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  • 1. Dudai, Yadin
    et al.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    To simulate or not to simulate: What are the questions?2014In: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 254-261Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is a powerful method in science and engineering. However, simulation is an umbrella term, and its meaning and goals differ among disciplines. Rapid advances in neuroscience and computing draw increasing attention to large-scale brain simulations. What is the meaning of simulation, and what should the method expect to achieve? We discuss the concept of simulation from an integrated scientific and philosophical vantage point and pinpoint selected issues that are specific to brain simulation.

  • 2.
    Evers, K
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Codes of conduct - Standards for ethics in research2004Other (Other scientific)
  • 3.
    Evers, K
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    European perspectives on therapeutic cloning.2002In: N Engl J Med, ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 346, no 20, p. 1579-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Can we be epigenetically proactive?2015In: Open MIND / [ed] Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt, Barbara Wengler Foundation , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The human brain is an essentially evaluative organ endowed with reward systems

    engaged in learning and memory as well as in higher evaluative tendencies. Our

    innate species-specific, neuronally-based identity disposes us to develop universal

    evaluative tendencies, such as self-interest, control-orientation, dissociation, selective

    sympathy, empathy, and xenophobia. The combination of these tendencies

    may place us in a predicament. Our neuronal identity makes us social, but also

    individualistic and self-projective, with an emotional and intellectual engagement

    that is far more narrowly focused in space and time than the effects of our actions.

    However, synaptic epigenesis theories of cultural and social imprinting on our

    brain architecture suggest that there is a possibility of culturally influencing

    these predispositions. In an analysis of epigenesis by selective stabilisation of

    synapses, I discuss the relationships between genotype and brain phenotype: the

    paradox of non-linear evolution between genome and brain complexity; the selection

    of cultural circuits in the brain during development; and the genesis and epigenetic

    transmission of cultural imprints. I proceed to discuss the combinatorial

    explosion of brain representations, and the channelling of behaviour through “epigenetic

    rules” and top-down control of decision-making. In neurobiological terms,

    these “rules” are viewed as acquired patterns of connections (scaffoldings), hypothetically

    stored in frontal cortex long-term memory, which frame the genesis of

    novel representations and regulate decision-making in a top-down manner.

    Against that background I propose the possibility of being epigenetically proactive,

    and adapting our social structures, in both the short and the long term, to benefit,

    influence, and constructively interact with the ever-developing neuronal architecture

    of our brains.

  • 5.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Ethics in Science: A Socio-Political Challenge2009In: Universality, from Theory to Practice: an intercultural and interdiscplinary debate about facts, possibilities, lies and myths: 25th Colloquium (2007) of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences / [ed] Sitter-Liver, Beat, Freiburg: Academic Press Freiburg , 2009, 1, p. 393-404Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neuroethics2013In: Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions / [ed] Anne L. C. Runehov, Lluis Oviedo, Springer Netherlands, 2013, p. 1466-1471Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Neuroethics: a philosophical challenge.2005In: Am J Bioeth, ISSN 1536-0075, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 31-3; discussion W3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neurotechnological assessment of consciousness disorders: five ethical imperatives2016In: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 1294-8322, E-ISSN 1958-5969, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 155-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disorders of consciousness (DOCs) cause great human suffering and material costs for society. Understanding of these disorders has advanced remarkably in recent years, but uncertainty remains with respect to the diagnostic criteria and standards of care. One of the most serious problems concerns misdiagnoses, their impact on medical decision-making, and on patients' well-being. Recent studies use neurotechnology to assess residual consciousness in DOC patients that traditional behavioral diagnostic criteria are unable to detect. The results show an urgent need to strengthen the development of new diagnostic tools and more refined diagnostic criteria. If residual consciousness may be inferred from robust and reproducible results from neurotechnological communication with DOC patients, this also raises ethical challenges. With reference to the moral notions of beneficence and fundamental rights, five ethical imperatives are here suggested in terms of diagnosis, communication, interpretation of subjective states, adaptation of living conditions, and care.

