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  • 1.
    Akiyama, Tomoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    Björneholm, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Grånäs, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Influence of Ionization on the Dynamics of HydrocarbonsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural changes of four hydrocarbons induced by ionization was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Bond lengths, bond breaking and proton rearrangement was analysed for propane, propene, propyne and propadiene at charges ranging from 0 to +3.   Similar to the case of amino acids, the back-bone of linear hydrocarbons is stabilized by reducing theeffectiv elevel of ionization through dropping protons. Subsequent iniozations, up the the level of 3+, do not break thelinear carbon chain within 250 fs, however the bond-orderis reduced, and bond-distances approach that of a single-bond

  • 2.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Iwan, Bianca Stella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Andrejczuk, A.
    Abreu, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Bergh, M.
    Caleman, Carl
    Nelson, A. J.
    Bajt, S.
    Chalupsky, J.
    Chapman, H. N.
    Faeustlin, R. R.
    Hajkova, V.
    Heimann, P. A.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Juha, L.
    Klinger, D.
    Krzywinski, J.
    Nagler, B.
    Pålsson, Gunnar Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Singer, W.
    Seibert, Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Sobicrajski, R.
    Tolcikis, S.
    Tschentscher, T.
    Vinko, S. M.
    Lee, R. W.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Saturated ablation in metal hydrides and acceleration of protons and deuterons to keV energies with a soft-x-ray laser2011In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 016403-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of materials under extreme conditions have relevance to a broad area of research, including planetary physics, fusion research, materials science, and structural biology with x-ray lasers. We study such extreme conditions and experimentally probe the interaction between ultrashort soft x-ray pulses and solid targets (metals and their deuterides) at the FLASH free-electron laser where power densities exceeding 1017 W/cm2 were reached. Time-of-flight ion spectrometry and crater analysis were used to characterize the interaction. The results show the onset of saturation in the ablation process at power densities above 1016 W/cm2. This effect can be linked to a transiently induced x-ray transparency in the solid by the femtosecond x-ray pulse at high power densities. The measured kinetic energies of protons and deuterons ejected from the surface reach several keV and concur with predictions from plasma-expansion models. Simulations of the interactions were performed with a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium code with radiation transfer. These calculations return critical depths similar to the observed crater depths and capture the transient surface transparency at higher power densities.

  • 3.
    André, Tomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    Dawod, Ibrahim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics. European XFEL, Holzkoppel 4, DE-22869 Schenefeld, Germany.
    Cardoch, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85 DE-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Macromolecule classification using X-ray laser induced fragmentation simulated with hybrid Monte Carlo/Molecular DynamicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a hybrid Monte Carlo and classical molecular dynamics code to follow the ultrafast atomic dynamics in biological macromolecules induced by a femtosecond X-ray laser. Our model for fragmentation shows good qualitative agreement with ab-initio simulations of small molecules, while being computationally faster.  We applied the code for macromolecules and simulated the Coulomb explosion dynamics due to the fast ionization in six proteins with different physical properties. The trajectories of the ions are followed and projected onto a detector, where the particular pattern depends on the protein, providing a unique footprint. We utilize algorithms such as principal component analysis  and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding to classify the fragmentation pattern. The results show that the classification algorithms are able to separate the explosion patterns into distinct groups. We envision that this method could be used to provide additional class information, like particle mass or shape, in structural determination experiments using X-ray lasers.

