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  • 1.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen, Institutet för Europeisk rätt..
    Leijon, KarinUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.Michalski, AnnaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.Oxelheim, LarsInstitutet för Näringslivsstudier (IFN).
    The European Union and the Return of the Nation State: interdisciplinary European studies2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen, Institutet för Europeisk rätt.
    Leijon, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Michalski, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oxelheim, Lars
    Institutet för Näringslivsstudier (IFN); University of Agder.
    The EU, the Nation-State, and the Perennial Challenge to European Integration2020In: The European Union and the Return of the Nation State: Interdisciplinary European Studies / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Karin Leijon, Anna Michalski & Lars Oxelheim, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, 1, p. 1-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory chapter sheds new light on the increasingly complex relationship between the European Union and the nation-state—in its capacity as EU member state—at a time when its fundamental values are being called into question by prominent political currents. The chapter explores the concept of the nation-state in a contemporary European context and shows that tensions between supranationalism and intergovernmentalism are since long a defining feature of European integration. The chapter then introduces the book’s interdisciplinary approach which offers different disciplinary perspectives on how the return of the nation-state impacts the EU’s ability to meet the multifaceted challenges it is facing. The chapter concludes by arguing that the EU must take the tensions which arise from the strengthening of the nation-state seriously while actively standing up for the European political project, its basic legal principles and democratic values.

  • 3.
    Leijon, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    National courts and preliminary references: supporting legal integration, protecting national autonomy or balancing conflicting demands?2020In: West European Politics, ISSN 0140-2382, E-ISSN 1743-9655, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article sheds new light on the role of national courts in the preliminary ruling procedure and European integration by examining: (1) whether national courts allow the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) to decide politically sensitive cases and (2) whether national courts frame the cases by expressing support for an integration-friendly interpretation of EU law or by voicing an opinion in defence of the challenged national law. This study shows that the single most common court behaviour is to support legal integration by referring politically sensitive cases and expressing support for EU law. However, by examining the two choices together, this article also uncovers previously untheorised patterns of behaviour. These findings show that the national courts’ behaviour is not limited to either supporting or resisting integration. Instead, it is suggested that national courts may regularly contribute to striking a balance between EU integration and member state autonomy.

  • 4.
    Leijon, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    National Courts as Gatekeepers in European Integration: Examining the Choices National Courts Make in the Preliminary Ruling Procedure2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The national courts’ placement in the intersection between the EU and member state legal systems makes them important gatekeepers in the process of European legal integration. In the scholarly debate, national courts are characterized as either supporters of legal integration or as defenders of national sovereignty. The aim of this thesis is to improve our understanding of the national courts’ role as gatekeepers in EU legal integration by shedding new light on the national courts’ behavioral patterns and the reasoning of individual judges in the preliminary ruling procedure. Empirically the thesis provides a detailed examination of the national courts’ two key choices in the preliminary ruling procedure, both of which have important implications for the scope and pace of integration: (1) whether national courts are allowing the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) to decide politically sensitive cases in which national policies are at stake; and (2) whether national courts frame cases by expressing support for an integration-friendly interpretation of the EU law or whether they instead voice an opinion in defense of challenged national law. Theoretically, the thesis contributes to redefining the main theoretical controversy on what role national courts play in EU legal integration by identifying previously un-theorized behavior patterns. The analysis demonstrates that national court behavior is not limited to either supporting legal integration or defending national sovereignty. On the contrary, national courts frequently make choices that may alleviate parts of the inherent tension between national concerns and the EU legal obligations that member states must accept in order for the EU to function efficiently. Moreover, a case study of the Swedish judiciary shows that Swedish judges are not reasoning as expected by the dominant theoretical outlook in the judicial politics literature, meaning that they are not primarily guided by the logic of consequentialism and self-regarding considerations when making decisions in the preliminary ruling procedure. Instead, the judges’ mode of reasoning centers on what constitutes the appropriate course of action given their professional obligations and how their choices may impact the functioning of the preliminary ruling procedure. 

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  • 5.
    Leijon, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Karlsson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Nationella domstolar som politiska aktörer: - främjare av rättslig integration eller försvarare av nationella intressen?2013In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 5-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been widely recognised that national courts play a significant role in the process of European integration. By asking the European Court of Justice for preliminary rulings, national courts have contributed in promoting legal integration. Although previous research has recognised the importance of national courts, we still have only limited empirical knowledge on how they act. This article examines whether national courts act as promoters of legal integration or defenders of the national interest. It does so by providing a systematic investigation of: 1, what type of cases they refer to the ECJ, and 2, what type of opinions they attach with preliminary references. The article utilise data from all 67 cases referred to the ECJ during the period 1995-2009. The results indicate that Swedish courts act strategically to balance the claims of providing the ECJ with preliminary references and the demands for taking national considerations into account.

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