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  • 1.
    Aalto, Aino-Maija
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen, UCFS.
    Childcare - A safety net for children? 2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how access to childcare affects health outcomes of children with unemployed parents using a reform that increased childcare access in some Swedish municipalities. For 4–5 year olds, we find an immediate increase in infection-related hospitalization, when these children first get access to childcare. We find no effect on younger children. When children are 10–11 years of age, children who did not have access to childcare when parents were unemployed are more likely to take medication for respiratory conditions. Taken together, our results thus suggest that access to childcare exposes children to risks for infections, but that need for medication in school age is lower for children who had access.

  • 2.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Intergenerational Wealth Mobility and the Role of Inheritance: Evidence from Multiple Generations2018Inngår i: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 128, nr 612, s. F482-F513Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates intergenerational wealth correlations across up to four generations and examines the degree to which the wealth association between parents and children can be explained by inheritances. Using a Swedish data set with newly hand-collected data on wealth and bequests, we find parent-child rank correlations of 0.3-0.4 and grandparent-grandchild rank correlations of 0.1-0.2. Bequests and gifts appear to be central in this process, accounting for at least half of the parent-child wealth correlation while earnings and education can account for only a quarter.

  • 3. Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Wage incentives and wage rigidity: A representative view from within2007Inngår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 347-369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent literature has used surveys of those who set wages to learn about the nature of wage incentives and the sources of wage rigidity. Methodologically, we overcome many of the objections that have been raised against this work. Substantively, we find that: (i) the reasons for real wage rigidity differ significantly between large and small firms, and between the high- and low-end of the labor market; (ii) efficiency wage mechanisms reinforce rigidities due to worker bargaining power; (iii) money illusion is a widespread phenomenon across all segments of the labor market; (iv) unions reinforce nominal wage rigidities due to external pay comparisons; (v) there appears to be gender differences in pay bargaining and work morale.

  • 4.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Effects of Decentralization on School Resources2005Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Effects of decentralization on school resources2008Inngår i: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 276-284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its school sector, which, consequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local school resources differently as decentralization took place. We find that municipal tax base affects per pupil spending in the same way regardless of whether the school sector is centralized or decentralized, but has a smaller effect on teacher–pupil ratio after the reforms. The less-targeted grants are the fewer teachers per pupil do the municipalities employ. The results for local preferences are less clear-cut.

  • 6.
    Albrecht, James
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Vroman, Susan
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    The aggregate labor market effects of the Swedish Knowledge Lift program2009Inngår i: Review of economic dynamics (Print), ISSN 1094-2025, E-ISSN 1096-6099, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 129-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish adult education program known as the Knowledge Lift (1997-2002) was unprecedented in its size and scope, aiming to raise the skill level of large numbers of low-skill workers. This paper evaluates the potential effects of this program on aggregate labor market outcomes. This is done by calibrating an equilibrium search model with heterogeneous worker skills using pre-program data and then forecasting the program impacts. We compare the forecasts to observed aggregate labor market outcomes after termination of the program.

  • 7.
    Alessie, Rob J. M.
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands;Netspar, Tilburg, Netherlands.
    Angelini, Viola
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands;Netspar, Tilburg, Netherlands.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Univ Bristol, Bristol, Avon, England;IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Mierau, Jochen O.
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands;Netspar, Tilburg, Netherlands.
    Viluma, Laura
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Economic conditions at birth and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood: Evidence from post-1950 cohorts2019Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 224, s. 77-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the literature that studies long-run effects of early-life economic conditions on health outcomes is based on pre-1940 birth cohorts. Early in these individuals' lives, public social safety nets were at best rudimentary, and female labor force participation was relatively low. We complement the evidence by studying the effects of regional business cycle variations in the post-1950 Netherlands on cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. We use data from Lifelines, a large cohort study that covers socio-economic, biological and health information from over 75,000 individuals aged between 20 and 63. Cardiovascular risk index is constructed from an extensive set of biomarkers. The results show that for women a 1 percentage point increase in the provincial unemployment level leads to a 0.02 percentage point increase in the risk of a fatal cardiovascular event in the coming 10 years while the effect in men is not significant. We conclude that women born in adverse economic conditions experience higher cardiovascular risk.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Social stratification and out-of-school learning2013Inngår i: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), ISSN 0964-1998, E-ISSN 1467-985X, Vol. 176, nr 3, s. 679-701Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the effects of out-of-school learning we use data on children who stayed in boarding houses while attending public elementary schools in Sweden in the 1940s. The out-of-school environment at the boarding houses could be considered as being more conducive to learning than the home environment: the pupils at the boarding houses had daily scheduled time for doing their homework with the assistance of a junior school teacher and, in addition, they had access to a small library. The placement at boarding houses was based on the distance from their place of residence to the nearest school and thus had no direct connection to the pupils' skills, which simplifies the empirical analysis based on register data. We find that the more conducive learning environment equalized skills at school leaving age, and the effect was greater for children with poor initial ability.

