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  • 1.
    Ameur, Adam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Che, Huiwen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Martin, Marcel
    Stockholm Univ, DBB, Sci Life Lab, S-11419 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bunikis, Ignas
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol, Sci Life Lab, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Höijer, Ida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Häggqvist, Susana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Vezzi, Francesco
    Stockholm Univ, DBB, Sci Life Lab, S-11419 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Sci Life Lab, Mol Med, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olason, Pall
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    De Novo Assembly of Two Swedish Genomes Reveals Missing Segments from the Human GRCh38 Reference and Improves Variant Calling of Population-Scale Sequencing Data2018In: Genes, ISSN 2073-4425, E-ISSN 2073-4425, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current human reference sequence (GRCh38) is a foundation for large-scale sequencing projects. However, recent studies have suggested that GRCh38 may be incomplete and give a suboptimal representation of specific population groups. Here, we performed a de novo assembly of two Swedish genomes that revealed over 10 Mb of sequences absent from the human GRCh38 reference in each individual. Around 6 Mb of these novel sequences (NS) are shared with a Chinese personal genome. The NS are highly repetitive, have an elevated GC-content, and are primarily located in centromeric or telomeric regions. Up to 1 Mb of NS can be assigned to chromosome Y, and large segments are also missing from GRCh38 at chromosomes 14, 17, and 21. Inclusion of NS into the GRCh38 reference radically improves the alignment and variant calling from short-read whole-genome sequencing data at several genomic loci. A re-analysis of a Swedish population-scale sequencing project yields > 75,000 putative novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and removes > 10,000 false positive SNV calls per individual, some of which are located in protein coding regions. Our results highlight that the GRCh38 reference is not yet complete and demonstrate that personal genome assemblies from local populations can improve the analysis of short-read whole-genome sequencing data.

  • 2.
    Ameur, Adam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Natl Genom Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Natl Genom Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olason, Pall
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Natl Bioinformat Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vezzi, Francesco
    Natl Genom Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Robert
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Martin, Marcel
    Natl Bioinformat Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Viklund, Johan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Natl Bioinformat Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kähäri, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Natl Bioinformat Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundin, Par
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Che, Huiwen
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Thutkawkorapin, Jessada
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eisfeldt, Jesper
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lampa, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Natl Bioinformat Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Mats
    Natl Bioinformat Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hagberg, Jonas
    Natl Bioinformat Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jareborg, Niclas
    Natl Bioinformat Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Liljedahl, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Natl Genom Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Inger
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Natl Genom Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    Natl Genom Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.;Royal Inst Technol, Div Gene Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Natl Genom Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundin, Sverker
    Royal Inst Technol, Div Gene Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nystedt, Björn
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Natl Bioinformat Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Natl Genom Infrastruct, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    SweGen: a whole-genome data resource of genetic variability in a cross-section of the Swedish population2017In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 1253-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we describe the SweGen data set, a comprehensive map of genetic variation in the Swedish population. These data represent a basic resource for clinical genetics laboratories as well as for sequencing-based association studies by providing information on genetic variant frequencies in a cohort that is well matched to national patient cohorts. To select samples for this study, we first examined the genetic structure of the Swedish population using high-density SNP-array data from a nation-wide cohort of over 10 000 Swedish-born individuals included in the Swedish Twin Registry. A total of 1000 individuals, reflecting a cross-section of the population and capturing the main genetic structure, were selected for whole-genome sequencing. Analysis pipelines were developed for automated alignment, variant calling and quality control of the sequencing data. This resulted in a genome-wide collection of aggregated variant frequencies in the Swedish population that we have made available to the scientific community through the website https://swefreq.nbis.se. A total of 29.2 million single-nucleotide variants and 3.8 million indels were detected in the 1000 samples, with 9.9 million of these variants not present in current databases. Each sample contributed with an average of 7199 individual-specific variants. In addition, an average of 8645 larger structural variants (SVs) were detected per individual, and we demonstrate that the population frequencies of these SVs can be used for efficient filtering analyses. Finally, our results show that the genetic diversity within Sweden is substantial compared with the diversity among continental European populations, underscoring the relevance of establishing a local reference data set.

