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  • 1. Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Genesis of Pb-Ag-Cu-Fe-Zn-(Au-Sb-As) mineralisation at Hornkullen, Bergslagen, Sweden: insights from ore mineralogy, textural relations and geothermobarometry.2014In: NGWM 2014, 2014, p. 50-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Metamorphism and deformation of a Palaeoproterozoic polymetallic sulphide-oxide mineralisation: Hornkullen, Bergslagen, Sweden2016In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 410-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hornkullen mineralisation is situated in the westernmost part of the Bergslagen ore province, south-central Sweden. Here, polymetallic sulphides and oxides are hosted by an inlier of Svecofennian, c. 1.9Ga skarn-bearing metavolcanic units, enclosed in the c. 1.8Ga Filipstad granite belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt. The Ag- and Au-bearing mineralisation is dominated by veins and impregnations of magnetite, pyrrhotite, galena, chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite with subordinate pyrite, sphalerite, ilmenite, lollingite, Pb-Fe-Ag-Cu-Sb sulphosalts and rare gudmundite, pentlandite and molybdenite. Overall, a detailed textural and mineralogical study of the ore assemblages suggests significant deformation and remobilisation at high temperature, which is corroborated by sulphide geothermobarometry. The arsenopyrite geothermometer yields an average temperature of c. 525 degrees C, which is likely to be the result of metamorphic re-equilibration. Sphalerite geobarometry gives peak pressures of c. 300-400MPa, albeit with caveats. The combined observations suggest that the present mineralogical and textural nature of the ore assemblages at Hornkullen is primarily related to remobilisation during Svecokarelian regional metamorphism of a pre-existing, most likely syn-volcanic mineralisation. This scenario is likely to be applicable to many other Svecofennian metasupracrustal-hosted deposits in the Bergslagen ore province.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Stefan S.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64,Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Wagner, Thomas
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Appl Mineral & Econ Geol, Wullnerstr 2, D-52062 Aachen, Germany.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Box 670, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fusswinkel, Tobias
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64,Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland;Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Appl Mineral & Econ Geol, Wullnerstr 2, D-52062 Aachen, Germany.
    Leijd, Magnus
    Leading Edge Mat Corp, Skolallen 2B, SE-82141 Bollnas, Sweden.
    Berg, Johan T.
    Chromafom AB, Banvaktsvagen 22, SE-17148 Solna, Sweden.
    Origin of the high-temperature Olserum-Djupedal REE-phosphate mineralisation, SE Sweden: A unique contact metamorphic-hydrothermal system2018In: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 101, p. 740-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish part of the Fennoscandian Shield hosts a variety of rare earth element (REE) deposits, including magmatic to magmatic-hydrothermal types. This paper focuses on the origin of the Olserum-Djupedal REEphosphate mineralisation located in the sparsely studied Vastervik region, SE Sweden. Here, mineralisation occurs in three main areas, Olserum, Djupedal and Bersummen. Primary hydrothermal REE mineralisation formed at high temperatures (about 600 degrees C), leading to precipitation of monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluor apatite and minor (Y,REE,U,Fe)-(Nb,Ta)-oxides in veins and vein zones dominated by biotite, amphibole, magnetite and quartz. The veins are hosted primarily by metasedimentary rocks present close to, or within, the contact aureole of a local 1.8 Ga ferroan alkali feldspar granite pluton, but also occur within in the chemically most primitive granite in the outermost part of that pluton. In the Djupedal area, REE-mineralised metasedimentary bodies are extensively migmatised, with migmatisation post-dating the main stage of mineralisation. In the Olserum and Bersummen areas, the REE-bearing veins are cross-cut by abundant pegmatitic to granitic dykes. The field-relationships demonstrate a-protracted magmatic evolution of the granitic,pluton and a clear spatial and temporal relationship of the REE mineralisation to the granite. The major and trace element chemistry of ore-associated biotite and magnetite support genetic links between all mineralised areas. Biotite mineral chemistry data further demonstrate a distinct chemical trend from meta sediment-hosted ore-associated biotite distal to the major contact of the granite to the biotite in the granite hosted veins. This trend is characterised by a systematic decrease in Mg and Na and a coupled increase in Fe and Ti with proximity to the granite-hosted veins. The halogen compositions of ore-associated biotite indicate elevated contents of HCl and HF in the primary REE mineralising fluid. Calculated log(f(HF)/f(HCL)) values in the Olserum area suggest a constant ratio of about -1 at temperatures of 650-550 degrees C during the evolution of the primary hydrothermal system. In the Djupedal and Bersummen areas, the fluid