  • 9. Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Waldenström, Nina
    Do you want your child to have a certified teacher?2011Inngår i: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 65-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the teaching staff composition with respect to certification affects student achievement in compulsory Swedish schools. We apply an instrumental variable to estimate the effect of the share of non-certified teachers on student achievement (measured by grade point average, GPA). We find statistically significant negative effects on the GPA. The effect is stronger for students with highly educated parents. A one percentage point increase in the share of non-certified teachers is expected to decrease student's GPA by, on average, 1.8 standard deviations per year. This is a substantial effect considering the large differences in the shares of non-certified teachers across schools and municipalities.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Elvira
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Econ, S-22007 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Ctr Econ Demog, S-22007 Lund, Sweden..
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund Univ, Dept Econ, S-22007 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Ctr Econ Demog, S-22007 Lund, Sweden.;IZA, Dresden, Germany..
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Income receipt and mortality: Evidence from Swedish public sector employees2015Inngår i: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 131, s. 21-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the short-run effect of salary receipt on mortality among Swedish public sector employees. By exploiting variation in paydays across work-places, we completely control for mortality patterns related to, for example, public holidays and other special days or events coinciding with paydays and for general within-month and within-week mortality patterns. We find a dramatic increase in mortality on the day that salaries arrive. The increase is especially pronounced for younger workers and for deaths due to activity-related causes such as heart conditions and strokes. The effect is entirely driven by an increase in mortality among low income individuals, who are more likely to experience liquidity constraints. All things considered, our results suggest that an increase in general economic activity on salary receipt is an important cause of the excess mortality.

  • 11.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin.
    Demmelmaier, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Hansson, Ann-Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Winblad, Ulrika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning.
    Samverkan i Resursteam: effekter på organisation, hälsa och sjukskrivning2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi utvärderar samverkansformen Resursteam, som bedrivits som ett försök för att minska långa sjukskrivningar. Resursteam innebär att ett team med hand-läggare från Försäkringskassan, husläkare, sjukgymnast och beteendevetare, vid regelbundna möten bedömer sjukskrivna personers rehabiliteringsbehov och ger förslag på åtgärder. Det övergripande syftet är att skatta effekten av Resursteam på den försäkrades sjukskrivningslängd och självskattade hälsa. Vi har genomfört (i) en kartläggning av verksamheten, (ii) en enkätstudie till sjuk-skrivna som deltagit i Resursteam och till jämförelsepersoner samt (ii) skattat effekten av Resursteam på självskattad hälsa och sjukskrivning. Resultaten är entydiga och visar på inga eller negativa effekter för de personer som ingått i Resursteam. Som exempel kan nämnas att tiden i sjukskrivning förlängs med cirka 20 procent i genomsnitt.

  • 12.
    Angelov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Swedish Natl Audit Off, SE-11490 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Inst Evaluat Labour Market & Educ Policy IFAU, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors Associated with Occupational Disability Classification2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 37-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide disabled people with the same opportunities to participate in working life as everyone else, certain measures, such as wage subsidies, compensating for a reduced work capacity, might be necessary. To ascertain that these measures are limited to the most needy a system that identifies the target group is required. The Swedish Public Employment Service's (PES') classification of occupational disability constitutes such a system. In this study we document how jobseekers' demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position, and health-related conditions are associated with being classified as occupationally disabled by the PES, and how this classification might be distorted by unintended incentive mechanisms. Our empirical analyses show that both previous health conditions and previous socioeconomic disadvantages were associated with a higher likelihood of being classified as occupationally disabled. To what extent these jobseekers actually had impairments that entailed reduced work capacity cannot be concluded from the available data, but our results indicate that also the goals set by the government may have influenced how the PES classified jobseekers.

  • 13.
    Angelov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    The Differential Earnings and Income Effects of Involuntary Job Loss on Workers with Disabilities: Evidence from Sweden2016Inngår i: Labour, ISSN 1121-7081, E-ISSN 1467-9914, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 213-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People with disabilities are consistently found to face considerable difficulties in the labour market. In this study we investigated whether their earnings and income trajectories are more adversely affected in case of involuntary job loss. Earnings of those with and without disabilities began to diverge already several years prior to job loss because of larger incidence of sickness. Following job loss much more job losers with disabilities became disability retirees resulting in a considerable and seemingly permanent earnings differential. However, larger uptake of public social insurances among job losers with disabilities resulted in a much smaller income differential.

