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  • 1. Adem, Abdu
    et al.
    Al Haj, Mahmoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Benedict, Sheela
    Yasin, Javed
    Nagelkerke, Nicolas
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Yandle, Tim G.
    Frampton, Chris M.
    Lewis, Lynley K.
    Nicholls, M. Gary
    Kazzam, Elsadig
    ANP and BNP Responses to Dehydration in the One-Humped Camel and Effects of Blocking the Renin-Angiotensin System2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 3, p. e57806-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the responses of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the circulation of hydrated, dehydrated, and dehydrated losartan - treated camels; and to document the cardiac storage form of B-type natriuretic peptide in the camel heart. Eighteen male camels were used in the study: control or hydrated camels (n = 6), dehydrated camels (n = 6) and dehydrated losartan-treated camels (n = 6) which were dehydrated and received the angiotensin II (Ang II) AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan, at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously for 20 days. Control animals were supplied with feed and water ad-libitum while both dehydrated and dehydrated-losartan treated groups were supplied with feed ad-libitum but no water for 20 days. Compared with time-matched controls, dehydrated camels exhibited a significant decrease in plasma levels of both ANP and BNP. Losartan-treated camels also exhibited a significant decline in ANP and BNP levels across 20 days of dehydration but the changes were not different from those seen with dehydration alone. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography of extracts of camel heart indicated that proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of the peptide. We conclude first, that dehydration in the camel induces vigorous decrements in circulating levels of ANP and BNP; second, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system has little or no modulatory effect on the ANP and BNP responses to dehydration; third, proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of this hormone in the heart of the one-humped camel.

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  • 2.
    Al Haj, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kazzam, E.
    Amir, N.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Adem, A.
    Changes in insulin-like growth factor-1 and IGF-binding protein-3 in camel plasma during dehydration in the presence and absence of losartan2012In: Comparative Clinical Pathology, ISSN 1618-5641, E-ISSN 1618-565X, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1745-1749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the effect of 20 days of dehydration in the presence or absence of losartan (angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist) on insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3(IGFBP-3) in plasma of the one-humped camel was studied. Eighteen male camels, 3-4 years of age, were divided into three equal groups: control, dehydrated, and dehydrated-losartan-treated groups. The control camels were given food and water ad libitum. The two dehydrated groups underwent 20 days of water deprivation but were given food ad libitum. The dehydrated-losartan-treated camels were given losartan injection (Merck, USA), intravenously at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight daily for 20 days. Our results demonstrated a progressive decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in the dehydrated and dehydrated-losartan-treated animals across dehydration compared to their basal levels and time-matched control. On day 5 of dehydration, the IGF-1 level in the losartan-treated group showed a decrease of 60 % and the dehydrated group showed 45 % decrease from their baseline levels and time-matched control. On day 10 the decrease in the losartan-treated animals reached 74 % and for the dehydrated was 62 %. On day 20 the decrease in the losartan-treated was 89 % and for the dehydrated reached 80 % from their baseline levels and time-matched control. Dehydration in the presence or absence of losartan caused a decrease in the circulating level of IGFBP-3. The decrement reached 26 % on day 10 and 20 for the treated camels, while the decrease for the dehydrated was 22 % on day 10 of dehydration and reached 29 % on day 20 compared to their baseline levels and time-matched control. In conclusion, dehydration alone, or in presence of Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blocker caused significant decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 compared to their basal values and to time-matched controls. Losartan enhanced the effect of dehydration mainly in the early phase of dehydration for both parameters; albeit, no significant differences between the two dehydrated groups was observed. Finally, these findings suggest an essential role of IGF-1and IGFBP-3 in the dehydration state of these dromedarian camels.

  • 3.
    Al Haj, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. United Arab Emirates University.
    Kazzam, Elsadig
    United Arab Emirates University.
    Nagelkerke, Nicolas
    United Arab Emirates University.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nicholls, Gary M.
    Otago University, Christchurch.
    Adem, Abdu
    United Arab Emirates University.
    Effect of Dehydration in the Presence and Absence of the Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Losartan on Blood Constituents in the Camel2011In: Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 1996-3262, E-ISSN 1996-3270, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 73-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Dromedary camels are extremely well adapted to periods of water deprivation. The physiological mechanisms underlying this adaptation, however, are imperfectly understood. It is likely that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role although few studies have addressed this possibility in the camel. Accordingly, the effects of long term dehydration alone and with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, on whole blood and serum constituents were studied in camels.