locally equilibrated at lower log (f(HF)/f(HCl)) values down to -2. High Na contents in ore-associated biotite and amphibole, and the abundance of primary ore-associated biotite indicate a K- and Na-rich character of the primary REE mineralising fluid and suggest initial high-temperature K-Na metasomatism. With subsequent cooling of the system, the fluid evolved locally to more Ca-rich compositions as indicated by the presence of the Ca-rich minerals allanite-(Ce) and uvitic tourmaline and by the significant calcic alteration of monazite-(Ce). The later Ca-rich stages were probably coeval with low to medium-high temperature (200-500 degrees C) Na-Ca metasomatism variably affecting the granite and the wall rocks, producing distinct white quartz-plagioclase rocks. All observations and data lead us to discard the prevailing model that the REE mineralisation in the Olserum-Djupedal district represents assimilated and remobilised former heavy mineral-rich beds. Instead, we propose that the primary REE mineralisation formed by granite-derived fluids enriched in REE and P that were expelled early during the evolution of a local granitic pluton. The REE mineralisation developed primarily in the contact aureole of this granite and represents the product of a high temperature contact metamorphic-hydrothermal mineralising system. The REE mineralisation probably formed synchronously with K-Na and subsequent Na-Ca metasomatism affecting the granite and the wall rocks. The later Na-Ca metasomatic stage is probably related to a regional Na +/- Ca metasomatic and associated U +/- REE mineralising system operating concurrently with granitic magmatism at c. 1.8 Ga in the Vastervik region. This highlights the potential for discovering hitherto unknown REE deposits and for the reappraisal of already known deposits in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Stefan S.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64,Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Wagner, Thomas
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Appl Mineral & Econ Geol, Wullnerstr 2, D-52062 Aachen, Germany.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden SGU, Dept Mineral Resources, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fusswinkel, Tobias
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Appl Mineral & Econ Geol, Wullnerstr 2, D-52062 Aachen, Germany.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Apatite as a tracer of the source, chemistry and evolution of ore-forming fluids: The case of the Olserum-Djupedal REE-phosphate mineralisation, SE Sweden2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 255, p. 163-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the suitability of apatite as a tracer of the source(s), chemistry, and evolution of ore-forming hydrothermal fluids. This is tested by analysing the halogen (F, Cl, Br, and I), stable Cl isotopic, and trace element compositions of fluorapatite from the regional-scale Olserum-Djupedal rare earth element (REE) phosphate mineralisation in SE Sweden, which is dominated by monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), and fluorapatite. The primary hydrothermal fluid flow system is recorded in a sequence from proximal granite-hosted to distal metasediment-hosted fluorapatite. Along this sequence, primary fluorapatite shows a gradual increase of Cl and Br concentrations and in (Gd/Yb)(N), a decrease of F and I concentrations, a decrease in delta Cl-37 values, in (La/Sm)(N), and partly in (La/Yb)(N) and (Y/Ho)(N). Local compositional differences of halogen and trace element concentrations have developed along rims and in domains adjacent to fractures of fluorapatite due to late-stage partial reaction with fracture fluids. These differences are insignificant compared to the larger deposit-scale zoning. This suggests that apatite can retain the primary record of the original ore-forming fluid despite later overprinting fluid events. The agreement between Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios of apatite and those of co-existing fluid inclusions at lower temperatures indicates that only a minor fractionation of Br from I occurs during apatite precipitation. The halogen ratios of apatite can thus be used as a first-order estimate for the composition of the ore-forming fluid. Taking the small fractionation factors for Cl isotopes between apatite and co-existing fluid at high temperatures into account, we propose that the Cl isotopic composition of apatite and the halogen ratios derived from the apatite composition can be used jointly to trace the source(s) of ore-forming fluids. By contrast, most trace elements incorporated in apatite are affected by the host rock environment and by fluid-mineral partitioning due to growth competition between co-crystallising minerals. Collectively, apatite is sensitive to changing fluid compositions, yet it is also able to record the character of primary ore-forming fluids. Thus, apatite is suitable for tracing the origin, chemistry, and evolution of fluids in hydrothermal ore-forming settings.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Stefan S.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64,Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Wagner, Thomas
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Appl Mineral & Econ Geol, Wullnerstr 2, D-52062 Aachen, Germany..
