective, cohort study (2006–2015). Enrollment was limited to mother–infant dyads at 22 weeks of gestation. Proactive care was defined as provision of antenatal corticosteroids and neonatal resuscitation and intensive care. One center (Uppsala, Sweden; UUCH) provided proactive care to all mother–infant dyads (comprehensive center); the other center (Nationwide Children’s Hospital, USA; NCH) initiated or withheld treatment based on physician and family preferences (selective center). Differences in outcomes between the two centers were evaluated.

    Result: Among 112 live-born infants at 22 weeks of gestation, those treated at UUCH had in-hospital survival rates higher than those at NCH (21/40, 53% vs. 6/72, 8%; P < 0.01). Among the subgroup of infants receiving proactive care (UUCH: 40/40, 100%; NCH: 16/72, 22%) survival was higher at UUCH than at NCH (21/40, 53% vs. 3/16, 19%; P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Even when mother–infant dyads were provided proactive care at NCH (selective center), survival was lower than infants provided proactive care at UUCH (comprehensive center). Differences between the approaches to care at the two centers at 22 weeks of gestation merits further investigation.

  • 5.
    Beltempo, Marc
    et al.
    Univ Toronto, Mt Sinai Hosp, Maternal Infant Care Res Ctr, Dept Paediat, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Isayama, Tetsuya
    McMaster Univ, Clin Epidemiol & Biostat, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Vento, Maximo
    Hlth Res Inst La Fe, Spanish Neonatal Network, Ave Fernando Abril Martorell, Valencia, Spain.
    Lui, Kei
    Univ New South Wales, Royal Hosp Women, Natl Perinatal Epidemiol & Statist Unit, Australian & New Zealand Neonatal Network, Randwick, NSW, Australia.
    Kusuda, Satoshi
    Tokyo Womens Med Univ, Maternal & Perinatal Ctr, Neonatal Res Network Japan, Tokyo, Japan.
    Lehtonen, Liisa
    Univ Turku, Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Turku, Finland.
    Sjörs, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Hakansson, Stellan
    Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Swedish Neonatal Qual Register, Neonatal Serv, Umea, Sweden.
    Adams, Mark
    Univ Zurich, Univ Hosp Zurich, Dept Neonatol, Swiss Neonatal Network, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Noguchi, Akihiko
    Illinois Neonatal Network, St Louis, IL USA.
    Reichman, Brian
    Sheba Med Ctr, Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Israel Neonatal Network, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
    Darlow, Brian A.
    Univ Otago, Dept Paediat, Australia & New Zealand Neonatal Network, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Morisaki, Naho
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Dept Social Med, Neonatal Res Network Japan, Tokyo, Japan.
    Bassler, Dirk
    Univ Zurich, Univ Hosp Zurich, Dept Neonatol, Swiss Neonatal Network, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Pratesi, Simone
    Careggi Univ Hosp, Neonatal Intens Care Unit, TIN Toscane Online, Florence, Italy.
    Lee, Shoo K.
    Univ Toronto, Mt Sinai Hosp, Maternal Infant Care Res Ctr, Dept Paediat, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Lodha, Abhay
    Univ Calgary, Pediat & Community Hlth Sci, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Modi, Neena
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Med, Neonatal Data Anal Unit, Sect Neonatal Med,UK Neonatal Collaborat, Chelsea & Westminster Hosp Campus, London, England.
    Helenius, Kjell
    Univ Turku, Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Turku, Finland.
    Shah, Prakesh S.
    Univ Toronto, Mt Sinai Hosp, Maternal Infant Care Res Ctr, Dept Paediat, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Respiratory Management of Extremely Preterm Infants: An International Survey2018In: Neonatology, ISSN 1661-7800, E-ISSN 1661-7819, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are significant international variations in chronic lung disease rates among very preterm infants yet there is little data on international variations in respiratory strategies. Objective: To evaluate practice variations in the respiratory management of extremely preterm infants born at <29 weeks' gestational age (GA) among 10 neonatal networks participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes (iNeo) of Neonates collaboration. Methods: A web-based survey was sent to the representatives of 390 neonatal intensive care units from Australia/New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Illinois (USA), Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and Tuscany (Italy). Responses were based on practices in 2015. Results: Overall, 321 of the 390 units responded (82%). The majority of units within networks (40-92%) mechanically ventilate infants born at 23-24 weeks' GA on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with 30-39% oxygen in respiratory distress within 48 h after birth, but the proportion of units that offer mechanical ventilation for infants born at 25-26 weeks' GA at similar settings varied significantly (20-85% of units within networks). The most common respiratory strategy for infants born at 27-28 weeks' GA on CPAP with 30-39% oxygen with respiratory distress within 48 h after birth used by units also varied significantly among networks: mechanical ventilation (0-60%), CPAP (3-82%), intubation and surfactant administration with immediate extubation (0-75%), and less invasive surfactant administration (0-68%). Conclusions: There are marked variations but also similarities in respiratory management of extremely preterm infants between networks. Further collaboration and exploration is needed to better understand the association of these variations in practice with pulmonary outcomes. (c) 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 6.
    Bolk, Jenny
    et al.
    Soder Sjukhuset, Sachs Children & Youth Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Tomtebodavagen 18a, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Farooqi, Aijaz
    Univ Umea, Inst Clin Sci, Pediat Unit, Umea, Sweden.
    Hafstrom, Maria
    St Olavs Hosp, Dept Paediat, Trondheim, Norway;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol Trondheim, Dept Lab Med Childrens & Womens Hlth, Trondheim, Norway;Univ Gothenburg, Inst Clin Sci, Queen Silvia Childrens Hosp, Dept Pediat, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aden, Ulrika
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Tomtebodavagen 18a, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Serenius, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Univ Umeå, Inst Clin Sci, Pediat Unit, Umeå, Sweden.
    Developmental Coordination Disorder and Its Association With Developmental Comorbidities at 6.5 Years in Apparently Healthy Children Born Extremely Preterm2018In: JAMA pediatrics, ISSN 2168-6203, E-ISSN 2168-6211, Vol. 172, no 8, p. 765-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE There are concerns that apparently healthy extremely preterm children face a risk of developing motor impairments, such as developmental coordination disorder.