    Methods:Twenty eight male camels 3-4 years old were studied while under shade during summer in the Gulf-region, where the ambient temperature was above 40 degree Celsius. The camels were divided into three groups: a control group(n=6) was allowed free access to feed and water, a dehydration group (n=16) was given food ad-lib during 20days of total water deprivation, and a dehydration plus losartan (losartan) group (n=6) which received losartan 5mg/Kg daily by intravenous injection during 20 days of dehydration.  

    Results: The body weight of the losartan group decreased by nearly 39.1% across dehydration whereas the reduction in body weight for the dehydration group was nearly 34.5% compared to controls. There was a significant increase in the packed cell volume (p<0.05) and leucocytes count (p<0.01) in the losartan group compared to controls. However, the mean corpuscular volume was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the dehydration group compared to controls. We observed major, statistically significant increases in serum urea (p<0.01) and creatinine (p<0.05) levels in the dehydration and losartan groups compared to controls. By the end of the period ofwater restriction, serum levels of gamma glutamyl transferase were significantly (p<0.01) lower in the losartan group compared to controls.

    Conclusion: The results of our experiment show that dehydration alone or in combination with Angiotensin II receptor blocker has major effects on the biochemical and hematological parameters of the camel blood.

  • 4.
    Al Shemaili, Jasem
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Mensah-Brown, E.
    Parekh, K.
    Thomas, S. A.
    Attoub, S.
    Hellman, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Adem, A.
    Collin, P.
    Adrian, T. E.
    Frondoside A enhances the antiproliferative effects of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer2014In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1391-1398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic cancer has a very poor prognosis. While gemcitabine is the mainstay of therapy and improves quality of life, it has little impact on survival. More effective treatments are desperately needed for this disease. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A potently inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether frondoside A could enhance the anti-cancer effects of gemcitabine. Effects of frondoside A and gemcitabine alone and in combination on proliferation were investigated in two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, AsPC-1 and S2013. To investigate possible synergistic effects, combinations of low concentrations of the two drugs were used for a 72 h treatment period in vitro. Growth inhibition was significantly greater with the drug combinations than their additive effects. Combinations of frondoside A and gemcitabine were tested in vivo using the athymic mouse model. Xenografts of AsPC-1 and S2013 cells were allowed to form tumours prior to treatment with the drugs alone or in combination for 30 days. Tumours grew rapidly in placebo-treated animals. Tumour growth was significantly reduced in all treatment groups. At the lowest dose tested, gemcitabine (4 mg/kg/dose), combined with frondoside A (100 mu g/kg/day) was significantly more effective than with either drug alone. To conclude: The present data suggest that combinations of frondoside A and gemcitabine may provide clinical benefit for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  • 5.
    Alho, Hannu
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Helsinki, Finland..
    Jansen, Jakob
    Arhus Municipal, Ctr Addict Treatment, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Krajci, Peter
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, Dept Subst Use Disorder Treatment, Oslo, Norway..
    Littlewood, Richard
    Appliedstrategic, London, England..
    Runarsdottir, Valgendur
    Vogur Hosp, SAA Ctr Addict Treatment, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Misuse and diversion of agonist opioid treatment medicines: assessment of the scale of the problem and review of the changing environment for care in the Nordic countries2015In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 43-49Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Opioid addiction is effectively treated via a multidisciplinary approach including agonist opioid treatment (AOT) and psychosocial intervention. Misuse and diversion of AOT medicines such as methadone and mono-buprenorphine comprise a significant problem occurring in the Nordic countries with some of the highest frequencies in Europe. Misuse and diversion are associated with poor treatment compliance and increases in risk of blood-borne infections, crime, and mortality. Regulations and guidelines for provision of AOT medication vary among the Nordic countries. Aim: The extent and impact of misuse and diversion in the Nordic countries has not been documented in the literature. This review of local sources summarizes the extent and impact of misuse and diversion of AOT medication to provide a basis for improving outcomes in opioid addiction care. Methods: PubMed was searched using the terms "methadone" or "buprenorphine" and "misuse" or "diversion". Titles and abstracts of search results were inspected for location and relevance. Government sources and mainstream media were also searched for relevant reports. Results: Misuse and diversion of AOT medicines is a significant issue in the Nordic countries; these opioids are available outside of treatment and are misused, including by young addicts. To address this problem, changes in medicines used in treatment in Finland and Iceland have already been implemented and considerations are under way in Norway and Sweden. Conclusions: All persons involved in AOT should take action to better understand AOT medication misuse and diversion as this can lead to a step change improvement in outcomes.