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Villavagen 16, SE-75266 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Michallik, Radoslaw M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog,Gustaf Hallstromin Katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Mineralogy, paragenesis, and mineral chemistry of REEs in the Olserum-Djupedal REE-phosphate mineralization, SE Sweden2018In: American Mineralogist, ISSN 0003-004X, E-ISSN 1945-3027, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 125-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapidly growing use of rare earth elements and yttrium (REE) in modern-day technologies, not least within the fields of green and carbon-free energy applications, requires exploitation of new REE deposits and deposit types. In this perspective, it is vital to develop a fundamental understanding of the behavior of REE in natural hydrothermal systems and the formation of hydrothermal REE deposits. In this study, we establish a mineralogical, textural, and mineral-chemical framework for a new type of deposit, the hydrothermal Olserum-Djupedal REE-phosphate mineralization in SE Sweden. An early, high-temperature REE stage is characterized by abundant monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) coexisting with fluorapatite and subordinate amounts of (Y,REE,U,Fe)-(Nb,Ta) oxides. During a subsequent stage, allanite-(Ce) and ferriallanite-(Ce) formed locally, partly resulting from the breakdown of primary monazite-(Ce). Alteration of allanite-(Ce) or ferriallanite-(Ce) to bastnasite-(Ce) and minor synchysite-(Ce) at lower temperatures represents the latest stage of REE mineral formation. The paragenetic sequence and mineral chemistry of the allanites record an increase in Ca content in the fluid. We suggest that this local increase in Ca, in conjunction with changes in oxidation state, were the key factors controlling the stability of monazite-(Ce) in the assemblages of the Olserum-Djupedal deposit. We interpret the alteration and replacement of primary monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite, and minor (Y,REE,U,Fe)-(Nb, Ta) oxide phase(s), to be the consequence of coupled dissolution-reprecipitation processes. These processes mobilized REE,Th,U, and Nb-Ta, which caused the formation of secondary monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite, and minor amounts of allanite-(Ce) and ferriallanite-(Ce). In addition, these alteration processes produced uraninite, thorite, columbite-(Fe), and uncharacterized (Th,U,Y,Ca)-silicates. Textural relations show that the dissolution-reprecipitation processes affecting fluorapatite preceded those affecting monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), and the (Y, REE, U, Fe)-(Nb, Ta) oxide phase(s). The mineralogy of the primary ore mineralization and the subsequently formed alteration assemblages demonstrate the combined mobility of REE and HFSE in a natural F-bearing high-temperature hydrothermal system. The observed coprecipitation of monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), and fluorapatite during the primary REE mineralization stage highlights the need for further research on the potentially important role of the phosphate ligand in hydrothermal REE transporting systems.

  • 6. Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Wagner, Thomas
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Leijd, Magnus
    Berg, Johan
    REE mineralisation in the Olserum area, SE Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Annersten, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Axel Hamberg som mineralog2012In: Sarek, Arktis och akademinsk vardag: en bok om geografen Axel Hambberg / [ed] Andersson, Lars, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012, p. 93-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8. Bačík, P.
    et al.
    Uher, P.
    Ertl, A.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Nysten, P.
    Kanický, V.
    Vaculovič, T.