  • 4. Aquila, Andrew
    et al.
    Hunter, Mark S.
    Doak, R. Bruce
    Kirian, Richard A.
    Fromme, Petra
    White, Thomas A.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Arnlund, David
    Bajt, Saša
    Barends, Thomas R. M.
    Barthelmess, Miriam
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Bottin, Hervé
    Bozek, John D.
    Caleman, Carl
    Coppola, Nicola
    Davidsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    DePonte, Daniel P.
    Elser, Veit
    Epp, Sascha W.
    Erk, Benjamin
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Foucar, Lutz
    Frank, Matthias
    Fromme, Raimund
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Grotjohann, Ingo
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hampton, Christina Y.
    Hartmann, Andreas
    Hartmann, Robert
    Hau-Riege, Stefan
    Hauser, Günter
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Holl, Peter
    Holton, James M.
    Hömke, André
    Johansson, Linda
    Kimmel, Nils
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Krasniqi, Faton
    Kühnel, Kai-Uwe
    Liang, Mengning
    Lomb, Lukas
    Malmerberg, Erik
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Maia, Filipe R.N.C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Nass, Karol
    Reich, Christian
    Neutze, Richard
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Rudenko, Artem
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Schmidt, Carlo
    Schmidt, Kevin E.
    Schulz, Joachim
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Soltau, Heike
    Shoeman, Robert L.
    Sierra, Raymond
    Starodub, Dmitri
    Stellato, Francesco
    Stern, Stephan
    Strüder, Lothar
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Wang, Xiaoyu
    Williams, Garth J.
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Wunderer, Cornelia
    Barty, Anton
    Spence, John C. H.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser2012In: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 2706-2716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photoactivated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nanocrystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 µs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time-resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems.

  • 5. Barty, Anton
    et al.
    Caleman, Carl
    Aquila, Andrew
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Lomb, Lukas
    White, Thomas A.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Arnlund, David
    Bajt, Sasa
    Barends, Thomas R. M.
    Barthelmess, Miriam
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Bozek, John D.
    Coffee, Ryan
    Coppola, Nicola
    Davidsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    DePonte, Daniel P.
    Doak, R. Bruce
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Elser, Veit
    Epp, Sascha W.
    Erk, Benjamin
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Foucar, Lutz
    Fromme, Petra
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hampton, Christina Y.
    Hartmann, Robert
    Hartmann, Andreas
    Hauser, Guenter
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Holl, Peter
    Hunter, Mark S.
    Johansson, Linda
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Kimmel, Nils
    Kirian, Richard A.
    Liang, Mengning
    Maia, Filipe R. N. C.
    Malmerberg, Erik
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Nass, Karol
    Neutze, Richard
    Reich, Christian
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Rudenko, Artem
    Scott, Howard
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Schulz, Joachim
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Shoeman, Robert L.
    Sierra, Raymond G.
    Soltau, Heike
    Spence, John C. H.
    Stellato, Francesco
    Stern, Stephan
    Strueder, Lothar
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Wang, X.
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Wunderer, Cornelia B.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Self-terminating diffraction gates femtosecond X-ray nanocrystallography measurements2012In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray free-electron lasers have enabled new approaches to the structural determination of protein crystals that are too small or radiation-sensitive for conventional analysis(1). For sufficiently short pulses, diffraction is collected before significant changes occur to the sample, and it has been predicted that pulses as short as 10 fs may be required to acquire atomic-resolution structural information(1-4). Here, we describe a mechanism unique to ultrafast, ultra-intense X-ray experiments that allows structural information to be collected from crystalline samples using high radiation doses without the requirement for the pulse to terminate before the onset of sample damage. Instead, the diffracted X-rays are gated by a rapid loss of crystalline periodicity, producing apparent pulse lengths significantly shorter than the duration of the incident pulse. The shortest apparent pulse lengths occur at the highest resolution, and our measurements indicate that current X-ray free-electron laser technology(5) should enable structural determination from submicrometre protein crystals with atomic resolution.

  • 6.
    Bergh, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, S-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics. DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, Hamburg, Germany..
    A Validation Study of the General Amber Force Field Applied to Energetic Molecular Crystals2016In: Journal of Energetic Materials, ISSN 0737-0652, E-ISSN 1545-8822, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 62-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecula dynamics is a well-established tool to computationally study molecules. However, to reach predictive capability at the level required for applied research and design, extensive validation of the available force fields is pertinent. Here we present a study of density, isothermal compressibility and coefficients of thermal expansion of four energetic materials (FOX-7, RDX, CL-20 and HMX) based on molecular dynamics simulations with the General Amber Force Field (GAFF), and compare the results to experimental measurements from the literature. Furthermore, we quantify the accuracy of the calculated properties through hydrocode simulation of a typical impact scenario. We find that molecular dynamics simulations with generic and computationally efficient force fields may be used to understand and estimate important physical properties of nitramine-like energetic materials.