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder and associated comorbidities in a national cohort of apparently healthy children born at 22 to 26 gestational weeks, compared alongside term-born peers.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective, population-based cohort study included all children who were consecutively born at 22 to 26 gestational weeks in Sweden from April 1, 2004, through March 31, 2007. At 6.5 years, 441 preterm children were evaluated alongside 371 controls. A total of 275 preterm children (62.4%) and 359 term-born children (96.8%) did not have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Motor assessments were completed for 229 of 275 preterm children (83.3%) and 344 of 359 (95.8%) term-born children, who composed the final study sample. MAIN

    OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Developmental coordination disorder was defined as a score of the fifth percentile or lower on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition scale, using control group scores. Assessment tools included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scales, the Five to Fifteen questionnaire, and the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire.

    RESULTS Of the 229 extremely preterm children and 344 term-born controls who underwent motor assessments, 115 (50.2%) and 194 (56.4%) were boys, respectively. Developmental coordination disorder was present in 85 of 229 (37.1%) preterm children and in 19 of 344 controls (5.5%) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.92; 99% CI, 3.69-17.20). When preterm children with developmental coordination disorder were compared with term-born peers, the risk was increased for total behavioral problems, internalizing, externalizing, attentional problems, hyperactivity, perceptual problems, executive dysfunction, and poor social skills, with adjusted ORs varying from 2.66 (99% CI, 1.09-6.48) for time concepts to 9.06 (99% CI, 3.60-22.8) for attentional problems (all P < .01). When preterm children with and without developmental coordination disorder were compared, preterm children with developmental coordination disorder had more behavioral problems; the adjusted OR for total behavioral problems was 2.71 (99% CI, 1.15-6.37); for externalizing problems, 2.80 (99% CI, 1.10-7.12); for inattention, 3.38 (99% CI, 1.39-8.18); and for combined attention/hyperactivity problems, 3.68 (99% CI, 1.47-9.16) (all P < .01). Parents underestimated the children's motor problems and only a few of the children had received psychological care or physiotherapy.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Children who were born extremely preterm faced a high risk for developmental coordination disorder with associated comorbidities. Our findings support the importance of a structured follow-up of motor function, behavior, and cognition.

  • 7.
    Bolk, Jenny
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden;Sachs Children & Youth Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaul, Ylva Fredriksson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Stjernqvist, Karin
    Lund Univ, Dept Psychol, Div Dev Psychol, Lund, Sweden.
    Padilla, Nelly
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Serenius, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Univ Umeå, Pediat, Inst Clin Sci, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Kerstin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åden, Ulrika
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    National population-based cohort study found that visual-motor integration was commonly affected in extremely preterm born children at six-and-a-half years2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 831-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aimed to explain the relationship between visual‐motor integration (VMI) abilities and extremely preterm (EPT) birth, by exploring the influence of perinatal variables, cognition, manual dexterity and ophthalmological outcomes.

    Methods: This was part of the population‐based national Extremely Preterm Infant Study in Sweden (EXPRESS) study. We studied 355 children, born at a gestational age of <27 weeks from April 2004 to March 2007, and 364 term‐born controls. At six‐and‐a‐half years of age, we assessed VMI, cognitive function, motor skills and vision. VMI impairment was classified as <−1 standard deviation (SD).

    Results: The mean (SD) VMI score was 87 (±12) in preterm children compared to 98 (±11) in controls (p < 0.001). VMI impairment was present in 55% of preterm infants and in 78% of children born at 22–23 weeks. Male sex and postnatal steroids showed a weak association with poorer visual‐motor performance, whereas low manual dexterity and cognitive function showed a stronger association.

    Conclusion: Poor VMI performance was common in this EXPRESS cohort of children born EPT. Its strong association to cognition and manual dexterity confirms that all of these factors need to be taken into account when evaluating risks in preterm born children.

  • 8.
    Darlow, Brian A.
    et al.
    Univ Otago, Dept Paediat, Australian & New Zealand Neonatal Network, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Vento, Maximo
    Hlth Res Inst La Fe, Spanish Neonatal Network, Ave Fernando Abril Martorell, Valencia, Spain.
    Beltempo, Marc
    McGill Univ, Montreal Childrens Hosp, Dept Pediat, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Lehtonen, Liisa
    Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Finnish Med Birth Register, Turku, Finland;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Register Congenital Malformat, Turku, Finland.
    Hakansson, Stellan
    Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat Neonatal Serv, Swedish Neonatal Qual Register, Umea, Sweden.
    Reichman, Brian
    Sheba Med Ctr, Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Israel Neonatal Network, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
    Helenius, Kjell
    Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Finnish Med Birth Register, Turku, Finland;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Register Congenital Malformat, Turku, Finland.
    Sjörs, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Swedish Neonatal Qual Register, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sigali, Emilio
    Univ Hosp Pisa, Dept Pediat, Div Neonatol, TIN Toscane Online, Pisa, Italy;Univ Hosp Pisa, Dept Pediat, Neonatal Intens Care Unit, Pisa, Italy.
    Lee, Shoo
    Mt Sinai Hosp, Canadian Neonatal Network, Dept Paediat, Toronto, ON, Canada;Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Noguchi, Akihiko
    Illinois Neonatal Network, St Louis, IL USA.
    Morisaki, Naho
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Dept Social Med, Neonatal Res Network Japan, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kusuda, Satoshi
    Tokyo Womens Med Univ, Maternal & Perinatal Ctr, Neonatal Res Network Japan, Tokyo, Japan.
    Bassler, Dirk
    Univ Zurich, Univ Hosp Zurich, Dept Neonatol, Swiss Neonatal Network, Zurich, Switzerland.
    San Feliciano, Laura
    Univ Salamanca, Dept Pediat, Spanish Neonatal Network, Salamanca, Spain.
    Adams, Mark
    Univ Zurich, Univ Hosp Zurich, Dept Neonatol, Swiss Neonatal Network, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Isayama, Tetsuya
    McMaster Univ, Clin Epidemiol & Biostat, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Shah, Prakesh S.
    Mt Sinai Hosp, Dept Pediat, Toronto, ON, Canada;Univ Toronto, Dept Pediat, Toronto, ON, Canada;Mt Sinai Hosp, Maternal Infant Care Res Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Lui, Kei
    Univ New South Wales, Royal Hosp Women, Natl Perinatal Epidemiol & Statist Unit, Australian & New Zealand Neonatal Network, Randwick City, NSW, Australia.
    Variations in Oxygen Saturation Targeting, and Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening and Treatment Criteria in Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An International Survey2018In: Neonatology, ISSN 1661-7800, E-ISSN 1661-7819, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 323-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rates of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and ROP treatment vary between neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Neonatal care practices, including oxygen saturation (SpO2) targets and criteria for the screening and treatment of ROP, are potential contributing factors to the variations. Objectives: To survey variations in SpO2 targets in 2015 (and whether there had been recent changes) and criteria for ROP screening and treatment across the networks of the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo). Methods: Online prepiloted questionnaires on treatment practices for preterm infants were sent to the directors of 390 NICUs in 10 collaborating iNeo networks. Nine questions were asked and the results were summarized and compared. Results: Overall, 329/390 (84%) NICUs responded, and a majority (60%) recently made changes in upper and lower SpO2 target limits, with the median set higher than previously by 2–3% in 8 of 10 networks. After the changes, fewer NICUs (15 vs. 28%) set an upper SpO2 target limit > 95% and fewer (3 vs. 5%) a lower limit < 85%. There were variations in ROP screening criteria, and only in the Swedish network did all NICUs follow a single guideline. The initial retinal examination was carried out by an ophthalmologist in all but 6 NICUs, and retinal photography was used in 20% but most commonly as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy. Conclusions: There is considerable variation in SpO2 targets and ROP screening and treatment criteria, both within networks and between countries.