  • 14.
    Angelov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Wage subsidies targeted to jobseekers with disabilities: subsequent employment and disability retirement2018Inngår i: IZA Journal of Labor Policy, ISSN 2193-9004, E-ISSN 2193-9004, Vol. 7, artikkel-id UNSP 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, a non-negligible percentage of the working-age population has impairments that also entail reduced work capacity, and disability retirement is increasing. Despite this, studies on the effects of policies aimed at enhancing the labour market inclusion among people with disabilities, such as targeted wage subsidies, are surprisingly few. In an attempt to fill this gap, we have studied how wage subsidies affect future labour market outcomes for jobseekers with disabilities, in terms of employment and disability retirement. By using inverse probability weighting applied to rich Swedish register data, we contrast participants in the wage subsidy program to observably similar non-participants during a 19-year period. We find that participation was associated with both positive and negative labour market outcomes. On the negative side, participants were less likely to have unsubsidised employment. On the positive side, leaving the labour market through the disability insurance program was somewhat less common among participants. Moreover, using a broader employment measure including subsidised jobs, the participants were found to be employed to a larger extent, which could be interpreted either as locking-in effects or as fostering labour market inclusion.

  • 15.
    Angelov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Inst Labor Econ, Bonn, Germany.
    Lee, Myoung-jae
    Korea Univ, Seoul, South Korea.
    Practical causal analysis for the treatment timing effect on doubly censored duration: effect of fertility on work span2019Inngår i: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), ISSN 0964-1998, E-ISSN 1467-985X, Vol. 182, nr 4, s. 1561-1585Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a practical causal framework to estimate the effects of a treatment and its timing on a doubly censored response. We then apply the methodology to find the effect of fertility on work duration where, not just fertility itself, but the timing of fertility should matter greatly. Since fertility and its decision of timing are chosen by the individual, it is likely to be endogenous. We use a populationwide data set over mothers with two children to address the endogeneity issue by using the first two children's same-sex instrument in a 'control function' setting. We find that having a third child reduces the average labour market work duration, and that the magnitude of the effect increases monotonically with the waiting time between the second and third children. Moreover, the negative effect varies substantially over education and second-birth age, being stronger for mothers with higher education and lower second-birth age.

  • 16.
    Angelov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Parenthood and the Gender Gap in Pay2016Inngår i: Journal of Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 545-579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare the income and wage trajectories of women to those of their male partners before and after parenthood. Focusing on the within-couple gap allows us to control for both observed and unobserved attributes of the spouse and to estimate both short-and long-term effects of entering parenthood. We find that 15 years after the first child has been born, the male-female gender gaps in income and wages have increased by 32 and 10 percentage points, respectively. In line with a collective labor supply model, the magnitude of these effects depends on counterfactual relative incomes or wages within the family.

  • 17.
    Angelov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Sick of family responsibilities?2019Inngår i: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates the effect of parenthood on the within-couple gender gap in paidsick leave. We find that as a result of parenthood, mothers more than double their sick leave compared with fathers. However, there is no corresponding effect on health measured by hospital stays. We also find that mothers’ income trajectory is strongly related to the magnitude of the effect: A less favorable income trajectory is associated with a larger effect of parenthood on the sick leave gap. Since mothers’ labor supply is measured 1 year prior to sick leave, this result suggests that the lower labor supply induces an increase in sick leave rather than the other way round.

  • 18.
    Ansell, Christopher
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Lundin, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    How Learning Aggregates: A Social Network Analysis of Learning between Swedish municipalities2017Inngår i: Local Government Studies, ISSN 0300-3930, E-ISSN 1743-9388, Vol. 43, nr 7, s. 903-926Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a unique data set of learning among all 290 Swedish municipalities, we use social network analysis to analyze how learning networks aggregate nationally. To facilitate this analysis, we describe five ideal-typical patterns of aggregation—core-periphery, small world, top-down regionalism, bottom-up regionalism, and urban hierarchy. Each of these ideal types has important implications for how ideas, information, and innovation will circulate among municipalities. Social network analysis allows us to both isolate these patterns and to appreciate composite patterns. The analysis indicates that Swedish municipalities are a small world network with clear regional and hierarchical elements. County seats serve an important role as network hubs.