  • 3.
    Ameur, Adam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Enroth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zaboli, Ghazal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Igl, Wilmar
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johansson, Anna C. V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rivas, Manuel A.
    Daly, Mark J.
    Schmitz, Gerd
    Hicks, Andrew A.
    Meitinger, Thomas
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    van Duijn, Cornelia
    Oostra, Ben
    Pramstaller, Peter P.
    Rudan, Igor
    Wright, Alan F.
    Wilson, James F.
    Campbell, Harry
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Genetic Adaptation of Fatty-Acid Metabolism: A Human-Specific Haplotype Increasing the Biosynthesis of Long-Chain Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids2012In: American Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 0002-9297, E-ISSN 1537-6605, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 809-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential for the development and function of the human brain. They can be obtained directly from food, e.g., fish, or synthesized from precursor molecules found in vegetable oils. To determine the importance of genetic variability to fatty-acid biosynthesis, we studied FADS1 and FADS2, which encode rate-limiting enzymes for fatty-acid conversion. We performed genome-wide genotyping (n = 5,652 individuals) and targeted resequencing (n = 960 individuals) of the FADS region in five European population cohorts. We also analyzed available genomic data from human populations, archaic hominins, and more distant primates. Our results show that present-day humans have two common FADS haplotypes-defined by 28 closely linked SNPs across 38.9 kb-that differ dramatically in their ability to generate LC-PUFAs. No independent effects on FADS activity were seen for rare SNPs detected by targeted resequencing. The more efficient, evolutionarily derived haplotype appeared after the lineage split leading to modern humans and Neanderthals and shows evidence of positive selection. This human-specific haplotype increases the efficiency of synthesizing essential long-chain fatty acids from precursors and thereby might have provided an advantage in environments with limited access to dietary LC-PUFAs. In the modern world, this haplotype has been associated with lifestyle-related diseases, such as coronary artery disease.

  • 4.
    Ameur, Adam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Wetterbom, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Global and unbiased detection of splice junctions from RNA-seq data2010In: Genome Biology, ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. R34-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a new strategy for de novo prediction of splice junctions in short-read RNA-seq data, suitable for detection of novel splicing events and chimeric transcripts. When tested on mouse RNA-seq data, > 31,000 splice events were predicted, of which 88% bridged between two regions separated by <= 100 kb, and 74% connected two exons of the same RefSeq gene. Our method also reports genomic rearrangements such as insertions and deletions.

  • 5.
    Ameur, Adam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zaghlool, Ammar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Halvardson, Jonatan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wetterbom, Anna
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Cavelier, Lucia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Total RNA sequencing reveals nascent transcription and widespread co-transcriptional splicing in the human brain2011In: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, ISSN 1545-9993, E-ISSN 1545-9985, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 1435-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcriptome sequencing allows for analysis of mature RNAs at base pair resolution. Here we show that RNA-seq can also be used for studying nascent RNAs undergoing transcription. We sequenced total RNA from human brain and liver and found a large fraction of reads (up to 40%) within introns. Intronic RNAs were abundant in brain tissue, particularly for genes involved in axonal growth and synaptic transmission. Moreover, we detected significant differences in intronic RNA levels between fetal and adult brains. We show that the pattern of intronic sequence read coverage is explained by nascent transcription in combination with co-transcriptional splicing. Further analysis of co-transcriptional splicing indicates a correlation between slowly removed introns and alternative splicing. Our data show that sequencing of total RNA provides unique insight into the transcriptional processes in the cell, with particular importance for normal brain development.

  • 6. Berger, Itai
    et al.
    Dor, Talya
    Halvardson, Jonatan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Edvardson, Simon
    Shaag, Avraham
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Elpeleg, Orly
    Intractable epilepsy of infancy due to homozygous mutation in the EFHC1 gene2012In: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 1436-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: 

    The molecular etiology of primary intractable epilepsy in infancy is largely unknown. We studied a nonconsanguineous Moroccan-Jewish family, where three of their seven children presented with intractable seizures and died at 18-36 months.