  • 9. Evers, Kathinka
    Neuroética: Cuando la materia se despierta2010 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Perspectives on Memory Manipulation: Using beta-blockers to cure post-traumatic stress disorder2007In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 138-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human mind strives to maintain equilibrium between memory and oblivion and rejects irrelevant or disruptive memories. However, extensive amounts of stress hormones released at the time of a traumatic event can give rise to such powerful memory formation that traumatic memories cannot be rejected and do not vanish or diminish with time: Post-traumatic stress disorder may then develop. Recent scientific studies suggest that beta-blockers stopping the action of these stress hormones may reduce the emotional impact of disturbing memories or prevent their consolidation. Using such an intervention could, in principle, help people who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, but the idea of doing so is controversial. I shall here discuss memory manipulation in this perspective.

  • 11.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    The contribution of neuroethics to international brain research initiatives2017In: Nature Reviews Neuroscience, ISSN 1471-003X, E-ISSN 1471-0048, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Toward a philosophy for neuroethics. An informed materialist view of the brain might help to develop theoretical frameworks for applied neuroethics.2007In: EMBO Reports, ISSN 1469-221X, E-ISSN 1469-3178, Vol. 8, no S1, p. S48-S51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Uma Nova Visão do Cérebro: o Aparecimento da Neuroética2010In: Pessoas Transparentes: Questões Actuais de Bioética / [ed] Manuel Curado & Nuno Oliveira, Oimbra: Almedina , 2010, 1, p. 77-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Understanding the Brain:: Challenges for Neuroethics2015In: Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft und Ethik, ISSN 1613-1142, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 239-253Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Changeux, Jean-Pierre
    CNRS, UMR 3571, Coll France, Paris, France.;CNRS, UMR 3571, Inst Pasteur, Paris, France..
    Proactive epigenesis and ethical innovation2016In: EMBO Reports, ISSN 1469-221X, E-ISSN 1469-3178, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1361-1364Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Changeux, Jean-Pierre
    Inst Pasteur, Paris, France.;Coll France, Paris, France..
    Proactive epigenesis and ethics - Response2017In: EMBO Reports, ISSN 1469-221X, E-ISSN 1469-3178, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1272-1272Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Giordano, James J.
    Departments of Neurology and Biochemistry, Neuroethics Studies Program-Pellegrino Center for Clinical Bioethics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States.
    The Utility- and Use–of Neurotechnology to Recover Consciousness: Technical and Neuroethical Considerations in Approaching the "Hard Question" of Neuroscience2017In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 11, p. 1-3, article id 564Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lindau, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Insight in frontotemporal dementia: Conceptual analysis and empirical evaluation of the consensus criterion “loss of insight” in frontotemporal dementia2007In: Brain and Cognition, ISSN 0278-2626, E-ISSN 1090-2147, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 13-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to suggest a new formulation of the core research diagnostic consensus criterion “loss of insight” in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Eight patients with FTD (diagnoses made by interviews, medical and neuropsychological examination, CT scan, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism measured by positron emission tomography (PET) participated in the study). The results indicated that insight was present in three out of eight patients, and that insight appears to be a heterogeneous concept. Two types of insight emerged: Emotional insight associated with frontotemporal functions, and cognitive insight, related to posterior cognitive functions. These results suggest that loss of insight should not serve as a core criterion on FTD, but serves well as a supportive criterion of the disease.

  • 19.
    Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Sigman, Mariano
    Possibilities and limits of mind-reading: A neurophilosophical perspective2013In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 887-897Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to other minds once presupposed other individuals' expressions and narrations. Today, several methods have been developed which can measure brain states relevant for assessments of mental states without 1st person overt external behavior or speech. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and trace conditioning are used clinically to identify patterns of activity in the brain that suggest the presence of consciousness in people suffering from severe consciousness disorders and methods to communicate cerebrally with patients who are motorically unable to communicate. The techniques are also used non-clinically to access subjective awareness in adults and infants. In this article we inspect technical and theoretical limits on brain-machine interface access to other minds. We argue that these techniques hold promises of important medical breakthroughs, open up new vistas of communication, and of understanding the infant mind. Yet they also give rise to ethical concerns, notably misuse as a consequence of hypes and misinterpretations.