  • 19.
    Ansell, Christopher
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Lundin, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Learning Networks Among Swedish Municipalities: Is Sweden a Small World?2017Inngår i: Knowledge and Networks / [ed] Johannes Glückler, Emmanuel Lazega & Ingmar Hammer, Springer International Publishing , 2017, s. 315-336Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed, networked learning processes are widely touted as a basis for superior performance. Yet we know relatively little about how learning networks operate in the aggregate. We explore this issue by utilizing a unique data set on learning among Swedish municipalities. The data indicate that geographic proximity and county are the basic structuring properties of the global network. Municipalities learn from their near neighbors, especially from neighbors in the same county, and these two principles produce a high degree of local clustering in the municipal learning networks. At the same time, we also find evidence that Swedish municipalities are a small world linked together on a national basis. Two mechanisms knit the Swedish municipalities together. First, county seats serve as hubs that link local clusters together. Second, local clusters aggregate into regional clusters. Despite a high degree of local clustering, hubs and regions provide a structural basis for the national diffusion of policy ideas and practices among Swedish municipalities.

  • 20. Arni, Patrick
    et al.
    Lalive, Rafael
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Van Ours, Jan C.
    How effective are unemployment benefit sanctions?: looking beyond unemployment exit2013Inngår i: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 1153-1178Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of benefit sanctions on post-unemployment outcomes such as post-unemployment employment stability and earnings. We use rich register data which allow us to distinguish between a warning that a benefit reduction may take place in the near future and the actual withdrawal of unemployment benefits. Adopting a multivariate mixed proportional hazard approach to address selectivity, we find that warnings do not affect subsequent employment stability but do reduce post-unemployment earnings. Actual benefit reductions lower the quality of post-unemployment jobs both in terms of job duration as well as in terms of earnings.

  • 21.
    Assadi, Anahita
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Agcy Educ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundin, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Street-level bureaucrats, rule-following and tenure: How assessment tools are used at the front line of the public sector2018Inngår i: Public Administration, ISSN 0033-3298, E-ISSN 1467-9299, Vol. 96, nr 1, s. 154-170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on street-level bureaucracy examine actions of frontline workers within the public sector. In this literature, there is a lack of evidence on how job tenure affects how frontline workers respond to formal steering. We contribute to prior research by studying the nationwide introduction of an assessment support tool to be used by caseworkers to assess clients' needs under the Swedish active labour market policy. We examine the potential effects of tenure on how caseworkers use this tool. The empirical analysis is based on quantitative and qualitative data. We show that as tenure increases, street-level bureaucrats, especially male caseworkers, tend to act in accordance with policy signals to a lesser extent. The qualitative analysis shows that this pattern can partly be explained by the fact that increasing experience with meeting clients face to face increases caseworkers' perceived confidence and skills.

  • 22.
    Avdic, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). CINCH, Essen, Germany.;Univ Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany..
    Improving efficiency or impairing access? Health care consolidation and quality of care: Evidence from emergency hospital closures in Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 48, s. 44-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent health care consolidation trends raise the important policy question whether improved emergency medical services and enhanced productivity can offset adverse quality effects from decreased access. This paper empirically analyzes how geographical distance from an emergency hospital affects the probability of surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), accounting for health-based spatial sorting and data limitations on out-of-hospital mortality. Exploiting policy-induced variation in hospital distance derived from emergency hospital closures and detailed Swedish mortality data over two decades, results show a drastically decreasing probability of surviving an AMI as residential distance from a hospital increases one year after a closure occurred. The effect disappears in subsequent years, however, suggesting that involved agents quickly adapted to the new environment.

  • 23.
    Avdic, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). CINCH, Essen, Germany.; Univ Duisburg Essen, Duisburg, Germany..
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.; IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    Absenteeism, Gender and the Morbidity–Mortality Paradox2017Inngår i: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 440-462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Women are, on average, more often absent from work for health reasons than men, but live longer. This conflicting pattern suggests that the gender absenteeism gap arises partly from factors unrelated to objective health. An overlooked explanation is that men and women might have different preferences for absenteeism due to different attitudes to, for example, risk. Using detailed administrative data on absenteeism, hospitalizations, and mortality, we evaluate the existence of gender-specific preferences for absenteeism and analyze whether these differences are socially determined. We find robust evidence of gender differences in absenteeism that cannot be explained by poorer objective health among women.