    Methods: 

    Homozygous regions were searched using 250 K DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The sequence of 50 Mb exome of a single patient was determined using SOLiD 5500XL deep sequencing analyzer.

    Key Findings:

    A single homozygous 11.3 Mb genomic region on chromosome 6 was linked to the disease in this family. This region contained 110 genes encoding a total of 1,000 exons. Whole exome sequencing revealed a single pathogenic homozygous variant within the critical region. The mutation, Phe229Leu in the EFHC1 gene was previously shown, in a carrier state, to be associated with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Significance: 

    Although heterozygosity for the Phe229Leu mutation is known to be associated with a relatively benign form of epilepsy in adolescence; homozygosity for the same mutation is associated with lethal epilepsy of infancy. Given the considerable carrier rate of this mutation worldwide, the sequence of the EFHC1 gene should be determined in all patients with primary intractable epilepsy in infancy.

  • 7. Birney, Ewan
    et al.
    Hudson, Thomas J.
    Green, Eric D.
    Gunter, Chris
    Eddy, Sean
    Rogers, Jane
    Harris, Jennifer R.
    Ehrlich, S. Dusko
    Apweiler, Rolf
    Austin, Christopher P.
    Berglund, Lisa
    Bobrow, Martin
    Bountra, Chas
    Brookes, Anthony J.
    Cambon-Thomsen, Anne
    Carter, Nigel P.
    Chisholm, Rex L.
    Contreras, Jorge L.
    Cooke, Robert M.
    Crosby, William L.
    Dewar, Ken
    Durbin, Richard
    Dyke, Stephanie O. M.
    Ecker, Joseph R.
    El Emam, Khaled
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Gabriel, Stacey B.
    Gallacher, John
    Gelbart, William M.
    Granell, Antoni
    Guarner, Francisco
    Hubbard, Tim
    Jackson, Scott A.
    Jennings, Jennifer L.
    Joly, Yann
    Jones, Steven M.
    Kaye, Jane
    Kennedy, Karen L.
    Knoppers, Bartha Maria
    Kyrpides, Nikos C.
    Lowrance, William W.
    Luo, Jingchu
    MacKay, John J.
    Martín-Rivera, Luis
    McCombie, W. Richard
    McPherson, John D.
    Miller, Linda
    Miller, Webb
    Moerman, Don
    Mooser, Vincent
    Morton, Cynthia C.
    Ostell, James M.
    Ouellette, B. F. Francis
    Parkhill, Julian
    Raina, Parminder S.
    Rawlings, Christopher
    Scherer, Steven E.
    Scherer, Stephen W.
    Schofield, Paul N.
    Sensen, Christoph W.
    Stodden, Victoria C.
    Sussman, Michael R.
    Tanaka, Toshihiro
    Thornton, Janet
    Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko
    Valle, David
    Vuorio, Eero I.
    Walker, Neil M.
    Wallace, Susan
    Weinstock, George
    Whitman, William B.
    Worley, Kim C.
    Wu, Cathy
    Wu, Jiayan
    Yu, Jun
    Prepublication data sharing2009In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 461, no 7261, p. 168-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid release of prepublication data has served the field of genomics well. Attendees at a workshop in Toronto recommend extending the practice to other biological data sets.