  • 7.
    Beyerlein, Kenneth
    et al.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Jönsson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Alonso-Mori, Roberto
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Aquila, Andrew
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Bajt, Sasa
    Photon Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Barty, Anton
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Bean, Richard
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Koglin, Jason E.
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Ragazzon, Davide
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Soklaras, Dimosthenis
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Williams, Garth J.
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Hau-Riege, Stefan
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Boutet, Sebastien
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science,Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany .
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science,Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Ultrafast non-thermal heating of water initiated by an X-ray laser2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 22, p. 5652-5657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray Free-Electron Lasers have opened the door to a new era in structural biology, enabling imaging of biomolecules and dynamics that were impossible to access with conventional methods. A vast majority of imaging experiments, including Serial Femtosecond Crystallography, use a liquid jet to deliver the sample into the interaction region. We have observed structural changes in the carrying water during X-ray exposure, showing how it transforms from the liquid phase to a plasma. This ultrafast phase transition observed in water provides evidence that any biological structure exposed to these X-ray pulses is destroyed during the X-ray exposure.The bright ultrafast pulses of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers allow investigation into the structure of matter under extreme conditions. We have used single pulses to ionize and probe water as it undergoes a phase transition from liquid to plasma. We report changes in the structure of liquid water on a femtosecond time scale when irradiated by single 6.86 keV X-ray pulses of more than 106 J/cm2. These observations are supported by simulations based on molecular dynamics and plasma dynamics of a water system that is rapidly ionized and driven out of equilibrium. This exotic ionic and disordered state with the density of a liquid is suggested to be structurally different from a neutral thermally disordered state.

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  • 8. Boutet, Sébastien
    et al.
    Lomb, Lukas
    Williams, Garth J
    Barends, Thomas R M
    Aquila, Andrew
    Doak, R Bruce
    Weierstall, Uwe
    DePonte, Daniel P
    Steinbrener, Jan
    Shoeman, Robert L
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Barty, Anton
    White, Thomas A
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Kirian, Richard A
    Seibert, M Marvin
    Montanez, Paul A
    Kenney, Chris
    Herbst, Ryan
    Hart, Philip
    Pines, Jack
    Haller, Gunther
    Gruner, Sol M
    Philipp, Hugh T
    Tate, Mark W
    Hromalik, Marianne
    Koerner, Lucas J
    van Bakel, Niels
    Morse, John
    Ghonsalves, Wilfred
    Arnlund, David
    Bogan, Michael J
    Caleman, Carl
    Fromme, Raimund
    Hampton, Christina Y
    Hunter, Mark S
    Johansson, Linda C
    Katona, Gergely
    Kupitz, Christopher
    Liang, Mengning
    Martin, Andrew V
    Nass, Karol
    Redecke, Lars
    Stellato, Francesco
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Wang, Dingjie
    Zatsepin, Nadia A
    Schafer, Donald
    Defever, James
    Neutze, Richard
    Fromme, Petra
    Spence, John C H
    Chapman, Henry N
    Schlichting, Ilme
    High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 337, no 6092, p. 362-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.

  • 9.
    Brodmerkel, Maxim N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    De Santis, Emiliano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marklund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Rehydration Post-orientation: Investigating Field-Induced Structural Changes via Computational Rehydration2023In: The Protein Journal, ISSN 1572-3887, E-ISSN 1875-8355, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 205-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins can be oriented in the gas phase using strong electric fields, which brings advantages for structure determination using X-ray free electron lasers. Both the vacuum conditions and the electric-field exposure risk damaging the protein structures. Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to rehydrate and relax vacuum and electric-field exposed proteins in aqueous solution, which simulates a refinement of structure models derived from oriented gas-phase proteins. We find that the impact of the strong electric fields on the protein structures is of minor importance after rehydration, compared to that of vacuum exposure and ionization in electrospraying. The structures did not fully relax back to their native structure in solution on the simulated timescales of 200 ns, but they recover several features, including native-like intra-protein contacts, which suggests that the structures remain in a state from which the fully native structure is accessible. Our fndings imply that the electric fields used in native mass spectrometry are well below a destructive level, and suggest that structures inferred from X-ray difraction from gas-phase proteins are relevant for solution and in vivo conditions, at least after in silico rehydration.