  • 9.
    Ericson, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Örebro Universitet.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Hoddinott, Pat
    University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland.
    Flacking, Renée
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants after discharge: a randomised controlled trial2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 791-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants after discharge from neonatal intensive care units (NICU).

    Methods: Between March 2013 and December 2015, a randomised controlled trial was conducted at six NICUs across Sweden. At each NICU, a breastfeeding support team recruited, randomised and delivered the support to participating mothers. The intervention group received a daily proactive telephone call up to 14 days after discharge from the support team. The control group could initiate telephone contact themselves. Primary outcome was exclusive breastfeeding eight weeks after discharge. Secondary outcomes were maternal satisfaction with breastfeeding, attachment, quality of life and parental stress.

    Results: In total, 493 mothers were randomised, 231 to intervention group and 262 to control group. There were no differences between the groups for exclusive breastfeeding, odds ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.66–1.38, nor for maternal satisfaction with breastfeeding, attachment or quality of life. The intervention group reported significantly less parental stress than the controls, t = 2.44, 95% CI 0.03–0.23, effect size d = 0.26.

    Conclusion: In this trial, proactive telephone support was not associated with increased exclusive breastfeeding prevalence eight weeks following discharge. However, intervention group mothers showed significantly lower parental stress.

  • 10.
    Ericson, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Falu Hospital, Department of Paediatrics.
    Flacking, Renee
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Udo, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Mothers' experiences of a telephone based breastfeeding support intervention after discharge from neonatal intensive care units: a mixed-method study2017In: International Breastfeeding Journal, ISSN 1746-4358, E-ISSN 1746-4358, Vol. 12, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: After discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), many mothers of preterm infants (gestational age < 37 weeks) experience a lack of support for breastfeeding. An intervention study was designed to evaluate the effects of proactive (a daily telephone call initiated by a member of a breastfeeding support team) and/or reactive (mothers could call the breastfeeding support team) telephone based breastfeeding support for mothers after discharge from the NICU. The mothers in the intervention group had access to both proactive and reactive support; the mothers in the control group only had access to reactive support. The aim of this study was to explore the mothers’ experiences of the proactive and reactive telephone support.

    Methods: This study was a qualitatively driven, mixed-method evaluation using three data sources: questionnaires with qualitative open-ended questions, visual analogue scales and telephone interviews. In total, 365 mothers contributed data for this study. The qualitative data were analysed with an inductive thematic network analysis, while the quantitative data were analysed with Student’s t-test and the chi-square test.

    Results: Proactive support contributed to greater satisfaction and involvement in breastfeeding support. The mothers who received proactive support reported that they felt strengthened, supported and secure, as a result of the continuous care provided by staff who were knowledgeable and experienced (i.e., in breastfeeding and preterm infants), which resulted in the global theme ‘Empowered by proactive support’. The mothers who received reactive support experienced contradictory feelings; some felt secure because they had the opportunity to call for support, whereas others found it difficult to decide when and if they should use the service, which resulted in the global theme; ‘Duality of reactive support’.

    Conclusion: There were positive aspects of both proactive (i.e., greater satisfaction and feelings of empowerment) and reactive support (i.e., the opportunity to call for support); however, the provision of reactive support alone may be inadequate for those with the greatest need for support as they are the least likely to access it.

  • 11.
    Frid, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ågren, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Kjellberg, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Normann, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Sindelar, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Critically ill neonates displayed stable vital parameters and reduced metabolic acidosis during neonatal emergency airborne transport in Sweden2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 8, p. 1357-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study evaluated the medical quality of acute airborne transports carried out by a neonatal emergency transport service in a Swedish healthcare region from 2012 to 2015. Methods: The transport charts and patient records of all infants transported to the regional centre were reviewed for transport indications and vital parameters and outcomes. Results: We identified 187 acute airborne transports and the main indications for referral were therapeutic hypothermia after perinatal asphyxia, extremely preterm birth and respiratory failure. There were 37 deaths, but none of these occurred during transport and none of the deaths that occurred within 24 hours after transport were found to be related to the transport per se. No differences were found in vital parameters or ventilator settings before and after transport, except for an improvement in blood pH (7.22 +/- 0.13 versus 7.27 +/- 0.13, mean +/- SD, p < 0.01), due to a decrease in base deficit (-8.0 +/- 6.8 versus -5.4 +/- 6.3 mmol, p < 0.001), while the partial pressure of carbon dioxide remained unchanged. Conclusion: During air transport, critically ill neonates displayed stable vital parameters and reduced metabolic acidosis. No transport-related mortality was found, but the high number of extremely preterm infants transported indicates the potential for improving in-utero transport.

  • 12.
    Gerhardsson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Mattsson, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Funkquist, Eva-Lotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Prospective questionnaire study showed that higher self-efficacy predicted longer exclusive breastfeeding by the mothers of late preterm infants2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 799-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: An important variable that influences breastfeeding outcomes is how confident a woman feels about her ability to breastfeed successfully at an early stage. We investigated breastfeeding self‐efficacy in the mothers of late preterm infants.

    Methods: This was a prospective, comparative study that focused on mothers who had delivered babies at 34 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks and were recruited in 2012–2015 from a neonatal intensive care unit and a postnatal ward at a Swedish university hospital. The Breastfeeding Self‐Efficacy Scale‐Short Form (BSES‐SF) was used to psychometrically assess the mothers at 40 weeks of postmenstrual age (n = 148) and at three months of corrected age (n = 114).