  • 8.
    Chen, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Juko-Pecirep, Ivana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Hammer, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Ivansson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Enroth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Gustavsson, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    McKay, James D.
    Wilander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Genome-wide Association Study of Susceptibility Loci for Cervical Cancer2013In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN 0027-8874, E-ISSN 1460-2105, Vol. 105, no 9, p. 624-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Cervical carcinoma has a heritable genetic component, but the genetic basis of cervical cancer is still not well understood. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study of 731 422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1075 cervical cancer case subjects and 4014 control subjects and replicated it in 1140 case subjects and 1058 control subjects. The association between top SNPs and cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with unconditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Three independent loci in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region at 6p21.3 were associated with cervical cancer: the first is adjacent to the MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A gene (MICA) (rs2516448; OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.31 to 1.54; P = 1.6 x 10(-18)); the second is between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1 (rs9272143; OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.72; P = 9.3 x 10(-24)); and the third is at HLA-DPB2 (rs3117027; OR=1.25, 95% CI = 1.15 to 1.35; P = 4.9 x 10(-8)). We also confirmed previously reported associations of B*0702 and DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 with susceptibility to and DRB1*1301-DQA1*0103-DQB1*0603 with protection against cervical cancer. The three new loci are statistically independent of these specific human leukocyte antigen alleles/haplotypes. MICA encodes a membrane-bound protein that acts as a ligand for NKG2D to activate antitumor effects. The risk allele of rs2516448 is in perfect linkage disequilibrium with a frameshift mutation (A5.1) of MICA, which results in a truncated protein. Functional analysis shows that women carrying this mutation have lower levels of membrane-bound MICA. Conclusions Three novel loci in the MHC may affect susceptibility to cervical cancer in situ, including the MICA-A5.1 allele that may cause impaired immune activation and increased risk of tumor development.

  • 9. Church, Deanna M.
    et al.
    Lappalainen, Ilkka
    Sneddon, Tam P.
    Hinton, Jonathan
    Maguire, Michael
    Lopez, John
    Garner, John
    Paschall, Justin
    DiCuccio, Michael
    Yaschenko, Eugene
    Scherer, Stephen W.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Flicek, Paul
    Public data archives for genomic structural variation2010In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 813-814Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Conrad, Donald F.
    et al.
    Pinto, Dalila
    Redon, Richard
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Gokcumen, Omer
    Zhang, Yujun
    Aerts, Jan
    Andrews, T. Daniel
    Barnes, Chris
    Campbell, Peter
    Fitzgerald, Tomas
    Hu, Min
    Ihm, Chun Hwa
    Kristiansson, Kati
    MacArthur, Daniel G.
    MacDonald, Jeffrey R.
    Onyiah, Ifejinelo
    Pang, Andy Wing Chun
    Robson, Sam
    Stirrups, Kathy
    Valsesia, Armand
    Walter, Klaudia
    Wei, John
    Tyler-Smith, Chris
    Carter, Nigel P.
    Lee, Charles
    Scherer, Stephen W.
    Hurles, Matthew E.
    Origins and functional impact of copy number variation in the human genome2010In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 464, no 7289, p. 704-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural variations of DNA greater than 1 kilobase in size account for most bases that vary among human genomes, but are still relatively under-ascertained. Here we use tiling oligonucleotide microarrays, comprising 42 million probes, to generate a comprehensive map of 11,700 copy number variations (CNVs) greater than 443 base pairs, of which most (8,599) have been validated independently. For 4,978 of these CNVs, we generated reference genotypes from 450 individuals of European, African or East Asian ancestry. The predominant mutational mechanisms differ among CNV size classes. Retrotransposition has duplicated and inserted some coding and non-coding DNA segments randomly around the genome. Furthermore, by correlation with known trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified 30 loci with CNVs that are candidates for influencing disease susceptibility. Despite this, having assessed the completeness of our map and the patterns of linkage disequilibrium between CNVs and SNPs, we conclude that, for complex traits, the heritability void left by genome-wide association studies will not be accounted for by common CNVs.