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  • 10.
    Brodmerkel, Maxim N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    De Santis, Emiliano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Uetrecht, Charlotte
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Marklund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Collision induced unfolding and molecular dynamics simulations of norovirus capsid dimers reveal strain-specific stability profiles2024In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collision induced unfolding is method used with ion mobility mass spectrometry to examine protein structures and their stability. Such experiments yield information about higher order protein structures, yet are unable to provide details about the underlying processes. That information can however be provided using molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we investigate the collision induced unfolding of norovirus capsid dimers from the Norwalk and Kawasaki strains by employing molecular dynamics simulations over a range of temperatures, representing different levels of activation. The dimers have highly similar structures, but the activation reveals differences in the dynamics that arises in response to the activation.

  • 11.
    Brodmerkel, Maxim N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    De Santis, Emiliano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Uetrecht, Charlotte
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, 22607, Germany.
    Marklund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Stability and conformational memory of electrosprayed and rehydrated bacteriophage MS2 virus coat proteins2022In: Current Research in Structural Biology, E-ISSN 2665-928X, Vol. 4, p. 338-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins are innately dynamic, which is important for their functions, but which also poses significant challenges when studying their structures. Gas-phase techniques can utilise separation and a range of sample manipulations to transcend some of the limitations of conventional techniques for structural biology in crystalline or solution phase, and isolate different states for separate interrogation. However, the transfer from solution to the gas phase risks affecting the structures, and it is unclear to what extent different conformations remain distinct in the gas phase, and if resolution in silico can recover the native conformations and their differences. Here, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations to study the two distinct conformations of dimeric capsid protein of the MS2 bacteriophage. The protein undergoes notable restructuring of its peripheral parts in the gas phase, but subsequent simulation in solvent largely recovers the native structure. Our results suggest that despite some structural loss due to the experimental conditions, gas-phase structural biology techniques provide meaningful data that inform not only about the structures but also conformational dynamics of proteins.

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  • 12. Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Bergh, Magnus
    Scott, Howard A.
    Spence, John C. H.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Simulations of radiation damage in biomolecular nanocrystals induced by femtosecond X-ray pulses2011In: Journal of Modern Optics, ISSN 0950-0340, E-ISSN 1362-3044, Vol. 58, no 16, p. 1486-1497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first X-ray free electron laser to achieve lasing at subnanometer wavelengths (6 angstrom). LCLS is poised to reach even shorter wavelengths (1.5 angstrom) and thus holds the promise of single molecular imaging at atomic resolution. The initial operation at a photon energy of 2 keV provides the possibility to perform the first experiments on damage to biological particles, and to assess the limitations to coherent imaging of biological samples, which are directly relevant at atomic resolution. In this paper we theoretically investigate the damage formation and detection possibilities for a biological crystal, by employing and comparing two different damage models with complementary strengths. Molecular dynamics provides a discrete approach which investigates structural details at the atomic level by tracking all atoms in the real space. Our continuum model is based on a non-local thermodynamics equilibrium code with atomic kinetics and radiation transfer and can treat hydrodynamic expansion of the entire system. The latter approach captures the essential features of atomic displacements, without taking into account structural information and intrinsic atomic movements. This proves to be a powerful computational tool for many samples, including biological crystals, which will be studied with X-ray free electron lasers.

  • 13. Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Hub, Jochen S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    van Maaren, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Atomistic simulation of ion solvation in water explains surface preference of halides2011In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 108, no 17, p. 6838-6842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a demanding partner. It strongly attracts ions, yet some halide anions-chloride, bromide, and iodide-are expelled to the air/water interface. This has important implications for chemistry in the atmosphere, including the ozone cycle. We present a quantitative analysis of the energetics of ion solvation based on molecular simulations of all stable alkali and halide ions in water droplets. The potentials of mean force for Cl-, Br-, and I-have shallow minima near the surface. We demonstrate that these minima derive from more favorable water-water interaction energy when the ions are partially desolvated. Alkali cations are on the inside because of the favorable ion-water energy, whereas F-is driven inside by entropy. Models attempting to explain the surface preference based on one or more ion properties such as polarizability or size are shown to lead to qualitative and quantitative errors, prompting a paradigm shift in chemistry away from such simplifications.