    Results: The BSES‐SF scores were higher in the 87% of mothers that exclusively breastfed when their babies reached 40 weeks (57.1 out of 70) than those who did not (41.4, p < 0.001), indicating better self‐efficacy. The figures remained higher in the 68% of exclusive breastfeeding mothers at three months of corrected age (60.9 versus 51.7).

    Conclusion: Self‐efficacy was an important predictor of the length of breastfeeding in mothers of late preterm infants, and the BSES‐SF can be used to detect low self‐efficacy that could lead to early breastfeeding cessation.

  • 13.
    Hellström, Ann
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Sect Pediat Ophthalmol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Källen, Karin
    Lund Univ, Ctr Reprod Epidemiol, Lund, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Birgitta
    Örebro Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Örebro, Sweden.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    Linköping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Pia
    Umeå Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Ophthalmol, Umeå, Sweden.
    Serenius, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Stjernqvist, Karin
    Lund Univ, Dept Psychol, Lund, Sweden.
    Tornqvist, Kristina
    Lund Univ Hosp, Dept Ophthalmol, Lund, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Kerstin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Extreme prematurity, treated retinopathy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and cerebral palsy are significant risk factors for ophthalmological abnormalities at 6.5 years of age2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 811-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study evaluated the contributions of various prenatal and postnatal predictive factors to a documented high prevalence of ophthalmological abnormalities in children aged 6.5 years who were born extremely preterm.

    Methods: We carried out a prospective population‐based study of all children born in Sweden at a gestational age of 22 + 0 to 26 + 6 weeks based on the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study. The main outcome measures were a combined score of visual impairment, refractive errors and strabismus at 6.5 years of age. Models of univariate and multivariable regression were used to analyse potential prenatal and postnatal predictive factors at different clinically relevant time‐points from one minute after birth to 30 months.

    Results: We focused on 399 known extremely preterm survivors and compared them to 300 full‐term controls. Significant antecedents for ophthalmological abnormalities included prematurity per se, retinopathy of prematurity that required treatment, severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and cerebral palsy. Severe intraventricular haemorrhage was no longer a significant risk factor when we adjusted it for the 30‐month cognitive and neuromotor development outcomes.

    Conclusion: This time‐course risk analysis model showed a changing panorama of significant risk factors for ophthalmological abnormalities in children aged 6.5 years who were born extremely preterm.

  • 14.
    Holsti, Antti
    et al.
    Univ Umea, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Pediat, Umea, Sweden.
    Serenius, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Univ Umea, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Pediat, Umea, Sweden.
    Farooqi, Aijaz
    Univ Umea, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Pediat, Umea, Sweden.
    Impact of major neonatal morbidities on adolescents born at 23-25 weeks of gestation2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 11, p. 1893-1901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: More infants born extremely preterm (EPT) are surviving, but major neonatal morbidities are consistently high. This study examined the impact of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), brain injuries and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) on adolescents who were born EPT. Methods: We focused on EPT infants born at 23-25 weeks at the Swedish university hospitals in Uppsala and Umea from January 1992 to December 1998. The poor outcome data covered 140 of 142 who survived to 36 weeks, and the chronic conditions data reported by parents covered 132 of 134 still alive at 10-15 years. Results: Of the 140 survivors at 36 weeks, 29 (21%) had poor outcomes: eight of 140 (6%) died, and 21 of 132 (16%) adolescent survivors had severe neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD). BPD, severe ROP and/or brain injuries correlated independently with poor outcome. Of those adolescents who were free from BPD, brain injury and severe ROP, 6% had a severe NDD. The corresponding rates with any one, any two or all three neonatal morbidities were 21, 33 and 67%, respectively. BPD and brain injuries were associated with high rates of chronic conditions at 10-15 years of age resulting in functional limitations. Conclusion: In adolescent EPT survivors, BPD and brain injuries were associated with high rates of chronic conditions and special healthcare needs.

  • 15.
    Hreinsdottir, Jonina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Kaul, Ylva Fredriksson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Impaired cognitive ability at 2.5 years predicts later visual and ophthalmological problems in children born very preterm2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 822-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To identify possible predictive factors for visual problems at 6.5 years in children born very preterm.

    Methods: During 2004–2007, all very preterm infants (gestational age [GA] <32 weeks) in Uppsala County, Sweden were screened for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) neonatally; at four months, visual tracking was tested; at 2.5 years, visuospatial and cognitive tests were carried out. At 6.5 years, 84 preterm children and a reference group of 64 full‐term children underwent ophthalmological testing.

    Results: Mean visual acuity (VA) did not differ between the groups, but subnormal VA (≤0.8) was more common in the preterm group (31% vs 14%; p < 0.05). More often than full‐term children, preterm children had impaired contrast sensitivity (<0.5) (36% vs 19%; p < 0.05) and strabismus (8% vs 0%; p < 0.05). Low GA, ROP, intraventricular haemorrhage 3‐4/periventricular leukomalacia and cognitive disability at 2.5 years predicted ophthalmological and visual problems at 6.5 years. Visual tracking ability at four months was not predictive of ophthalmological outcome.

    Conclusion: Children born preterm had more ophthalmological problems at 6.5 years of age, including subtle dysfunctions. ROP, early brain injury and impaired cognitive function around 2.5 years predicted later ophthalmological dysfunctions.

  • 16.
    Högberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Lampa, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Högberg, Göran
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Child & Adolescent Psychiat Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Aspelin, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Serenius, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Thiblin, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Infant abuse diagnosis associated with abusive head trauma criteria: incidence increase due to overdiagnosis?2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 641-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The hypothesis of this study is that the diagnosis of infant abuse is associated with criteria for shaken baby syndrome (SBS)/abusive head trauma (AHT), and that that changes in incidence of abuse diagnosis in infants may be due to increased awareness of SBS/AHT criteria.

    Methods: This was a population-based register study. Setting: Register study using the Swedish Patient Register, Medical Birth Register, and Cause of Death Register. The diagnosis of infant abuse was based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th revision. Participants: All children born in Sweden during 1987-2014 with a follow-up until 1 year of age (N = 2 868 933). SBS/AHT criteria: subdural haemorrhage, cerebral contusion, skull fracture, convulsions, retinal haemorrhage, fractures rib and long bones. Outcomes: Incidence, rate ratios, aetiologic fractions and Probit regression analysis.