    Zoned ree-enriched dravite from a granitic pegmatite in Forshammar, Bergslagen Province, Sweden: An EMPA, XRD and LA-ICP-MS study2012In: Canadian Mineralogist, ISSN 0008-4476, E-ISSN 1499-1276, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 825-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green to grayish green tourmaline crystals (up to 10 cm across), with distinct optical zoning, occurs with quartz, blocky albite and muscovite in the Forshammar granitic pegmatite, central Bergslagen province, Sweden. Tourmaline contains inclusions of zircon and xenotime-(Y), and it is cut by veinlets of muscovite and hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce). Microanalytical and structural data (from the rim) indicate that the tourmaline can be classified as a dravite with moderate Al-Mg disorder at the Y and Z sites. Tourmaline displays chemical zoning that reflects the distribution of Fe, Mg, Al, Ca and Na. The Mg/(Mg+Fe) value is high; it decreases from core (∼0.85) to intermediate zone (0.76-0.79), but increases in the rim and vein dravite (0.93). The core has the highest proportion of X-site vacancy and Al content, whereas the intermediate zone is the most enriched in Fe and Na. The rim is slightly depleted in Al and has the highest Na compared to inner zones. Tourmaline veins crosscut the pre-existing tourmaline and are relatively more enriched in Na and Ca. The main compositional variations are driven by Al X□Mg -1Na -1 and AlOMg -1(OH) -1 substitutions. The Forshammar dravite shows the highest known concentrations of REE from pegmatite tourmaline, ≤1200 ppm REE, ≤210 ppm La, ≥670 ppm Ce; the chondrite-normalized patterns reveal high La N/Yb N (32 to 464) values and strongly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu * = 0.005 to 0.05). The contents of Ti, Mn, Y and REE generally increase at the boundary of the intermediate zone and rim, whereas the contents of Zn, Ga and Sn decrease from the core to the rim. The core is likely a product of an early magmatic process during the late Svecofennian pegmatite formation (∼;1.8 Ga) as suggested by oscillatory zoning of trace elements. The intermediate zone, rim and tourmaline veins originated during the late magmatic to hydrothermal stage. Hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce) and muscovite are apparently the final products of the hydrothermal process.

  • 9.
    Bowles, John F. W.
    et al.
    Univ Manchester, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Cook, Nigel J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem Engn, Adelaide, Australia.
    Sundblad, Krister
    Univ Turku, Dept Geog & Geol, Turku, Finland; St Petersburg State Univ, Inst Earth Sci, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deady, Eimear
    Lyell Ctr, British Geol Survey, Res Ave South, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland; Univ Exeter, Camborne Sch Mines, Penryn Campus, Penryn, England.
    Hughes, Hannah S. R.
    Univ Exeter, Camborne Sch Mines, Penryn Campus, Penryn, England.
    Critical-metal mineralogy and ore genesis: contributions from the European Mineralogical Conference held in Rimini, September 20162018In: Mineralogical magazine, ISSN 0026-461X, E-ISSN 1471-8022, Vol. 82, p. S1-S4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10. Bäckström, Ann
    et al.
    Rantakokko, Nina
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Ask, Maria
    Preliminary results from fault-slip analysis of the Pärvie postglacial fault zone2013In: EGU Proceedings, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Chukanov, Nikita V.
    et al.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Problems Chem Phys, Chernogolovka 142432, Moscow Region, Russia..
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Box 670, S-75128 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aksenov, Sergey M.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Crystallog, 59 Leninskiy Prospekt, Moscow 117333, Russia.;St Petersburg State Univ, Dept Crystallog, Univ Skaya Nab 7-9, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.;Russian Acad Sci, Nesmeyanov Inst Organoelement Cpds, GSP-1,Vavilova St 28,V-334, Moscow 119991, Russia..
    Britvin, Sergey N.
    St Petersburg State Univ, Dept Crystallog, Univ Skaya Nab 7-9, St Petersburg 199034, Russia..
    Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Crystallog, 59 Leninskiy Prospekt, Moscow 117333, Russia..