  • 6.
    Ali Haj, Mahmoud
    et al.
    United Arab Emirates University.
    Kazzam, Elsadig
    United Arab Emirates University.
    Amir, Nahid
    United Arab Emirates University.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nicholls, Gary M.
    Otago University .
    Adem, Abdu
    United Arab Emirates University.
    Effects of Dehydration and Blockade of Angiotensin II AT1 Receptor on Stress Hormones and Anti-Oxidants in the one-humped camel2013In: BMC Veterinary Research, E-ISSN 1746-6148, Vol. 9, p. 232-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our objectives were to document and compare plasma levels of Catecholamines, Cortisol,Glutathione and Malondialdehyde in camels after long term dehydration (20 days) in the presenceor absence of angiotensin II AT1 receptor blocker (Losartan) versus levels in non-dehydratedcamels; and to record the effects on glutathione and malondialdehyde activity in liver and kidneyhomogenate in the one-humped camel. Eighteen male camels were used in this study, sixcontrols, six dehydrated and treated with losartan (5mg/kg daily) and six were dehydrated withouttreatment. Our results revealed significant decrease (P<0.05) in plasma epinephrine level in bothtreated and dehydrated camels; while, Plasma norepinephrine showed significant increase in bothdehydrated groups (P< 0.01). Levels of plasma dopamine were also significantly increased (P<0.01) in both dehydrated groups compared to control camels.Plasma levels of cortisol increased significantly across dehydration with or without losartanadministration (P<0.01) compared with time-matched levels in control camels. Losartan had nosignificant modulating effect on the cortisol response to dehydration.Plasma, liver and kidney homogenates revealed significant increase (P<0.05) in glutathione levelsin both dehydrated groups compared to control.Plasma, liver and kidney homogenates for malondialdehyde levels in both treated and dehydratedcamels also showed significant increase (P<0.05 & P<0.01) compared to controls.In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the effect of dehydration with or without losartaninduced oxidative stress in these camels, leading to significant changes in plasma catecholaminesand cortisol levels, together with significant increments in glutathione and malondialdehydeactivities in plasma, liver and kidney homogenate to counter act the damaging effect of the freeradicals in the dehydrated camels.

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  • 7. Ali, M. Al-Haj
    et al.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Chandranath, S. I.
    Ponery, A. S.
    Adem, A.
    Adeghate, E.
    Effect of high-calorie diet on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)2006In: DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS - MOLECULAR MECHANISMS, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AND CLINICAL MEDICINE / [ed] Adeghate E; Saadi H; Adem A; Obineche E, 2006, Vol. 1084, p. 402-410Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The one-humped camel is a typical desert animal. It has the capability of withstanding the harsh climatic changes and the scarcity of food and water, in addition to the high-ambient temperature. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in two different groups of the one-humped camel, group (A) control (n = 102) camels and group (B) high-calorie diet-fed camels (n = 103), in Al-Ain region (UAE) was studied using biochemical and radioirnmunoassay techniques. In this article, 7% of the control camels have diabetes mellitus (blood glucose level: >= 140 mg/dL) compared to 21% of the high-calorie-fed camels. Plasma insulin level was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group B compared to group A. The low insulin level in camels consuming high-caloric diet could be a sign of exhaustion of pancreatic beta cells. The hematological parameters were nearly similar in both groups and no significant differences were seen. Liver and kidney enzymes were normal in both groups. Iron and copper were significantly (P < 0.005) higher in the high-calorie-fed camels compared with the control. Our study indicates that high-caloric feed consumption in camels is associated with the development of disorders in glucose metabolism leading to diabetes mellitus.

  • 8.
    Ali, Mahmoud Alhaj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Adem, Abdu
    Chandranath, Irwin S.
    Benedict, Sheela
    Pathan, Javed Y.
    Nagelkerke, Nicolas
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Lewis, Lynley K.
    Yandle, Tim G.
    Nicholls, Gary M.
    Frampton, Chris M.
    Kazzam, Elsadig
    Responses to Dehydration in the One-Humped Camel and Effects of Blocking the Renin-Angiotensin System2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, p. e37299-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our objectives were to compare the levels of circulating electrolytes, hormones, and renal function during 20 days of dehydration in camels versus the level in non-dehydrated camels and to record the effect of blocking angiotensin II AT1 receptors with losartan during dehydration. Dehydration induced significant increments in serum sodium, creatinine, urea, a substantial fall in body weight, and a doubling in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels. Plasma aldosterone, however, was unaltered compared with time-matched controls. Losartan significantly enhanced the effect of dehydration to reduce body weight and increase serum levels of creatinine and urea, whilst also impairing the rise in plasma AVP and reducing aldosterone levels. We conclude that dehydration in the camel induces substantial increments in serum sodium, creatinine, urea and AVP levels; that aldosterone levels are altered little by dehydration; that blockade of angiotensin II type 1 receptors enhances the dehydration-induced fall in body weight and increase in serum creatinine and urea levels whilst reducing aldosterone and attenuating the rise in plasma AVP.