    Results: Diagnosis of infant abuse was strongly associated with SBS/AHT criteria, but not risk exposure as region, foreign-born mother, being born preterm, multiple birth and small for gestational age. The incidence of infant abuse has increased tenfold in Sweden since the 1990s and has doubled since 2008, from 12.0 per 100 000 infants during 1997-2007 to 26.5/100 000 during 2008-2014, with pronounced regional disparities.

    Conclusions: Diagnosis of infant abuse is related to SBS/AHT criteria. The increase in incidence coincides with increased medical preparedness to make a diagnosis of SBS/AHT. Hidden statistics and a real increase in abuse are less plausible. Whether the increase is due to overdiagnosis cannot be answered with certainty, but the possibility raises ethical and medico-legal concerns.

  • 17.
    Johnsson, Inger W
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    High birth weight was not associated with altered body composition or impaired glucose tolerance in adulthoodManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To investigate whether a high birth weight was associated with an increased proportion of body fat or with impaired glucose tolerance in adulthood.

    Methods Our cohort comprised 27 subjects with birth weights of 4,500 g or more, and 27 controls with birth weights within ±1 SDS, born at Uppsala University Hospital 1975-1979. The subjects were 34-40 years old at the time of study.

    Anthropometric data was collected, and data on body composition was obtained by air plethysmography and bioimpedance and was estimated with a three compartment model. Indirect calorimetry, blood sampling for fasting insulin and glucose as well as a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were also performed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using homeostasis model assessment 2 (HOMA2) and Matsuda index. Areas under the curves were calculated for insulin and glucose.

    Results There were no differences in body mass index, body composition or insulin sensitivity between subjects with a high birth weight and controls.

    Conclusion Adult subjects, born with a moderately high birth weight, did not differ from those with birth weights within ±1 SDS regarding body composition or glucose tolerance

  • 18. Johnsson, Inger W
    et al.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Lundgren, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Females with a high birth weight have increased risk of offspring macrosomia and obesity, but not of gestational diabetesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim This study investigated how maternal birth weight was related to offspring birth weight, as well as to risk of obesity in pregnancy and gestational diabetes.

    Methods The cohort (N= 305 893) comprises females born term and singleton in Sweden 1973-1995, studied at the time of their first pregnancy. Information regarding their birth weight, BMI and complications during pregnancy was retrieved from the Swedish Medical Birth Register in addition to data on their mothers and offspring.

    Results A maternal birth weight between 2-3 SDS was associated with a more than threefold increased risk of having an offspring with a birth weight between 2-3 SDS, OR 3.83 (3.44-4.26), or >3 SDS, OR 3.55 (2.54-4.97). Corresponding ORs for a maternal birth weight >3 SDS were 5.38 (4.12-7.01) and 6.98 (3.57-13.65), respectively. Risk of obesity in pregnancy was also related to maternal birth weight with OR 1.52 (1.42-1.63) for a birth weight corresponding to 2-3 SDS and 2.06 (1.71-2.49) for a birth weight >3 SDS. The risk of gestational diabetes was increased in females with a low (<2 SDS) birth weight, OR 2.49 (2.00-3.12), but not in those with a high birth weight.

    Conclusion Being born with a high birth weight was associated with increased risk of offspring macrosomia and obesity during pregnancy. The risks were most pronounced for subjects with a very high birth weight. A low, but not a high birth weight was associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes.

  • 19.
    Johnsson, Inger W
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Naessén, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Gynecological endocrinology.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    High birth weight was associated with increased radial artery intima thickness but not with other investigated cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood.2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study investigated whether a high birth weight was associated with increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease when Swedish adults reached 34-40.

    METHODS: We studied 27 subjects born at Uppsala University Hospital in 1975-1979, weighing at least 4500 g, and compared them with 27 controls selected by the Swedish National Board of Welfare with birth weights within ±1 standard deviations scores and similar ages and gender. The study included body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipid profile, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP) and high-frequency ultrasound measurements of intima-media thickness, intima thickness (IT) and intima:media ratio of the carotid and radial arteries.

    RESULTS: Subjects with a high birth weight did not differ from controls with regard to BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, high-sensitivity CRP, HbA1c or carotid artery wall dimensions. However, their radial artery intima thickness was 37% greater than the control group and their intima:media ratio was 44% higher.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a high birth weight was associated with increased radial artery intima thickness, but not with other investigated cardiovascular risk factors, at 34-40 years of age. The clinical implications of these findings should be investigated further, especially in subjects born with a very high birth weight.

  • 20.
    Karlsson, Victoria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Sporre, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Fredén, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Ågren, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Randomized controlled trial of room air vs. 80% oxygen for induction of neonatal anesthesia: Feasibility and safetyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Karlsson, Victoria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Univ Hosp, Unit Pediat Anesthesia, Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Childrens Hosp, Div Neonatol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sporre, Bengt
    Univ Hosp, Unit Pediat Anesthesia, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Univ Childrens Hosp, Div Neonatol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ågren, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Univ Childrens Hosp, Div Neonatol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Poor performance of main-stream capnography in newborn infants during general anesthesia2017In: Pediatric Anaesthesia, ISSN 1155-5645, E-ISSN 1460-9592, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 1235-1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Endtidal (ET) measurement of carbon dioxide is well established for intraoperative respiratory monitoring of adults and children, but the method's accuracy for intraoperative use in small newborn infants has been less extensively investigated.

    Aims

    The aim of this study was to compare carbon dioxide from ET measurements with arterialized capillary blood samples in newborn infants during general anesthesia and surgery.

    Methods

    Endtidal carbon dioxide was continuously measured during anesthesia and surgery and compared with simultaneous blood gas analyses obtained from capillary blood samples. Fifty-nine sample sets of ET to blood gas carbon dioxide were obtained from 23 prospectively enrolled infants with a gestational age of 23-41 weeks and a birth weight of 670-4110 g.

    Results

    Endtidal levels of carbon dioxide were considerably lower in all sample sets and only 4/23 individual ET-blood gas sample pairs differed <7.5 mm Hg (1 kPa). Bland-Altman analysis indicated a poor agreement with a bias of -13 7 mm Hg and a precision of +/- 14 mm Hg. The performance of ET measurements was particularly poor in infants weighing below 2.5 kg, in infants in need of respiratory support prior to anesthesia, and when the true (blood gas) carbon dioxide level was high, above 45 mm Hg.

    Conclusion

    Main-stream capnography during anesthesia and surgery correlated poorly to blood gas values in small and/or respiratory compromised infants. We conclude that caution should be exercised when relying solely on ET measurements to guide mechanical ventilation in the OR.