    Belakovskiy, Dmitriy I.
    Russian Acad Sci, Fersman Mineral Museum, Leninskiy Prospekt 18-2, Moscow 119071, Russia..
    Van, Konstantin V.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Expt Mineral, Chernogolovka 142432, Moscow Region, Russia..
    Roymillerite, Pb24Mg9(Si9AlO28)(SiO4)(BO3)(CO3)10(OH)14O4, a new mineral: mineralogical characterization and crystal chemistry2017In: Physics and chemistry of minerals, ISSN 0342-1791, E-ISSN 1432-2021, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 685-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new mineral roymillerite Pb24Mg9(Si9AlO28)(SiO4)(BO3)(CO3)(10)(OH)(14)O-4, related to britvinite and molybdophyllite, was discovered in a Pb-rich assemblage from the Kombat Mine, Grootfontein district, Otjozondjupa region, Namibia, which includes also jacobsite, cerussite, hausmannite, sahlinite, rhodochrosite, barite, grootfonteinite, Mn-Fe oxides, and melanotekite. Roymillerite forms platy single-crystal grains up to 1.5 mm across and up to 0.3 mm thick. The new mineral is transparent, colorless to light pink, with a strong vitreous lustre. Cleavage is perfect on (001). Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 5.973 g/cm(3). Roymillerite is optically biaxial, negative, alpha = 1.86(1), beta ae gamma = 1.94(1), 2V (meas.) = 5(5)A degrees. The IR spectrum shows the presence of britvinite-type tetrahedral sheets, , , and OH- groups. The chemical composition is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O and CO2 determined by gas chromatography, the content of B2O3 derived from structural data): MgO 4.93, MnO 1.24, FeO 0.95, PbO 75.38, B2O3 0.50, Al2O3 0.74, CO2 5.83, SiO2 7.90, H2O 1.8, total 99.27. The empirical formula based on 83 O atoms pfu (i.e. Z = 1) is Pb24.12Mg8.74Mn1.25Fe0.94B1.03Al1.04C9.46Si9.39H14.27O83. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is triclinic, space group P , with a = 9.315(1), b = 9.316(1), c = 26.463(4) , alpha = 83.295(3)A degrees, beta = 83.308(3)A degrees, gamma = 60.023(2)A degrees, V = 1971.2(6) (3). The crystal structure of roymillerite is based built by alternating pyrophyllite-type TOT-modules Mg-9(OH)(8)[(Si,Al)(10)O-28] and I-blocks Pb-24(OH)(6)O-4(CO3)(10)(BO3,SiO4). The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, (I, %) (hkl)] are: 25.9 (100) (001), 13.1 (11) (002), 3.480 (12) (017, 107, -115, 1-15), 3.378 (14) (126, 216), 3.282 (16) (-2-15, -1-25), 3.185 (12) (-116, 1-16), 2.684 (16) (031, 301, 030, 300, 332, -109, 0-19, 1-18), 2.382 (11) (0.0.-11). Roymillerite is named to honor Dr. Roy McG. Miller for his important contributions to the knowledge of the geology of Namibia.

  • 12. Chukanov, Nikita V.
    et al.
    Pekov, Igor V.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Zubkova, Natalia V.
    Filinchuk, Yaroslav E.
    Belakovskiy, Dmitriy I.