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  • 9.
    Andappan, Murugaiah M. S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Wu, Xiongyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Wallinder, Charlotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Mahalingam, A. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Wan, Yiqian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sköld, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Guimond, Marie-Odile
    Joshi, Advait
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gallo-Payet, Nicole
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Alterman, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    From the First Selective Non-Peptide AT(2) Receptor Agonist to Structurally Related Antagonists2012In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 2265-2278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A para substitution pattern of the phenyl ring is a characteristic feature of the first reported selective AT(2) receptor agonist M024/C21 (1) and all the nonpeptidic AT(2) receptor agonists described so far. Two series of compounds structurally related to 1 but with a meta substitution pattern have now been synthesized and biologically evaluated for their affinity to the AT(1) and AT(2) receptors. A high AT(2)/AT(1) receptor selectivity was obtained with all 41 compounds synthesized, and the majority exhibited K-i ranging from 2 to 100 nM. Five compounds were evaluated for their functional activity at the AT(2) receptor, applying a neurite outgrowth assay in NG108-15 cells.. Notably, four of the five compounds, with representatives from both series, acted as potent AT(2) receptor antagonists. These compounds were found to be considerably more effective than PD 123,319, the standard AT(2) receptor antagonist used in most laboratories. No AT(2) receptor antagonists were previously reported among the derivatives with a para substitution pattern. Hence, by a minor modification of the agonist 1 it could be transformed into the antagonist, compound 38. These compounds should serve as valuable tools in the assessment of the role of the AT(2) receptor in more complex physiological models.

  • 10.
    Bazov, Igor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kononenko, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Watanabe, Hiroyuki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kuntić, Vesna
    Sarkisyan, Daniil
    Taqi, Malik Mumtaz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hussain, Muhammad Zubair
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Yakovleva, Tatjana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Bakalkin, Georgy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The endogenous opioid system in human alcoholics: molecular adaptations in brain areas involved in cognitive control of addiction2013In: Addiction Biology, ISSN 1355-6215, E-ISSN 1369-1600, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 161-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The endogenous opioid system (EOS) plays a critical role in addictive processes. Molecular dysregulations in this system may be specific for different stages of addiction cycle and neurocircuitries involved and therefore may differentially contribute to the initiation and maintenance of addiction. Here we evaluated whether the EOS is altered in brain areas involved in cognitive control of addiction including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dl-PFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and hippocampus in human alcohol-dependent subjects. Levels of EOS mRNAs were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and levels of dynorphins by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in post-mortem specimens obtained from 14 alcoholics and 14 controls. Prodynorphin mRNA and dynorphins in dl-PFC, κ-opioid receptor mRNA in OFC and dynorphins in hippocampus were up-regulated in alcoholics. No significant changes in expression of proenkephalin, and µ- and δ-opioid receptors were evident; pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA levels were below the detection limit. Activation of the κ-opioid receptor by up-regulated dynorphins in alcoholics may underlie in part neurocognitive dysfunctions relevant for addiction and disrupted inhibitory control.

  • 11.
    Birgner, Carolina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Pharmaceutical Pharmacology.
    Kindlundh-Högberg, Anna M. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Bergström, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Pharmaceutical Pharmacology.
    Altered extracellular levels of DOPAC and HVA in the rat nucleus accumbens shell in response to sub-chronic nandrolone administration and a subsequent amphetamine challenge2007In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 412, no 2, p. 168-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associated with acts of violence and polydrug use, abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is an increasing problem in society. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether sub-chronic treatment with the AAS nandrolone decanoate affects dopamine release and dopamine metabolism in the rat nucleus accumbens shell, before and after an amphetamine challenge. Male Sprague–Dawley rats received daily i.m. injections of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 days. On day 15, the animals were anaesthetized and a microdialysis probe was implanted into the nucleus accumbens shell. Extracellular fluid was collected 1 h before and 3 h after a single amphetamine injection (5 mg/kg). The samples were then analyzed regarding the content of dopamine, and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Two weeks of nandrolone decanoate administration caused a significant decrease of the basal DOPAC and HVA levels, which remained low during the first hour following the amphetamine challenge. Dopamine levels did not differ significantly between groups, neither after the nandrolone pre-treatment nor the amphetamine challenge. In conclusion, these novel findings indicate that AAS alter the metabolism of dopamine in a brain region involved in the development of drug dependence.