  • 22.
    Karlsson, Victoria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Sporre, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Ågren, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Transcutaneousp PCO2 monitoring in newborn infants during general anesthesia is technically feasible2016In: Anesthesia and Analgesia, ISSN 0003-2999, EISSN 1526-7598, Vol. 123, no 4, p. 1004-1007, article id 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001462Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Kjellberg, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Skin-to-skin hospital transfers are physiologically sound and empower parents2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 165-165Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Koller-Smith, Louise I. M.
    et al.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Fac Hlth Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Shahr, Prakesh S.
    Mt Sinai Hosp, Dept Pediat, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Mt Sinai Hosp, Maternal Infant Care Res Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Ye, Xiang Y.
    Mt Sinai Hosp, Maternal Infant Care Res Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Sjörs, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Wang, Yueping A.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Fac Hlth Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Chow, Sharon S. W.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Fac Hlth Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Darlow, Brian A.
    Univ Otago, Dept Paediat, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Lee, Shoo K.
    Mt Sinai Hosp, Dept Pediat, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Mt Sinai Hosp, Maternal Infant Care Res Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Håkanson, Stellan
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden..
    Lui, Kei
    Univ Technol Sydney, Fac Hlth Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Royal Hosp Women, Dept Newborn Care, Barker St, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia..
    Comparing very low birth weight versus very low gestation cohort methods for outcome analysis of high risk preterm infants2017In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 17, article id 166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compared to very low gestational age (<32 weeks, VLGA) cohorts, very low birth weight (<1500 g; VLBW) cohorts are more prone to selection bias toward small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants, which may impact upon the validity of data for benchmarking purposes. Method: Data from all VLGA or VLBW infants admitted in the 3 Networks between 2008 and 2011 were used. Two-thirds of each network cohort was randomly selected to develop prediction models for mortality and composite adverse outcome (CAO: mortality or cerebral injuries, chronic lung disease, severe retinopathy or necrotizing enterocolitis) and the remaining for internal validation. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of themodels were compared. Results: VLBW cohort (24,335 infants) had twice more SGA infants (20.4% vs. 9.3%) than the VLGA cohort (29,180 infants) and had a higher rate of CAO (36.5% vs. 32.6%). The two models had equal prediction power for mortality and CAO (AUC 0.83), and similarly for all other cross-cohort validations (AUC 0.81-0.85). Neither model performed well for the extremes of birth weight for gestation (<1500 g and >= 32 weeks, AUC 0.50-0.65; >= 1500 g and >= 32 weeks, AUC 0.60-0.62). Conclusion: There was no difference in prediction power for adverse outcome between cohorting VLGA or VLBW despite substantial bias in SGA population. Either cohorting practises are suitable for international benchmarking.

  • 25.
    Liljeström, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Ågren, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Jonsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Antepartum risk factors for moderate to severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: a Swedish national cohort study2018In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 615-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Our aim was to identify antepartum risk factors for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, with a focus on maternal body mass index and height.

    Material and methods

    National population-based cohort study of 692 428 live-born infants 36 gestational weeks in Sweden, 2009-2015. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register were linked. Short maternal stature was defined as 155 cm, and overweight as body mass index 25 kg/m(2). Therapeutic hypothermia served as surrogate marker of moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Associations between maternal and infant characteristics and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were calculated with logistic regression analyses, and risks were presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals.

    Results

    Moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy occurred in 0.67/1000 infants. Nulliparity, previous cesarean delivery, short stature, overweight, gestational age, occiput posterior presentation and birthweight were all independently associated with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The risk of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy increased with decreasing maternal height and increasing body mass index. Compared with non-short women (156 cm) with normal weight (body mass index <25 kg/m(2)), those with both short stature and overweight had increased risk of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (odds ratio 3.66; 95% confidence intervals 2.41-5.55). Among parous women with both short stature and overweight, the risk was almost sixfold (odds ratio 5.74; 95% confidence intervals 3.41-9.66).

    Conclusions

    Antepartum risk factors for moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy included nulliparity, previous cesarean delivery, short stature, overweight, gestational age, occiput posterior presentation and birthweight. The combination of maternal short stature and overweight was associated with a more than threefold risk of subsequent hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

  • 26.
    Markasz, Laszlo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Savani, Rashmin
    Sedin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Sindelar, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    The receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) expression in neonatal bronchiolar epithelium correlates negatively with lung air content2018In: Early Human Development, ISSN 0378-3782, E-ISSN 1872-6232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) may have an important role in lung development. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of hyaluronan (HA) content and RHAMM during postnatal lung development by analyzing human lung specimens from ventilated newborn infants with a variety of lung diseases at different gestational and postnatal ages.

    Materials and methods: Ninety four patient samples were evaluated. RHAMM expression was studied by immunohistochemistry combined with digital image analysis. Cluster analysis was performed to find subgroups according to immuno-histological and clinical data.  We present a computerized method that describes the air content of the lung by determining the fraction of the parenchyma-covered area in lung sections. HA content was estimated by radiometric assay.

    Results: The patients could be sorted into groups by hierarchical clustering. Five of six groups showed individual patterns according to RHAMM expression and HA content. Negative correlation was observed between air content and RHAMM expression in the bronchiolar epithelium irrespective of clustered groups. Lung hypoplasia appeared in two distinctive groups, with significant differences in lung development and RHAMM expression.

    Conclusions: RHAMM expression may show dynamic changes during pathological processes in the neonatal lung.  The distribution of RHAMM in the lung tissue is heterogeneous with a predominance to the bronchiolar epithelium. We found a negative correlation between lung air content and RHAMM expression in bronchiolar epithelium.