  • 11. de Leeuw, Nicole
    et al.
    Dijkhuizen, Trijnie
    Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.
    Carter, Nigel P.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Firth, Helen V.
    Kuhn, Robert M.
    Ledbetter, David H.
    Martin, Christa Lese
    van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.
    Scherer, Steven W.
    Shams, Soheil
    Van Vooren, Steven
    Sijmons, Rolf
    Swertz, Morris
    Hastings, Ros
    Diagnostic Interpretation of Array Data Using Public Databases and Internet Sources2012In: Human Mutation, ISSN 1059-7794, E-ISSN 1098-1004, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 930-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The range of commercially available array platforms and analysis software packages is expanding and their utility is improving, making reliable detection of copy-number variants (CNVs) relatively straightforward. Reliable interpretation of CNV data, however, is often difficult and requires expertise. With our knowledge of the human genome growing rapidly, applications for array testing continuously broadening, and the resolution of CNV detection increasing, this leads to great complexity in interpreting what can be daunting data. Correct CNV interpretation and optimal use of the genotype information provided by single-nucleotide polymorphism probes on an array depends largely on knowledge present in various resources. In addition to the availability of host laboratories' own datasets and national registries, there are several public databases and Internet resources with genotype and phenotype information that can be used for array data interpretation. With so many resources now available, it is important to know which are fit-for-purpose in a diagnostic setting. We summarize the characteristics of the most commonly used Internet databases and resources, and propose a general data interpretation strategy that can be used for comparative hybridization, comparative intensity, and genotype-based array data.

  • 12.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Inversion variants in the human genome: role in disease and genome architecture2010In: Genome Medicine, ISSN 1756-994X, E-ISSN 1756-994X, Vol. 2, no 2, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant advances have been made over the past 5 years in mapping and characterizing structural variation in the human genome. Despite this progress, our understanding of inversion variants is still very restricted. While unbalanced variants such as copy number variations can be mapped using array-based approaches, strategies for characterization of inversion variants have been limited and underdeveloped. Traditional cytogenetic approaches have long been able to identify microscopic inversion events, but discovery of submicroscopic events has remained elusive and largely ignored. With the advent of paired-end sequencing approaches, it is now possible to map inversions across the human genome. Based on the paired-end sequencing studies published to date, it is now feasible to make a first map of inversions across the human genome and to use this map to explore the characteristics and distribution of this form of variation. The current map of inversions indicates that many remain to be identified, especially in the smaller size ranges. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about human inversions and their contribution to human phenotypes. Further characterization of inversions should be considered as an important step towards a deeper understanding of human variation and genome dynamics.

  • 13.
    Halvardson, Jonatan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zaghlool, Ammar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Exome RNA sequencing reveals rare and novel alternative transcripts2013In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 41, no 1, p. e6-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA sequencing has become an important method to perform hypothesis-free characterization of global gene expression. One of the limitations of RNA sequencing is that most sequence reads represent highly expressed transcripts, whereas low level transcripts are challenging to detect. To combine the benefits of traditional expression arrays with the advantages of RNA sequencing, we have used whole exome enrichment prior to sequencing of total RNA. We show that whole exome capture can be successfully applied to cDNA to study the transcriptional landscape in human tissues. By introducing the exome enrichment step, we are able to identify transcripts present at very low levels, which are below the level of detection in conventional RNA sequencing. Although the enrichment increases the ability to detect presence of transcripts, it also lowers the accuracy of quantification of expression levels. Our results yield a large number of novel exons and splice isoforms, suggesting that conventional RNA sequencing methods only detect a small fraction of the full transcript diversity. We propose that whole exome enrichment of RNA is a suitable strategy for genome-wide discovery of novel transcripts, alternative splice variants and fusion genes.

  • 14.
    Halvardson, Jonatan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zhao, Jin J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zaghlool, Ammar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wentzel, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Georgii-Hemming, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Månsson, Else
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Orebro, Sweden.
    Ederth Sävmarker, Helena
    Gavle Cent Hosp, Dept Pediat, Gavle, Sweden.
    Brandberg, Göran
    Pediat Clin, Falun, Sweden.
    Soussi Zander, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Thuresson, Ann-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Mutations in HECW2 are associated with intellectual disability and epilepsy2016In: Journal of Medical Genetics, ISSN 0022-2593, E-ISSN 1468-6244, Vol. 53, no 10, p. 697-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: De novo mutations are a frequent cause of disorders related to brain development. We report the results of screening patients diagnosed with both epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID) using exome sequencing to identify known and new causative de novo mutations relevant to these conditions.

    METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on 39 patient-parent trios to identify de novo mutations. Clinical significance of de novo mutations in genes was determined using the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standard guidelines for interpretation of coding variants. Variants in genes of unknown clinical significance were further analysed in the context of previous trio sequencing efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    RESULTS: In 39 patient-parent trios we identified 29 de novo mutations in coding sequence. Analysis of de novo and inherited variants yielded a molecular diagnosis in 11 families (28.2%). In combination with previously published exome sequencing results in neurodevelopmental disorders, our analysis implicates HECW2 as a novel candidate gene in ID and epilepsy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the use of exome sequencing as a diagnostic approach for ID and epilepsy, and confirm previous results regarding the importance of de novo mutations in this patient group. The results also highlight the utility of network analysis and comparison to previous large-scale studies as strategies to prioritise candidate genes for further studies. This study adds knowledge to the increasingly growing list of causative and candidate genes in ID and epilepsy and highlights HECW2 as a new candidate gene for neurodevelopmental disorders.

  • 15.
    Hooper, Sean D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johansson, Anna C. V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tellgren-Roth, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Stattin, Eva-Lena
    Dahl, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Cavelier, Lucia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Genome-wide sequencing for the identification of rearrangements associated with Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder2012In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 13, p. 123-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder in children characterized by motor and verbal tics. Although several genes have been suggested in the etiology of TS, the genetic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Methods: Using cytogenetics and FISH analysis, we identified an apparently balanced t(6,22)(q16.2;p13) in a male patient with TS and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In order to map the breakpoints and to identify additional submicroscopic rearrangements, we performed whole genome mate-pair sequencing and CGH-array analysis on DNA from the proband. Results: Sequence and CGH array analysis revealed a 400 kb deletion located 1.3 Mb telomeric of the chromosome 6q breakpoint, which has not been reported in controls. The deletion affects three genes (GPR63, NDUFA4 and KLHL32) and overlaps a region previously found deleted in a girl with autistic features and speech delay. The proband's mother, also a carrier of the translocation, was diagnosed with OCD and shares the deletion. We also describe a further potentially related rearrangement which, while unmapped in Homo sapiens, was consistent with the chimpanzee genome. Conclusions: We conclude that genome-wide sequencing at relatively low resolution can be used for the identification of submicroscopic rearrangements. We also show that large rearrangements may escape detection using standard analysis of whole genome sequencing data. Our findings further provide a candidate region for TS and OCD on chromosome 6q16.