  • 20.
    Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Stjernschantz Forsberg, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Eliason, James F.
    What are your views on commercialization of tissues for research?2012In: Biopreservation and Biobanking, ISSN 1947-5535, E-ISSN 1947-5543, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 476-478Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Stjernschantz Forsberg, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Hansson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Commercialization of Biobanks2012In: Biopreservation and Biobanking, ISSN 1947-5535, E-ISSN 1947-5543, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 45-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biobank policy and regulations profoundly vary between different societies. One area with profound differences in culture and tradition concerns commercialization, and the possibility of using the human body as a capital resource. In the United States there is acceptance of this possibility, whereas European law is based on principles that categorically prohibit selling parts of the human body. We suggest that questions of commercialization in the area of biobanking must be considered in relation to different ethical values, notably the principle of best possible use of collected biobank materials for the benefit of vital patient interests.

  • 22.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Brain Project Sub-Project 12, Uppsala University, Uppsala.; Biogem, Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Brain Project Sub-Project 12, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    The ethical relevance of the unconscious2017In: Philosophy Ethics and Humanities in Medicine, ISSN 1747-5341, E-ISSN 1747-5341, Vol. 12, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Ethical analyses of disorders of consciousness traditionally focus on residual awareness. Going one step further, this paper explores the potential ethical relevance of the unawareness retained by patients with disorders of consciousness, focusing specifically on the ethical implications of the description of the unconscious provided by recent scientific research.

    Methods

    A conceptual methodology is used, based on the review and analysis of relevant scientific literature on the unconscious and the logical argumentation in favour of the ethical conclusions.

    Results

    Two conditions (experiential wellbeing and having interests) that are generally considered critical components in the ethical discussion of patients with disorders of consciousness might arguably be both conscious and unconscious.

    Conclusions

    The unconscious, as well as consciousness, should be taken into account in the ethical discussions of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  • 23.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Science and Society Unit, Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Changeux, Jean-Pierre
    Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics2018In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we suggest a potential new ethical analysis of addiction focusing on the relationship between aware and unaware processings in the brain, i.e. on what is consciously and what is non-consciously perceived by the individual. We take the case of the opioids epidemics to argue that a consideration of both aware and unaware processings provides a more comprehensive ethical framework to discuss the ethical issues raised by addiction.Finally, our hypothesis is that in addition to identified Central Nervous System’s neuronal/neurochemical factors contributing to addictive dynamics, the socio-economic status, i.e. the individual background, plays a causal role through epigenetic processes, originating the need for additional reward in the brain. This provides a strong base for a socio-political form of responsibility for preventing and managing addiction crisis.

  • 24.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions2014In: Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISSN 0021-2571, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 221-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The directive 2001/20/UE and the research involving patients with docs. Researchinvolving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) deserves special ethical andlegal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concernsabout the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respectingtheir individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, researchis an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients withDOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical researchinvolving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses oninformed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from anethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the lightof the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to betterassess the issue of informed consent.The particular case of informed consent for observational studies of non-communicativepatients. The second part presents an informed consent form for studies throughvideo-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form hasbeen elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project “Review of the nosography of vegetativestates: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma orvegetative state” developed at the Italian National Institute of Health.Relevance of the suggested form. The paper describes the conceptual framework ofthe form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevantexample of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studiesthrough video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article hasbeen sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU) no.536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001/20/EU) and the release ofthe new edition of the Italian Code of Medical Ethics.