  • 27.
    Markasz, Laszlo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Wanders, Alkwin
    Umea Univ, Dept Biomed Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Szekely, Laszlo
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Div Pathol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engstrand Lilja, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Surgery.
    Diminished DEFA6 Expression in Paneth Cells Is Associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis2018In: Gastroenterology Research and Practice, ISSN 1687-6121, E-ISSN 1687-630X, article id 7345426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in premature infants with a high morbidity and mortality. Paneth cell dysfunction has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of NEC. Defensin alpha-6 (DEFA6) is a specific marker for Paneth cells acting as part of the innate immunity in the human intestines. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of DEFA6 in infants with NEC. Materials and Methods. Infants who underwent bowel resection for NEC at level III NICU in Sweden between August 2004 and September 2013 were eligible for the study. Macroscopically vital tissues were selected for histopathological evaluation. All infants in the control group underwent laparotomy and had ileostomy due to dysmotility, and samples were taken from the site of the stoma. DEFA6 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. Digital image analysis was used for an objective and precise description of the samples. Results. A total of 12 infants were included in the study, eight with NEC and four controls. The tissue samples were taken from the colon (n = 1), jejunum (n = 1), and ileum (n = 10). Both the NEC and control groups consisted of extremely premature and term infants (control group: 25-40 gestational weeks, NEC group: 23-39 gestational weeks). The postnatal age at the time of surgery varied in both groups (control group: 4-47 days, NEC group: 4-50 days). DEFA6 expression in the NEC group was significantly lower than that in the control group and did not correlate with gestational age. Conclusion. The diminished DEFA6 expression in Paneth cells associated with NEC in this study supports the hypothesis that alpha-defensins are involved in the pathophysiology of NEC. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of alpha-defensins in NEC aiming at finding preventive and therapeutic strategies against NEC.

  • 28.
    Montgomery, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Johansen, Kine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Lucas, Steven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Strömberg, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Persson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    The Structured Observation of Motor Performance in Infants can detect cerebral palsy early in neonatal intensive care recipients2017In: Early Human Development, ISSN 0378-3782, E-ISSN 1872-6232, Vol. 113, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The detection of motor problems in infancy requires a detailed assessment method that measures both the infants' level of motor development and movement quality.

    Aim

    To evaluate the ability of the Structured Observation of Motor Performance in Infants (SOMP-I) to detect cerebral palsy (CP) in neonatal intensive care recipients.

    Study design

    Prospective cohort study analyzed retrospectively.

    Subjects

    212 (girls: 96) neonatal intensive care recipients (mean gestational age 34 weeks, range: 23–43). Twenty infants were diagnosed with CP.

    Outcome measures

    The infants were assessed using SOMP-I at 2, 4, 6 and 10 months' corrected age. Accuracy measures were calculated for level of motor development, quality of motor performance and a combination of the two to detect CP at single and repeated assessments.

    Results

    At 2 months, 17 of 20 infants with CP were detected, giving a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI 62–97%) and a specificity of 48% (95% CI 40–55%), while the negative likelihood ratio was 0.3 (95% CI 0.1–0.9) and the positive likelihood ratio was 1.6 (95% CI 1.3–2.0). At 6 months all infants with CP were detected using SOMP-I, and all infants had repeatedly been assessed outside the cut-offs. Specificity was generally lower for all assessment ages, however, for repeated assessments sensitivity reached 90% (95% CI 68–99%) and specificity 85% (95% CI 79–90%).

    Conclusions

    SOMP-I is sensitive for detecting CP early, but using the chosen cut-off can lead to false positives for CP. Assessing level and quality in combination and at repeated assessments improved predictive ability.

  • 29.
    Noren, Josefine
    et al.
    Univ Hosp, Neonatal Intens Care Unit, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedberg Nyqvist, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Rubertsson, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research. Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Ylva Thernström
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Univ Hosp, Neonatal Intens Care Unit, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Becoming a mother: Mothers' experience of Kangaroo Mother Care2018In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 16, p. 181-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe mothers' experiences of providing their preterm infants with Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC).

    Study design: A qualitative descriptive design.

    Setting: Two level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Sweden.

    Participants: Thirteen mothers of preterm infants.

    Methods: The mothers were interviewed when their infant had reached a corrected age of 4 months +/- 2 weeks. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The mothers described the skin-to-skin contact with, and closeness to, the preterm infant as something they valued, and involuntary physical separation as something they had to accept and adapt to. Providing the infant with breast milk by expressing and tube feeding was experienced as time-consuming and as impinging on the skin-to-skin contact.

    Conclusion: Mothers want to stay close to their preterm infant. The NICU environment and staff can facilitate KMC by providing a private space for parents and infants, and enable mothers to breastfeed and express breast milk by giving them support based on science and proven experience.

  • 30.
    Olsson, Karl Wilhelm
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Jonzon, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Sindelar, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Early Hemodynamically Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus Not Associated with Future Persistence in Infants Born at 22-27 Weeks’ GestationIn: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Otterman, Gabriel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Lahne, Klara
    Arkema, Elizabeth
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lucas, Steven
    Uppsala University, National Centre for Knowledge on Men. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Janson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Childhood death rates declined in Sweden from 2000 to 2014 but deaths from external causes were not always investigated2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Otterman, Gabriel
    et al.
    Lahne, Klara
    Arkema, Elizabeth V
    Lucas, Steven
    Uppsala University, National Centre for Knowledge on Men. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Janson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Childhood death rates declined in Sweden from 2000-2014 but deaths from external causes were not always investigated.2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Countries that conduct systematic child death reviews report a high proportion of modifiable characteristics among deaths from external causes and this study examined the trends in Sweden.

    METHODS: We analysed individual level data on external, ill-defined and unknown causes from the Swedish cause of death register from 2000-2014 and mortality rates were estimated for children under the age of one and for those aged 1-14 and 15-17 years.

    RESULTS: Child deaths from all causes were 7,914 and 2,006 (25%) were from external, ill-defined and unknown causes: 610 (30%) were infants, 692 (34%) were 1-14 and 704 (35%) were 15-17. The annual average was 134 cases (range 99-156) during the study period. Mortality rates from external, ill-defined and unknown causes in children under 18 fell 19%, from 7.4 to 6.0 per 100,000 population. A sizeable number of infant deaths (8.0%) were registered without a death certificate during the study period, but these counts were lower in children aged 1-14 (1.3%) and 15-17 (0.9%).

    CONCLUSION: Childhood deaths showed a sustained decline from 2000-2014 in Sweden and a quarter were from external, ill-defined or unknown causes. Systematic, interagency death reviews could yield information that could prevent future deaths. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Sindelar, Richard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Jonzon, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Schulze, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Partialliquid ventilation distends airways in a similar way as gas ventilation: astudy of pulmonary stretch receptor activity during two different pressurewaveforms.In: Experimental Lung Research, ISSN 0190-2148, E-ISSN 1521-0499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Söderström, Fanny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Normann, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Larsson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Sindelar, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Ågren, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Reduced rate of retinopathy of prematurity after implementing lower oxygen saturation targets.2018In: Journal of Perinatology, ISSN 0743-8346, E-ISSN 1476-5543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate an implementation of lower oxygen saturation targets with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) as primary outcome.