    Pushcharovsky, Dmitry Yu
    Långbanshyttanite, a new low-temperature arsenate mineral with a novel structure from Långban, Sweden2011In: European journal of mineralogy, ISSN 0935-1221, E-ISSN 1617-4011, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 675-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new mineral långbanshyttanite was discovered in a specimen from the Långban mine (59.86 degrees N, 14.27 degrees E), Filipstad district, Varmland County, Bergslagen ore province, Sweden. Associated minerals are calcite, Mn-bearing phlogopite, spinels of the jacobsite-magnetite series, antigorite and trigonite. The mineral is named after the old name of the mine, smelter and mining village: Långbanshyttan. Långbanshyttanite is transparent, colourless. It occurs in late-stage fractures or corroded pockets, forming soft, radial and random aggregates (up to 1 mm) of acicular crystals up to 5 x 20 x 400 mu m. D(calc) is 3.951 g/cm(3). The new mineral is biaxial (+), alpha = 1.700(5), beta = 1.741(5), gamma = 1.792(5), 2V (meas.) approximate to 90 degrees, 2V (calc.) = 86 degrees. Dispersion is strong, r < v. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition is (electron microprobe, mean of five analyses, wt%): PbO 44.71, MgO 3.79, MnO 13.34, FeO 1.89, P(2)O(5) 0.65, As(2)O(5) 22.90, H(2)O (determined by gas chromatographic analysis of the products of ignition at 1200 degrees C) 14.4; total 101.68. The empirical formula based on 18 O atoms is: Pb(1.97)Mn(1.85)Mg(0.93)Fe(0.26)(AsO(4))(1.96)(PO(4))(0.09)(OH)(3.87)cen ter dot 5.93H(2)O. The simplified formula is: Pb(2)Mn(2)Mg(AsO(4))(2)(OH)(4)center dot 6H(2)O. Single-crystal diffraction data obtained using synchrotron radiation indicate that långbanshyttanite is triclinic, P<(1)over bar>, a = 5.0528(10), b = 5.7671(6), c = 14.617(3) angstrom, alpha = 85.656(14), beta = 82.029(17), gamma = 88.728(13)degrees, V = 420.6(2) angstrom(3), Z = 1, and is a representative of a new structure type. In the structure, edge-sharing MnO(2)(OH)(4) octahedra form zig-zag columns that are linked by isolated AsO(4) tetrahedra. Pb cations having six-fold coordination are located between the AsO(4) tetrahedra. Isolated Mg(H(2)O)(6) octahedra are located in the inter-block space. The strongest lines of the powder diffraction pattern [d, angstrom (I,%) (hkl)] are: 14.48 (100) (001), 7.21 (43) (002), 4.969 (34) (100, 101), 4.798 (28) (003), 3.571 (54) (112, 1-1-1, 01-3, 11-1), 2.857 (45) (020, 021, 114), 2.800 (34) (11-3). Parts of the holotype specimen are deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, with the registration number 4032/1 and in the collections of the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden, under catalogue number NRM 20100076.

  • 13.
    Eklöf, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Michael, Setter
    Nordic Iron Ore.
    Towards a structural framework for apatite-iron oxide deposits in the Grängesberg-Blötberget area, Bergslagen, Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Enholm, Zacharias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Lazor, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Mineral chemistry, spectroscopy and parageneses of oxyborates in metamorphosed Fe-Mn oxide deposits, Bergslagen, Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Goodenough, K. M.
    et al.
    British Geol Survey, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Schilling, J.
    Geol Survey Norway, N-7040 Trondheim, Norway..
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kalvig, P.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark..
    Charles, N.
    Bur Rech Geol & Minieres, F-45060 Orleans 2, France..
    Tuduri, J.
    Bur Rech Geol & Minieres, F-45060 Orleans 2, France..
    Deady, E. A.
    British Geol Survey, Ctr Environm Sci, Nottingham NG12 5GG, England..
    Sadeghi, M.
    Geol Survey Sweden, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Schiellerup, H.
    Geol Survey Norway, N-7040 Trondheim, Norway..
    Muller, A.
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, N-0318 Oslo, Norway.;Nat Hist Museum, London SW7 5BD, England..
    Bertrand, G.
    Bur Rech Geol & Minieres, F-45060 Orleans 2, France..
    Arvanitidis, N.
    Geol Survey Sweden, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Eliopoulos, D. G.
    Inst Geol & Mineral Explorat, GR-13677 Achamae, Greece..
    Shaw, R. A.
    British Geol Survey, Ctr Environm Sci, Nottingham NG12 5GG, England..
    Thrane, K.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark..
    Keulen, N.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark..