  • 12.
    Botros, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, M
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Johansson, T
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zhou, Q
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Lindeberg, G
    Frändberg, PA
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Tomboly, C
    Toth, G
    Le Greves, P
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, F
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 differentially interact with specific binding sites for substance P (SP) aminoterminal SP(1-7) in the rat spinal cord.2005In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Brolin, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Diwakarla, Shanti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1) is decreased in the rat frontal cortex following gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) administration2017In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 646, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, growth hormone (GH), together with its secondary mediators insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), have been highlighted for their beneficial effects in the central nervous system (CNS), in particular as cognitive enhancers. Cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are known to be impaired in individuals suffering from substance abuse. In the present study, we investigated the effect of gamma-hydroxybuturate (GHB), an illicit drug used for its sedating and euphoric properties, on genes associated with the somatotrophic axis in regions of the brain important for cognitive function. Sprague Dawley rats (n =36) were divided into three groups and administered either saline, GHB 50 mg/kg or GHB 300 mg/kg orally for seven days. The levels of Ghr, Igf1 and Igf2 gene transcripts were analyzed using qPCR in brain regions involved in cognition and dependence. The levels of IGF-1 in blood plasma were also determined using ELISA. The results demonstrated a significant down-regulation of Igf1 mRNA expression in the frontal cortex in high-dose treated rats. Moreover, a significant correlation between Igf1 and Ghr mRNA expression was found in the hippocampus, the frontal cortex, and the caudate putamen, indicating local regulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis. To summarize, the current study concludes that chronic GHB treatment influences gene expression of Ghr and Igf1 in brain regions involved in cognitive function.

  • 14.
    Brolin, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Chronic administration of morphine using mini-osmotic pumps affects spatial memory in the male rat2018In: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, ISSN 0091-3057, E-ISSN 1873-5177, Vol. 167, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of opioid analgesics to treat non-cancer pain has increased over the years. Many chronic pain patients suffer from numerous adverse effects, such as reduced quality of life, development of dependence, and cognitive impairments. Cognitive processes are regulated by several systems, one of which involves growth hormone (GH) and its secondary mediator insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but also glutamatergic transmission, including receptors such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor complex. In the laboratory, repeated injections are commonly used to establish animal models of long-term or chronic drug exposure. However, in the present study, we aimed to mimic a more human dose regimen using constant drug delivery provided by mini-osmotic pumps implanted subcutaneously in male Sprague Dawley rats. After developing opioid tolerance the cognitive function of rats was studied. Spatial learning and memory capabilities were evaluated using the rat Morris water maze (MWM). Moreover, gene expression related to the GH/IGF-1-axis and the NMDA-receptor system was analyzed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and plasma levels of IGF-1 were assessed using the ELISA technique. Our results demonstrate that rats exposed to morphine for 27 days display memory impairments in the MWM probe trial. However, the behavioral effects of chronic morphine treatment were not accompanied by any significant differences in terms of mRNA expression or IGF-1 plasma concentration. The animal model used in this study provides a simple and suitable way to investigate the behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic opioid treatment similar to the exposure seen in human pain patients.

  • 15.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Ohsawa, Masahiro
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kamei, Junzo
    Substance P1-7 induces antihyperalgesia in diabetic mice through a mechanism involving the naloxone-sensitive sigma receptors2010In: European Journal of Pharmacology, ISSN 0014-2999, E-ISSN 1879-0712, Vol. 626, no 2-3, p. 250-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently explored the role of the tachykinin substance P neuroactive fragment substance P1-7 in the mediation of anti-inflammatory effects using a blister model in the rat paw (Wiktelius et al., 2006). We observed that this heptapeptide induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the substance P-induced response, which was reversible by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. In the present study, we examined the ability of substance P1-7 to induce antihyperalgesic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. We found that the substance P fragment strongly and dose-dependently produced antihyperalgesia in diabetic mice. This effect was reversed by naloxone but not by the selective opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine, naltrindole or nor-binaltorphimine. selective for the mu-, delta- or kappa-Opioid receptor, respectively. In addition, the anti hyperalgesic effect induced by substance P1-7 was partly reversed by a sigma(1) receptor agonist (+)-pentazocine. but not a a, receptor antagonist BD1047 ([2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(diamino)ethylamine), suggesting that involvement of the naloxone-sensitive sigma-receptor for the action of the SP related heptapeptides. These results suggest that hyperalgesia in diabetic mice may be, in part, due to the enhanced endogenous sigma(1) receptor systems in the spinal cord.