  • 24.
    Avdic, Daniel
    et al.
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Duisburg, Germany;CINCH Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund Univ, Dept Econ, Lund, Sweden;IZA Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Estimating returns to hospital volume: Evidence from advanced cancer surgery2019Inngår i: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 63, s. 81-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-volume hospitals typically perform better than low-volume hospitals. In this paper, we study whether such patterns reflect a causal effect of case volume on patient outcomes. To this end, we exploit closures and openings of entire cancer clinics in Swedish hospitals which provides sharp and arguably exogenous variation in case volumes. Using detailed register data on more than 100,000 treatment episodes of advanced cancer surgery, our results suggest substantial positive effects of operation volume on survival. Complementary analyses point to learning-by-doing as an important explanation. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Ba, Bocar A.
    et al.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Ham, John C.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.;Univ Wisconsin, IRP, Madison, WI USA.;IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    LaLonde, Robert J.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.;IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    Li, Xianghong
    York Univ, N York, ON, Canada..
    Estimating (Easily Interpreted) Dynamic Training Effects from Experimental Data2017Inngår i: Journal Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, E-ISSN 1537-5307, Vol. 35, s. S149-S200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effect of endogenous training participation on transitions in and out of employment for disadvantaged women in the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) study. Decomposing the effect of training on employment into its effects on transitions in and out of employment has the potential to develop more effective programs. We also consider a potentially serious identification problem that arises when individuals do not undertake training immediately, and we propose a test to shed light on this problem. We find that this problem is not important in our context. JTPA classroom training substantially reduced unemployment durations, and thus it complements programs that increase employment durations.

  • 26.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Bunching and non-bunching at kink points of the Swedish tax schedule2014Inngår i: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 109, s. 36-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent microeconometric studies of taxpayers' responsiveness to taxation have shown that intensive margin labor supply and earnings elasticities typically are modest and sometimes equal to zero. A common view is that long-run responses still might be large if micro-estimates are downward biased owing to optimization frictions. In this paperwe estimate the taxable income elasticity at a very large kink point of the Swedish tax schedule using the bunching method. During the period of study the change in the log net-of-tax rate reached a maximum value of 45.6%. Interestingly, we obtain a precise elasticity estimate of zero for wage earners at this large kink. We also conclude by the means of numerical simulations that, even though the kink point we study is very large, income effects are unlikely to bias our estimates. The size of the kink allows us to derive tighter bounds on the long-run elasticity than previous studies. Ifwage earners on average tolerate 1% of their disposable income in optimization costs, the upper bound on the long-run compensated taxable income elasticity is 0.39.

  • 27. Behncke, Stefanie
    et al.
    Frölich, Markus
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Lechner, Michael
    A Caseworker Like Me - Does The Similarity Between The Unemployed and Their Caseworkers Increase Job Placements?2010Inngår i: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 120, nr 549, s. 1430-1459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines whether the chances of job placements improve if the unemployed are counselled by caseworkers who belong to the same social group, defined by gender, age, education and nationality. Based on an unusually informative dataset, which links Swiss unemployed to their caseworkers, we find positive employment effects of about 3 percentage points if the caseworker and his unemployed client belong to the same social group. Coincidence in a single characteristic, e.g., same gender of caseworker and unemployed, does not lead to detectable effects on employment. These results, obtained by statistical matching methods, are confirmed by several robustness checks.

  • 28.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Carling, Kenneth
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Do Benefit Hikes Damage Job Finding? Evidence from Swedish Unemployment Insurance Reforms2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001 and 2002, Sweden introduced several unemployment insurance reforms. A major innovation in the first reform was the introduction of a two-tiered benefit structure for some unemployed individuals. This system involved supplementary compensation during the first 20 weeks of unemployment. The 2002 reform retained the two-tiered benefit structure but involved also substantial benefit hikes for spells exceeding 20 weeks. This paper examines how these reforms affected transitions from unemployment to employment. We take advantage of the fact that the reforms had quasi-experimental features where the “treatments” differed considerably among unemployed individuals. We find that the reforms had strikingly different effects on job finding among men and women. The two reforms in conjunction are estimated to have increased the expected duration of unemployment among men but to have decreased the duration of unemployment among women. The overall effect on the duration of unemployment is not statistically different from zero. However, the reforms reduced job finding among males who remained unemployed for more than 20 weeks.

  • 29.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Öcert, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Effects of contracting out employment services: Evidence from a randomized experiment2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries welfare services that traditionally have been provided by the public sector are being contracted out to private providers. But are private contractors better at providing these services? We use a randomized experiment to empirically assess the effectiveness of contracting out employment services to private placement agencies. Our results show that unemployed at private placement agencies have a closer interaction with their case worker than unemployed at the Public Employment Service (PES); e.g., they receive more assistance in improving their job search technology. We do not find any overall difference in the chances of finding employment between private placement agencies and the PES, but this hides important heterogeneities across different types of unemployed. In particular, private providers are better at providing employment services to immigrants, whereas they may be worse for adolescents. Any effects tend to fade away over time.