    Europe's rare earth element resource potential: An overview of REE metallogenetic provinces and their geodynamic setting2016In: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 72, p. 838-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security of supply of a number of raw materials is of concern for the European Union; foremost among these are the rare earth elements (REE), which are used in a range of modern technologies. A number of research projects, including the EURARE and ASTER projects, have been funded in Europe to investigate various steps along the REE supply chain. This paper addresses the initial part of that supply chain, namely the potential geological resources of the REE in Europe. Although the REE are not currently mined in Europe, potential resources are known to be widespread, and many are being explored. The most important European resources are associated with alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites, although REE deposits are also known from a range of other settings. Within Europe, a number of REE metallogenetic belts can be identified on the basis of age, tectonic setting, lithological association and known REE enrichments. This paper reviews those metallogenetic belts and sets them in their geodynamic context. The most well-known of the REE belts are of Precambrian to Palaeozoic age and occur in Greenland and the Fennoscandian Shield. Of particular importance for their REE potential are the Gardar Province of SW Greenland, the Svecofennian Belt and subsequent Mesoproterozoic rifts in Sweden, and the carbonatites of the Central Iapetus Magmatic Province. However, several zones with significant potential for REE deposits are also identified in central, southern and eastern Europe, including examples in the Bohemian Massif, the Iberian Massif, and the Carpathians.

  • 16.
    Grew, Edward S.
    et al.
    Univ Maine, Sch Earth & Climate Sci, Bryand Global Res Ctr 5790, Orono, ME 04469 USA.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Box 670, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Langhof, Jorgen
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Geosci, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lithium-200 Years: Symposium and Field Trip June 14-16, 20182018In: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 284-284Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Högdahl, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kritikos, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Sahlström, F
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Turning yesterday´s waste into tomorrow´s treasure: searching for base and critical metals in central Sweden´s ancient mine dumps2015In: Mineral Resources In A Sustainable World / [ed] A-S André-Mayer, 2015, Vol. 1-5, p. 757-760Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mine dumps the abundant by-products of centuries of mining in Europe have potential to become sources of a wide range of metals and minerals. Despite their variable volumes and the geometallurgical challenges involved, they are a raw material resource to include among other, not least in the context of the present societal demand to increase recycling. Until the mid-1900s the applications and therefore the markets for many metals were limited. Additionally, many were difficult to identify, and thus often missed. In numerous mining districts this resulted in rocks hosting such metals to end up as waste, that is, on the mine dumps. The present pilot project is aimed at testing the potential for such secondary resources in the classic and ancient Bergslagen ore province in south central Sweden, with a special focus on metals presently identified as "critical" for industry. The Bergslagen province, with its 1000-year-history of mining is a suitable testing ground to find out what may actually be out there. Results so far include the detection and mineralogical characterisation of variable amounts of precious and critical as well as base metal minerals, along with the main ore commodity in many old mining fields.

  • 18.
    Högdahl, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Kritikos, Aristeidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Critical metals in the mines and dumps of W Bergslagen, Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Högdahl, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Majka, Jaroslaw
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    The mineral treasure that almost got away: Re-evaluating yesterday´s mine waste2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Högdahl, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Nilsson, K.P.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Structural evolution of the apatite-iron oxide deposit at Grängesberg, Bergslagen, Sweden2013In: Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world, p. 1650-1553Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Jordens vanligaste mineral har fått ett namn2014In: Geologiskt forum, ISSN 1104-4721, no 83, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Malmgeologiskt mästerverk firar 100 år2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Sista ordet: alternativa energikällor kräver mer än sol och vind2012In: Geologiskt forum, ISSN 1104-4721, no 76, p. 31-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Te-Se-Au-Ag-Bi-rich polymetallic vein mineralization south of Glava, SW Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    The Norra Kärr REE-Zr project and the birthplace of the light REEs. SGA Excursion guidebook SWE3, SWE6 & SWE72013Other (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Jonsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Box 670, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Harlov, Dan
    Deutsch GeoForschungsZentrum, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany; Univ Johannesburg, Dept Geol, POB 524, ZA-2006 Auckland Pk, South Africa.