  • 16.
    Carlsson-Jonsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gao, Tianle
    Hao, Jing-Xia
    Fransson, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sandström, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna
    Xu, Xiao-Jun
    N-terminal truncations of substance P1-7 amide affect its action on spinal cord injury-induced mechanical allodynia in rats2014In: European Journal of Pharmacology, ISSN 0014-2999, E-ISSN 1879-0712, Vol. 738, p. 319-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Central neuropathic pain can arise from injury of the spinal cord and can become chronic. Treatment is difficult and, because complete pain relief is currently very hard to achieve, there is a need for new, more effective treatment options. In this study we used an animal model of spinal cord injury to evaluate the potency of a bioactive fragment of substance P (SP), i.e. SP1-7, in alleviating signs of allodynia and acute pain. SP1-7 is known from earlier studies to possess antinociceptive properties. We also studied the effects of intraperitoneal injection of an amidated analog of this heptapeptide and of its truncated analogs, all of which had high affinity to the SP1-7 binding site, to evaluate the importance of the removed amino acids for the bioclistribution and stability of the peptides. Most of the examined compounds alleviated mechanical alloclynia without any signs of sedation or motor impairment in the rats. In contrast, the response threshold to acute nociceptive stimulation was not affected by arty of the compounds tested. Most of the amino acids in the heptapepticle structure were essential for retaining the biological effect after peripheral injection. These observations suggest that the heptapepticle and its N-Lerminal truncated hexa- and pentapeptide analogs could be of interest for further development of analgesics in the management of mechanical allodynia.

  • 17.
    Celerier, Evelyne
    et al.
    Laboratori of Neurofarmacologia, Facultat de Ciéncies de la Salut i de la Vida, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, C/Doctor Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
    Ahdepil, Therese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Wikander, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Berrendero, Fernando
    Laboratori of Neurofarmacologia, Facultat de Ciéncies de la Salut i de la Vida, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, C/Doctor Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Maldonado, Rafael
    Laboratori of Neurofarmacologia, Facultat de Ciéncies de la Salut i de la Vida, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, C/Doctor Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
    Influence of the anabolic-androgenic steroid nandrolone on cannabinoid dependence.2006In: Neuropharmacology, ISSN 0028-3908, E-ISSN 1873-7064, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 788-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of the possible factors that might enhance the risk of developing drug addiction and related motivational disorders is crucial to reduce the prevalence of these problems. Here, we examined in mice whether the exposure to the anabolic-androgenic steroid nandrolone would affect the pharmacological and motivational effects induced by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. Mice received nandrolone using pre-exposure (during 14 days before THC treatment) or co-administration (1h before each THC injection) procedures. Both nandrolone treatments did not modify the acute anti nociceptive, hypothermic and hypolocomotor effects of THC or the development of tolerance after chronic THC administration. Nandrolone pre-exposure blocked THC- and food-induced conditioned place preference and increased the somatic manifestations of THC withdrawal precipitated by the CB1 cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (SR141617A). The aversive effects of THC were not changed by nandrolone. Furthermore, nandrolone pre-exposure attenuated the anxiolytic-like effects of a low dose of THC without altering the anxiogenic-like effects of a high dose in the lit/dark box, open field and elevated plus-maze. Biochemical experiments showed that chronic nandrolone treatment did not modify CB1 receptor binding and GTP-binding protein activation in the caudate-putamen and cerebellum. Taken together, our results suggest that chronic nandrolone treatment alters behavioural responses related to cannabinoid addictive properties.

  • 18. Collinder, E
    et al.
    Nyberg, F
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Sanderson-Nydahl, K
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gottlieb-Vedi, M
    Lindholm, A
    The opioid haemorphin-7 in horses during low-speed and high-speed treadmill exercise to fatigue.2005In: J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med, ISSN 0931-184X, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 162-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Cornefjord, Michael