  • 16.
    Höijer, Ida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Tsai, Yu-Chih
    Pacific Biosci, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Clark, Tyson A.
    Pacific Biosci, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Kotturi, Paul
    Pacific Biosci, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Dahl, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Stattin, Evalena
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala Univ, Sci Life Lab, Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bondeson, Marie-Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ameur, Adam
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Monash Univ, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Detailed analysis of HTT repeat elements in human blood using targeted amplification-free long-read sequencing2018In: Human Mutation, ISSN 1059-7794, E-ISSN 1098-1004, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 1262-1272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amplification of DNA is required as a mandatory step during library preparation in most targeted sequencing protocols. This can be a critical limitation when targeting regions that are highly repetitive or with extreme guanine-cytosine (GC) content, including repeat expansions associated with human disease. Here, we used an amplification-free protocol for targeted enrichment utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system (No-Amp Targeted sequencing) in combination with single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing for studying repeat elements in the huntingtin (HTT) gene, where an expanded CAG repeat is causative for Huntington disease. We also developed a robust data analysis pipeline for repeat element analysis that is independent of alignment of reads to a reference genome. The method was applied to 11 diagnostic blood samples, and for all 22 alleles the resulting CAG repeat count agreed with previous results based on fragment analysis. The amplification-free protocol also allowed for studying somatic variability of repeat elements in our samples, without the interference of PCR stutter. In summary, with No-Amp Targeted sequencing in combination with our analysis pipeline, we could accurately study repeat elements that are difficult to investigate using PCR-based methods.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Anna C. V.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Characterization of Copy Number-Stable Regions in the Human Genome2011In: Human Mutation, ISSN 1059-7794, E-ISSN 1098-1004, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 947-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past few years the number of copy number variants (CNVs) identified in the human genome has increased significantly, but our understanding of the functional impact of CNVs is still limited. Clinically significant variations cannot easily be distinguished from benign, complicating interpretation of patient data. Multiple studies have focused on analysis of regions that vary in copy number in specific disorders. Here we use the opposite strategy and focus our analysis on regions that never seem to vary in the general population, hypothesizing that these are copy number stable because variations within them are deleterious. Our results show that copy number stable regions are characterized by correlation with a number of genomic features, allowing us to define a list of genomic regions that are dosage sensitive in humans. We find that these dosage-sensitive regions show significant overlap with de novo CNVs identified in patients with intellectual disability or autism. There is also a significant association between copy number stable regions and rare inherited variants in autism patients, but not in controls. Based on this predictive power, we propose that copy number stable regions can be used to complement maps of known CNVs to facilitate interpretation of patient data.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Lundin, Elin
    Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Qian, Xiaoyan
    Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Mirzazadeh, Mohammadreza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Halvardson, Jonatan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jazin, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Spatial sexual dimorphism of X and Y homolog gene expression in the human central nervous system during early male development2016In: Biology of Sex Differences, ISSN 2042-6410, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Renewed attention has been directed to the functions of the Y chromosome in the central nervous system during early human male development, due to the recent proposed involvement in neurodevelopmental diseases. PCDH11Y and NLGN4Y are of special interest because they belong to gene families involved in cell fate determination and formation of dendrites and axon.

    Methods

    We used RNA sequencing, immunocytochemistry and a padlock probing and rolling circle amplification strategy, to distinguish the expression of X and Y homologs in situ in the human brain for the first time. To minimize influence of androgens on the sex differences in the brain, we focused our investigation to human embryos at 8–11 weeks post-gestation.

    Results

    We found that the X- and Y-encoded genes are expressed in specific and heterogeneous cellular sub-populations of both glial and neuronal origins. More importantly, we found differential distribution patterns of X and Y homologs in the male developing central nervous system.

    Conclusions

    This study has visualized the spatial distribution of PCDH11X/Y and NLGN4X/Y in human developing nervous tissue. The observed spatial distribution patterns suggest the existence of an additional layer of complexity in the development of the male CNS.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Pottmeier, Philipp
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Suciu, Pascalina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahmed, Tauseef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Zaghlool, Ammar
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Halvardson, Jonatan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration. Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Gen Practice, Trondheim, Norway.
    Feuk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Peuckert, Christiane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Stockholms Univ, Dept Mol Biol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jazin, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Novel Y-Chromosome Long Non-Coding RNAs Expressed in Human Male CNS During Early Development2019In: Frontiers in Genetics, ISSN 1664-8021, E-ISSN 1664-8021, Vol. 10, article id 891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global microarray gene expression analyses previously demonstrated differences in female and male embryos during neurodevelopment. In particular, before sexual maturation of the gonads, the differences seem to concentrate on the expression of genes encoded on the X- and Y-chromosomes. To investigate genome-wide differences in expression during this early developmental window, we combined high-resolution RNA sequencing with qPCR to analyze brain samples from human embryos during the first trimester of development. Our analysis was tailored for maximum sensitivity to discover Y-chromosome gene expression, but at the same time, it was underpowered to detect X-inactivation escapees. Using this approach, we found that 5 out of 13 expressed game to log pairs showed unbalanced gene dosage, and as a consequence, a male-biased expression. In addition, we found six novel non-annotated long non-coding RNAs on the Y-chromosome with conserved expression patterns in newborn chimpanzee. The tissue specific and time-restricted expression of these long non-coding RNAs strongly suggests important functions during central nervous system development in human males.