  • 14. Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Huldt, Gösta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Maia, Filipe R. N. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Ortiz, Carlos
    Parak, Fritz G.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    On the Feasibility of Nanocrystal Imaging Using Intense and Ultrashort X-ray Pulses2011In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 139-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural studies of biological macromolecules are severely limited by radiation damage. Traditional crystallography curbs the effects of damage by spreading damage over many copies of the molecule of interest in the crystal. X-ray lasers offer an additional opportunity for limiting damage by out-running damage processes with ultrashort and very intense X-ray pulses Such pulses may allow the imaging of single molecules, clusters; Or nanoparticles: Coherent flash Imaging Will also open up new avenues for structural studies on nano- and microcrystalline substances. This paper addresses the theoretical potentials and limitations of nanocrystallography with extremely intense coherent X-ray pulses. We use urea nanocrystals as a model for generic biological substances and simulate the primary and secondary ionization dynamics in the crystalline sample. The results establish conditions for ultrafast single shot nanocrystallography diffraction experiments as a function of X-ray fluence, pulse duration, and the size of nanocrystals. Nanocrystallography using ultrafast X-ray pulses has the potential to open up a new route in protein crystallography to solve atomic structures of many systems that remain Inaccessible using conventional X-ray sources.

  • 15.
    Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Huldt, Gösta
    Ortiz, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Materials Theory.
    Maia, Filipe R. N. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Marklund, Erik G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Parak, Fritz G.
    van der Spool, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Nanocrystal imaging using intense and ultrashort X-ray pulsesManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Structural studies of biological macromolecules are severely limited by radiation damage. Traditional crystallography curbs the effects of damage by spreading damage over many copies of the molecule of interest in the crystal. X-ray lasers offer an additional opportunity for limiting damage by out-running damage processes with ultrashort and very intense X-ray pulses. Such pulses may allow the imaging of single molecules, clusters or nanoparticles, but coherent flash imaging will also open up new avenues for structural studies on nano- and micro-crystalline substances. This paper addresses the potentials and limitations of nanocrystallography with extremely intense coherent X-ray pulses. We use urea nanocrystals as a model for generic biological substances, and simulate the primary and secondary ionization dynamics in the crystalline sample. The results establish conditions for diffraction experiments as a function of X-ray fluence, pulse duration, and the size of nanocrystals.

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  • 16.
    Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, Notkestr 85, DE-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Junior, Francisco Jares
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Grånäs, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Martin, Andrew, V
    RMIT Univ, Sch Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3000, Australia..
    A Perspective on Molecular Structure and Bond-Breaking in Radiation Damage in Serial Femtosecond Crystallography2020In: Crystals, ISSN 2073-4352, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) have a unique capability for time-resolved studies of protein dynamics and conformational changes on femto- and pico-second time scales. The extreme intensity of X-ray pulses can potentially cause significant modifications to the sample structure during exposure. Successful time-resolved XFEL crystallography depends on the unambiguous interpretation of the protein dynamics of interest from the effects of radiation damage. Proteins containing relatively heavy elements, such as sulfur or metals, have a higher risk for radiation damage. In metaloenzymes, for example, the dynamics of interest usually occur at the metal centers, which are also hotspots for damage due to the higher atomic number of the elements they contain. An ongoing challenge with such local damage is to understand the residual bonding in these locally ionized systems and bond-breaking dynamics. Here, we present a perspective on radiation damage in XFEL experiments with a particular focus on the impacts for time-resolved protein crystallography. We discuss recent experimental and modelling results of bond-breaking and ion motion at disulfide bonding sites in protein crystals.

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  • 17.
    Caleman, Carl