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort including infants born at 22-25 weeks of gestation in 2005-2015 (n=325), comparing exposure to high versus low targets; infants transferred early were excluded from the main analysis to avoid bias.

    Results: Overall survival was 76% in high saturation era, and 69% in low saturation era (P = .17). Treatment-requiring ROP was less common in low saturation group (28% vs 14%, P < .05) with the most prominent difference in the most immature infants. Including deceased infants in the analysis, necrotizing enterocolitis was more frequent in low saturation era, (10% vs 21%, P < .05).

    Conclusions: Implementing lower saturation targets resulted in a halved incidence of treatment-requiring ROP; the most immature infants seem to benefit the most. An association between lower oxygenation and necrotizing enterocolitis cannot be ruled out.

  • 35. Veneroni, Chiara
    et al.
    Wallström, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Sindelar, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Dellaca, Raffaele
    Oscillatory respiratory mechanics on the first day of life improves prediction of respiratory outcomes in extremely preterm newborns2018In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate if lung mechanics measured by forced oscillatory technique (FOT) during the first day of life help identify extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs) at risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) and oxygen dependency.

    METHODS: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was increased 2 cmH2O above the clinically set PEEP, then decreased by four 5-min steps of 1 cmH2O, and restored at the clinical value. At each PEEP, FOT measurements were performed bedside during MV. Changes in respiratory mechanics with PEEP, clinical parameters, and chest radiographs were evaluated.

    RESULTS: Twenty-two newborns (24+4 ± 1+4 wks gestational age (GA); birth weight 653 ± 166 g) on assist/control ventilation were studied. Infants were ventilated for 40 ± 36 d (range 1–155 d), 11 developed severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and one died before 28 d. Early lung mechanics correlated with days on MV, days of respiratory support, and BPD grade. Effects of increasing PEEP on oscillatory reactance assessed by FOT together with GA and radiographic score predicted days on MV (multilinear model, r2 = 0.73). A logistic model considering the same FOT parameter together with GA predicts BPD development.

    CONCLUSIONS: FOT can be applied bedside in ELGANs, where early changes in lung mechanics with PEEP improve clinical prediction of respiratory outcomes.

  • 36.
    Wallström, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Veneroni, Chiara
    Zannin, Emanuella
    Dellaca, Raffale
    Sindelar, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Optimizing PEEP in mechanically ventilated extremely preterm infants by bedside use of forced oscillation techniqueIn: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Weeke, Lauren C.
    et al.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Wilhelmina Childrens Hosp, Dept Neonatol, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    van Ooijen, Inge M.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Wilhelmina Childrens Hosp, Dept Neonatol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Groenendaal, Floris
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Wilhelmina Childrens Hosp, Dept Neonatol, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    van Huffelen, Alexander C.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Wilhelmina Childrens Hosp, Dept Neonatol, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Clin Neurophysiol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    van Haastert, Ingrid C.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Wilhelmina Childrens Hosp, Dept Neonatol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    van Stam, Carolien
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Clin Psychol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Benders, Manon J.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Wilhelmina Childrens Hosp, Dept Neonatol, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Toet, Mona C.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Wilhelmina Childrens Hosp, Dept Neonatol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    de Vries, Linda S.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Wilhelmina Childrens Hosp, Dept Neonatol, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants: Classification and association with brain injury and outcome2017In: Clinical Neurophysiology, ISSN 1388-2457, E-ISSN 1872-8952, Vol. 128, no 12, p. 2428-2435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Classify rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants and relate these to brain injury and outcome.

    Methods: Retrospective analysis of 77 infants born <28 weeks gestational age (GA) who had a 2-channel EEG during the first 72 h after birth. Patterns detected by the BrainZ seizure detection algorithm were categorized: ictal discharges, periodic epileptiform discharges (PEDs) and other waveforms. Brain injury was assessed with sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS) and MRI at term-equivalent age. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed with the BSITD-III (2 years) and WPPSI-III-NL (5 years).

    Results: Rhythmic patterns were observed in 62.3% (ictal 1.3%, PEDs 44%, other waveforms 86.3%) with multiple patterns in 36.4%. Ictal discharges were only observed in one and excluded from further analyses. The EEG location of the other waveforms (p < 0.05), but not PEDs (p = 0.238), was significantly associated with head position. No relation was found between the median total duration of each pattern and injury on cUS and MRI or cognition at 2 and 5 years.

    Conclusions: Clear ictal discharges are rare in extremely preterm infants. PEDs are common but their significance is unclear. Rhythmic waveforms related to head position are likely artefacts.& para;& para;Significance: Rhythmic EEG patterns may have a different significance in extremely preterm infants. (C) 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

  • 38.
    Wikström, Sverre
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology. Orebro Univ, Sch Med Sci, Orebro, Sweden.
    Hövel, Holger
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Pupp, Ingrid Hansen
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Fellman, Vineta
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Hüppi, Petra S.
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Dept Pediat, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Ley, David
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Early Electroencephalography Suppression and Postnatal Morbidities Correlate with Cerebral Volume at Term-Equivalent Age in Very Preterm Infants2018In: Neonatology, ISSN 1661-7800, E-ISSN 1661-7819, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early brain activity is associated with long-term outcome. Establishing a relation also with postnatal brain growth may increase our understanding of early life influences on preterm brain development.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether early electroencephalography (EEG) activity in infants born very preterm is associated with brain volumes at term, and whether postnatal morbidity affects this association.

    Methods: Very preterm infants (n = 38) with a median gestational age (GA) of 25.6 weeks had early recordings of single-channel EEG. The percentage of suppressed EEG, i.e., interburst intervals (IBI%) between 24 and 72 h of age, was analyzed in relation to brain volumes on magnetic resonance imaging performed at term-equivalent age, taking into account neonatal morbidities.

    Results: Early electrocortical depression and a higher IBI% were associated with increased cerebrospinal fluid volume (CSFV) and lower total brain volume relative to intracranial volume, also after adjustment for GA, postnatal morbidities, morphine administration, and postnatal head growth. Overall, an increase in IBI% to 1 SD from the mean corresponded with an increase in CSFV to +0.7 SD and a decrease in brain volume to -0.7 SD. The presence of 2 or more postnatal morbidities were associated with around 10% lower brain volumes.

    Conclusions: More suppressed early EEG activity of very preterm infants is associated with lower brain volume and increased CSFV at term age, also when adjusting for postnatal morbidities. The findings indicate the importance of pre- and early postpartal determinants of postnatal brain growth, possibly also including activity-dependent mechanisms for brain growth.

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