  • 30.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Effects of contracting out employment services: Evidence from a randomized experiment2013Inngår i: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 98, s. 68-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries welfare services that traditionally have been provided by the public sector are being contracted out to private providers. But are private contractors better at providing these services? We use a randomized experiment to empirically assess the effectiveness of contracting out employment services to private placement agencies. Our results show that unemployed at private placement agencies have a closer interaction with their case worker than unemployed at the Public Employment Service (PES); e.g., they receive more assistance in improving their job search technology. We do not find any overall difference in the chances of finding employment between private placement agencies and the PES, but this hides important heterogeneities across different types of unemployed. In particular, private providers are better at providing employment services to immigrants, whereas they may be worse for adolescents. Any effects tend to fade away over time. 

  • 31.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Mellander, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Do regional payroll tax reductions boost employment?2009Inngår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 480-489Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a Difference-in-Differences approach, we evaluate the effects of a 10 percentage point reduction in the payroll tax introduced in 2002 in northern Sweden. We find no employment effects among firms existing both before and after the reform, whereas the average wage bill per employee increases by about 0.25% per percentage point reduction in the tax rate. Extending the analysis to include entry and exit of firms, we find evidence of positive effects on the number of firms and a tendency to positive employment effects. Moreover, the wage incidence estimates become insignificant when we account for entry and exit of firms.

  • 32.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Skans, Oskar Nordström
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Vikman, Ulrika
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen, UCFS.
    Workfare for the old and long-term unemployed2013Inngår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 25, s. 25-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effects of conditioning benefits on program participation among older long-term unemployed workers. We exploit a Swedish reform which reduced UI duration from 90 to 60 weeks for a group of older unemployed workers in a setting where workers who exhausted their benefits received unchanged transfers if they agreed to participate in a work practice program. Our results show that job finding increased as a result of the shorter duration of passive benefits. The time profile of the job-finding effects suggests that the results are due to deterrence during the program-entry phase. We find no impact on ensuing job durations or wages, suggesting that the increased job-finding rate was driven by increased search intensity rather than lower reservation wages. A crude cost-benefit analysis suggests that the reform reduced the combined cost of programs and transfers.

  • 33.
    Bergemann, Annette
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Caliendo, Marco
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Zimmermann, Klaus F.
    The threat effect of participation in active labor market programs on job search behavior of migrants in Germany2011Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 32, nr 7, s. 777-795Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Labor market programs may affect unemployed individuals' behavior before they enroll. The aim of this paper is to study whether such ex ante effects differ according to ethnic origin.

    Design/methodology/approach - The authors apply a method that relates self-reported perceived treatment rates and job search behavioral outcomes, such as the reservation wage or search intensity, to each other. German native workers are compared with migrants with a Turkish origin or Central and Eastern European (including Russian) background. Job search theory is used to derive theoretical predictions. The ex ante effect of the German active labor market program (ALMP) system is examined using the novel IZA Evaluation Data Set which includes self-reported assessments of the variables of interest as well as an unusually detailed amount of information on behavior, attitudes and past outcomes.

    Findings - It is found that the ex ante threat effect on the reservation wage and search effort varies considerably among the groups considered.

    Originality/value - The study is the first to investigate whether migrants and natives react similarly to the expectation of participating in an ALMP, and whether migrants of different regions of origin react similarly or not.

  • 34.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Sodertorn Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umea Univ, Umea Sch Business & Econ, Dept Econ, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Spagnolo, Giancarlo
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Ctr Econ Policy Res, EIEF, Stockholm Sch Econ SITE, Rome, Italy..
    Privatization and quality: Evidence from elderly care in Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 49, s. 109-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates - an important and not easily contractible quality dimension - using a difference-in-difference in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates.

  • 35.
    Blind, Ina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Åslund, Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    All aboard? Commuter Train Access and Labor Market OutcomesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Blind, Ina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Åslund, Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Som på räls? Förbättrade pendlingsmöjligheter och individens arbetsmarknad2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Brodd, Katarina Strand
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Strömberg, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Development of smooth pursuit eye movements in very preterm infants: 1. General aspects2011Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, nr 7, s. 983-991Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To investigate early oculo-motor development in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants.

    Methods:  Early oculo-motor development was prospectively studied by measuring smooth pursuit eye movements at 2 and 4 months corrected age in a population of very preterm infants born in Uppsala County 2004–2007. Eighty-one preterm infants were studied, and 32 healthy term infants constituted the control group.

    Results:  The study group consisted of infants with a mean gestational age of28 + 5 weeks. At 2 and 4 months corrected age, infants born very preterm showed lower gain (p < 0.001) and proportion of smooth pursuit eyemovements (p < 0.001) compared to the control group. The boys showed higher gain of smooth pursuit eye movements at both 2 and 4 months corrected age, compared to girls.