  • 25.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas.
    Big Science, Brain Simulation and Neuroethics2016In: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 28-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We believe that it is valuable to investigate conceptual understandings of the brain andof simulation in order to better grasp the ethical implicationsof simulation technology in particular. Such conceptualexamination is offered by fundamental neuroethics. Inthis commentary we propose a reading of simulationwithin the framework of fundamental neuroethics.

  • 26.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Science and Society Unit, Biogem Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette
    Science for Life Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g. Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State.Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

  • 27.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Laureys, Steven
    University of Liège, Liège, Belgium .
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Externalization of Consciousness: Scientific Possibilities and Clinical Implications2015In: Ethical Issues in Behavioural Neuroscience / [ed] G. Lee-J. Illes-F Ohl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, p. 205-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper starts by analyzing recent advancements in neurotechnological assessment of residual consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness and in neurotechnology-mediated communication with them. Ethical issues arising from these developments are described, with particular focus on informed consent. Against this background, we argue for the necessity of further scientific efforts and ethical reflection in neurotechnological assessment of consciousness and ‘cerebral communication’ with verbally non-communicative patients.

  • 28.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Laureys, Steven
    University and University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and Its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness2017In: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 197-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science and philosophy still lack an overarching theory of consciousness. We suggest that a further step toward it requires going beyond the view of the brain as input-output machine and focusing on its intrinsic activity, which may express itself in two distinct modalities, i.e. aware and unaware. We specifically investigate the predisposition of the brain to evaluate and to model the world. These intrinsic activities of the brain retain a deep relation with consciousness. In fact the ability of the brain to evaluate and model the world can develop in two modalities, implicit or explicit, that correspond to what we usually refer to as the unconscious and consciousness, and both are multilevel configurations of the brain along a continuous and dynamic line. Starting from an empirical understanding of the brain as intrinsically active and plastic, we here distinguish between higher cognitive functions and basic phenomenal consciousness, suggesting that the latter might characterize the brain’s intrinsic activity as such, even if at a very basic level. We proceed to explore possible impacts of the notion of intrinsic cerebral phenomenality on our understanding of consciousness and its disorders, particularly on the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  • 29.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach2018In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 717-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we begin by identifying three main neuroethical approaches: neurobioethics, empirical neuroethics, and conceptual neuroethics. Our focus is on conceptual approaches that generally emphasize the need to develop and use a methodological modus operandi for effectively linking scientific (i.e., neuroscience) and philosophical (i.e., ethics) interpretations. We explain and assess the value of conceptual neuroethics approaches and explain and defend one such approach that we propose as being particularly fruitful for addressing the various issues raised by neuroscience: fundamental neuroethics.

  • 30.
    Kuhlau, Frida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Höglund, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Ethical competence in dual use life science research2012In: Applied Biosafety: Journal of the American Biological Safety Association, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Kuhlau, Frida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Höglund, Anna T
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    The ethics of disseminating dual use knowledge2013In: Research Ethics, ISSN 1747-0161, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 6-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, for the first time ever, two scientific journals were asked not to publish research papers in full detail. The research in question was on the H5N1 influenza virus (bird flu), and the concern was that the expected public health benefits of disseminating the findings did not outweigh the potential harm should the knowledge be misused for malicious purposes. This constraint raises important ethical concerns as it collides with scientific freedom and openness. In this article, we argue that constraining the dissemination of dual-use knowledge can in certain cases be justified because, for example: scientists have a responsibility for potentially harmful consequences of their research; the public need not always know of all scientific discoveries; uncertainty about the risks of harm may warrant precaution; and expected benefits do not always outweigh potential harm. However, the constraints in question are not absolute but can be both temporary and partial. We propose three core aspects for an ethics of dual-use dissemination: dual-use awareness, precaution, and acknowledgment of conflicting values. Additionally, to help scientists understand when constraints on dissemination may be justified we suggest three corresponding conditions that prompt scientists to recognize dual-use material or research, consider the potential impact of dual-use knowledge dissemination, and acknowledge and respond to external dissemination concerns.

  • 32.
    Kuhlau, Frida
    et al.