    Majka, Jaroslaw
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Al Mickiewicza 30, PL-30059 Krakow, Poland.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Abo Akad Univ, Dept Geol & Mineral, Domkyrkotorget 1, FI-20500 Turku, Finland.
    Persson-Nilsson, Katarina
    Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Box 670, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fluorapatite-monazite-allanite relations in the Grängesberg apatite-iron oxide ore district, Bergslagen, Sweden2016In: American Mineralogist, ISSN 0003-004X, Vol. 101, no 7-8, p. 1769-1782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorapatite-monazite-xenotime-allanite mineralogy, petrology, and textures are described for a suite of Kiruna-type apatite-iron oxide ore bodies from the Grangesberg Mining District in the Bergslagen ore province, south central Sweden. Fluorapatite occurs in three main lithological assemblages. These include: (1) the apatite-iron oxide ore bodies, (2) breccias associated with the ore bodies, which contain fragmented fluorapatite crystals, and (3) the variably altered host rocks, which contain sporadic, isolated fluorapatite grains or aggregates that are occasionally associated with magnetite in the silicate mineral matrix. Fluorapatite associated with the ore bodies is often zoned, with the outer rim enriched in Y+REE compared to the inner core. It contains sparse monazite inclusions. In the breccia, fluorapatite is rich in monazite-(Ce) xenotime-(Y) inclusions, especially in its cores, along with reworked, larger monazite grains along fluorapatite and other mineral grain rims. In the host rocks, a small subset of the fluorapatite grains contain monazite xenotime inclusions, while the large majority are devoid of inclusions. Overall, these monazites are relatively poor in Th and U. Allanite-(Ce) is found as inclusions and crack fillings in the fluorapatite from all three assemblage types as well as in the form of independent grains in the surrounding silicate mineral matrix in the host rocks. The apatite-iron oxide ore bodies are proposed to have an igneous, sub-volcanic origin, potentially accompanied by explosive eruptions, which were responsible for the accompanying fluorapatite-rich breccias. Metasomatic alteration of the ore bodies probably began during the later stages of crystallization from residual, magmatically derived HCl- and H2SO4-bearing fluids present along grain boundaries. This was most likely followed by fluid exchange between the ore and its host rocks, both immediately after emplacement of the apatite-iron oxide body, and during subsequent phases of regional metamorphism and deformation.

  • 28.
    Jonsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    New evidence for the timing of formation of Bastnäs-type REE mineralisation in Bergslagen, Sweden2013In: Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world, p. 1724-1727Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Jonsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    On the occurrence of gallium and germanium in the Bergslagen ore province, Sweden2019In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 141, no 1, p. 48-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of the critical and sought-after (semi-)metals gallium (Ga) and germanium (Ge) has previously been reported from mineralisations in the Bergslagen ore province, south central Sweden. Some of these reports were however recently shown to be questionable or erroneous. Here we summarise early analytical work on these metals in mineral deposits of the Bergslagen province, as well as briefly report new analytical data for Ga and Ge from recent, in part on-going work on different mineralisation types. The new data show that the sampled sulphide and iron oxide mineralisations in the Bergslagen province are overall not particularly enriched in Ga, and even less so with regards to Ge. One major exception is the significant Ga enrichment observed in skarn-hosted Fe-REE(-polymetallic) deposits of Bastnas type. Notably, these mineralisations also host increased contents of Ge. Based on this broader suite of sampled deposits, the suggested correlation between Ga and Al contents in previously studied material with relatively increased Ga grades, is in part contradicted, indicating that Ga is only in part sequestered through straightforward Al-substitution into aluminium silicate and oxide minerals. The mineralisations that do exhibit significantly increased Ge contents, in addition to the Bastnas-type deposits, are represented by both sulphide-dominated ones and Fe (-Mn) oxide-rich systems.

  • 30.
    Jonsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Arvanitidis, Nikolaos
    Eftersökta svenskättlingar – och andra sällsynta och kritiska metaller i vanliga och ovanliga mineral2015In: Geologiskt forum, ISSN 1104-4721, no 86, p. 22-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Jonsson, Erik