    Conclusions:  Oculo-motor development measured by smooth pursuit eye movements is delayed in very preterm infants at 2 and 4 months corrected age. This might be a risk factor or early indicator of later perceptual and behavioural impairment.

  • 38.
    Brodd, Katarina Strand
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Development of Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in very preterm born infants: 3. Association to perinatal risk factors2012Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 101, nr 2, s. 164-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To investigate the association between perinatal risk factors and neonatal complications and early oculo-motor development in very preterm infants.

    Methods:  Perinatal risk factors were identified, and the potential association with early oculo-motor development was evaluated by measuring smooth pursuit eye movements (SP) at 2 and 4 months' corrected age (CA) in a population of very preterm infants born in Uppsala County 2004-2007 (n = 113).

    Results:  Among the 15 tested factors, eight showed significant association in univariate analysis with lower levels of SP at 4 months' CA, namely administration of prenatal corticosteroids, gestational age, birthweight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, periventricular leukomalacia, intraventricular haemorrhage >grade 2, and persistent ductus arteriosus. At 2 months' CA, only retinopathy of prematurity >stage 2 was associated with lower levels of SP. When all factors significant in the univariate tests were included in multiple regressions aimed to assess each factor's independent relation to SP, periventricular leukomalacia was the only significant independent factor. When adding 2-5 of the significant factors using multiple regression analysis, the levels of SP became lower.

    Conclusion:  Perinatal risk factors were associated with lower levels of SP. This could be interpreted as delayed or disturbed development of normal oculomotor ability.

  • 39.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, SOFI, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm Univ, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Headmaster Ritual: The Importance of Management for School Outcomes2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, nr 4, s. 912-940Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the impact of individual principals on school outcomes by using panel data that allow us to track principals over time. We find that individual principals have a substantive impact on school policies, working conditions, and student outcomes. In particular, students who attend a school that has a one standard deviation better principal improve their achievement by between 0.05 and 0.1 standard deviations. Despite rich background information on principals, it is difficult to characterize successful management, suggesting that innate skills are central. We find that the scope for discretion is larger among voucher schools and in areas with school competition.

  • 40.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res, IFAU, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res, CREAM, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holmlund, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Econ, CESifo, IFAU,IZA, POB 640, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, UCLS, POB 640, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Parental choice, neighbourhood segregation or cream skimming?: An analysis of school segregation after a generalized choice reform2016Inngår i: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 1155-1190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the evolution of school segregation in Sweden in the aftermath of the 1992 universal voucher reform, which spurred the establishment of new independent schools and introduced parental choice. We assess the relative importance of neighbourhood segregation, parental choice and the location of independent schools for school segregation. In particular, we exploit variation in school choice opportunities across municipalities and provide descriptive evidence that in regions where school choice has become more prevalent, school segregation between immigrants and natives, and between children of high/low educated parents, has increased more than in regions where choice is limited. This result also holds when we account for residential segregation and focus on excess segregation over and above the segregation that would occur if all pupils attended their assigned schools. We find that the increase in school segregation 15 years after the reform that can be attributed to choice is relatively small.

  • 41. Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Independent Schools and Long-Run Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden’s Large Scale Voucher Reform2015Inngår i: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 82, nr 327, s. 508-551Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate effects on educational outcomes from the expansion of the independent school sector in Sweden, which followed as a consequence of the radical 1992 voucher reform. Using variation in this expansion across municipalities, we find that an increase in the share of independent school students improves average short- and long-run outcomes, explained primarily by external effects (e.g. school competition). For most outcomes, we observe significant effects first a decade after the reform. By using regional level TIMSS data, we can reconcile our results with the negative national trend for Swedish students in international achievement tests.

  • 42.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Jacobson, Tor
    Lindé, Jesper
    Roszbach, Kasper
    Corporate credit risk modeling and the macroeconomy2007Inngår i: Journal of Banking & Finance, ISSN 0378-4266, E-ISSN 1872-6372, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 845-868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a surge in the research efforts put into modeling credit and default risk during the past decade, few studies have incorporated the impact that macroeconomic conditions have on business defaults. In this paper, we estimate a duration model to explain the survival time to default for borrowers in the business loan portfolio of a major Swedish bank over the period 1994-2000. The model takes both firm-specific characteristics, such as accounting ratios and payment behaviour, loan-related information, and the prevailing macroeconomic conditions into account. The output gap, the yield curve and consumers' expectations of future economic development have significant explanatory power for the default risk of firms. We also compare our model with a frequently used model of firm default risk that conditions only on firm-specific information. The comparison shows that while the latter model can make a reasonably accurate ranking of firms' according to default risk, our model, by taking macro conditions into account, is also able to account for the absolute level of risk.

  • 43.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    Univ Calif San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Inst Evaluat Labour Market, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus Univ, Kalmar, Sweden..
    THE EFFECT OF SCHOOLING ON COGNITIVE SKILLS2015Inngår i: Review of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0034-6535, E-ISSN 1530-9142, Vol. 97, nr 3, s. 533-547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the causal effect of schooling on cognitive skills, we exploit conditionally random variation in the date Swedish males take a battery of cognitive tests in preparation for military service. We find an extra ten days of school instruction raises scores on crystallized intelligence tests (synonyms and technical comprehension tests) by approximately 1% of a standard deviation, whereas extra nonschool days have almost no effect. In contrast, test scores on fluid intelligence tests (spatial and logic tests) do not increase with additional days of schooling but do increase modestly with age.

  • 44. Carlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Evaluating Microfoundations for Aggregate Price Rigidities: Evidence from Matched Firm-Level Data on Product Prices and Unit Labor Cost2012Inngår i: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 102, nr 4, s. 1571-1595Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using matched data on product-level prices and the producing firm's unit labor cost, we find a moderate pass-through of current idiosyncratic marginal-cost changes. Also, the response does not vary across firms facing very different idiosyncratic shock variances, but identical aggregate conditions. These results do not fit the predictions of Mackowiak and Wiederholt (2009). Neither do firms react strongly to predictable marginal-cost changes, as expected from Mankiw and Reis (2002). We find that firms consider both current and expected future marginal cost when setting prices. This points toward impediments to continuous price adjustments as a key driver of monetary non-neutrality.

  • 45. Crepon, Bruno
    et al.
    Ferracci, Marc
    Jolivet, Gregory
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Active labor market policy effects in a dynamic setting2009Inngår i: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 7, nr 2-3, s. 595-605Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper implements a method to identify and estimate treatment effects in a dynamic setting where treatments may occur at any point in time. By relating the standard matching approach to the timing-of-events approach, it demonstrates that effects of the treatment on the treated at a given date can be identified although non-treated may be treated later in time. The approach builds on a "no anticipation" assumption and the assumption of conditional independence between the duration until treatment and the counterfactual durations until exit. To illustrate the approach, the paper studies the effect of training for unemployed workers in France, using a rich register data set. Training has little impact on unemployment duration. The contamination of the standard matching estimator due to later entries into treatment is large if the treatment probability is high.

  • 46.
    Crepon, Bruno
    et al.
    Ctr Res Econ & Stat CREST, F-92245 Malakoff, France.;Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Act Lab J PAL, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA..
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Univ Bristol, Dept Econ, Bristol BS8 1TH, Avon, England.;Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Act Lab J PAL, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA..
    Active Labor Market Policies2016Inngår i: Annual Review Of Economics, Vol 8 / [ed] Aghion, P Rey, H, ANNUAL REVIEWS , 2016, s. 521-546Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Active labor market policies are massively used with the objective being to improve labor market outcomes of individuals out of work. Many observational evaluation studies have been published. In this review, we critically assess policy effectiveness. We emphasize insights from recent randomized controlled trials. In addition, we examine policy effects that have not been the primary object of most of the past evaluations, such as anticipatory effects of advance knowledge of future treatments and equilibrium effects, and we discuss the actual implementation of policies. We discuss the importance of heterogeneity of programs and effects and examine the extent to which potential participants are interested in enrollment. We also discuss the assessment of costs and benefits of programs.

  • 47.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF). Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen, UCFS.
    Are Local Governments Governed by Forward Looking Decision Makers?: An Investigation of Spending Patterns in Swedish Municipalities”, Journal of Urban1998Inngår i: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, s. 254-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF). Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU). Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen, UCFS.
    Small Sample Properties of Jackknife IV and LIML Estimators:: Experiments with Weak Instruments1999Inngår i: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, s. 69-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Edmark, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering (IFAU).
    Is There a "Race-to-the-Bottom" in the Setting of Welfare Benefit Levels?: Evidence from a Policy Intervention2008Inngår i: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 92, nr 5-6, s. 1193-1209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate whether local governments react on the welfare benefit levels in neighboring jurisdictions when setting their own benefit levels. We solve the simultaneity problem arising from the welfare game by utilizing a policy intervention; more specifically, we use a centrally geared exogenous placement of a highly welfare prone group (refugees) among Swedish municipalities as an instrument. The IV estimates indicate that there exists a "race-to-the-bottom" and that the effect is economically as well as statistically significant; if the neighboring municipalities decrease their welfare benefit level by 100 SEK, a municipality decreases its benefit level with approximately 41 SEK. This result is robust to several alternative model specifications.