uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 37 of 37
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Aktekin, Burak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brant, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Marzano, Fernanda
    Scania CV AB.
    Zipprich, Wolfgang
    Volkswagen AG.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Cation Ordering and Oxygen Release in LiNi0.5-xMn1.5+xO4-y (LNMO)—In Situ Neutron Diffraction and Performance in Li-Ion Full Cells2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is a promising spinel-type positive electrode for lithium ion batteries as it operates at high voltage and possesses high power capability. However, rapid performance degradation in full cells, especially at elevated temperatures, is a problem. There has been a considerable interest in its crystal structure as this is known to affect its electrochemical performance. LNMO can adopt a P4332 (cation ordered) or Fd-3m (cation disordered) arrangement depending on the synthesis conditions. Most of the studies in literature agree on better electrochemical performance for disordered LNMO [1], however, a clear understanding of the reason for this behaviour is still lacking. This partly arises from the fact that synthesis conditions leading to disordering also lead to oxygen deficiency, rock-salt impurities and therefore generate some Mn3+ [2]. Most commonly, X-ray diffraction is used to characterize these materials, however, accurate structural analysis is difficult due to the near identical scattering lengths of Mn and Ni. This is not the case for neutron diffraction. In this study, an in-situ neutron diffraction heating-cooling experiment was conducted on slightly Mn-rich LNMO under pure oxygen atmosphere in order to investigate relationship between disordering and oxygen deficiency. The study shows for the first time that there is no direct relationship between oxygen loss and cation disordering, as disordering starts prior to oxygen release. Our findings suggest that it is possible to obtain samples with varying degrees of ordering, yet with the same oxygen content and free from impurities. In the second part of the study, highly ordered, partially ordered and fully disordered samples have been tested in LNMO∥LTO (Li4Ti5O12) full cells at 55 °C. It is shown that differences in their performances arise only after repeated cycling, while all the samples behave similarly at the beginning of the test. The difference is believed to be related to instabilities of LNMO at higher voltages, that is, in its lower lithiation states.

    [1] A. Manthiram, K. Chemelewski, E.-S. Lee, Energy Environ. Sci. 7 (2014) 1339.

    [2] M. Kunduraci, G.G. Amatucci, J. Power Sources. 165 (2007) 359–367.

  • 2.
    Aktekin, Burak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Smith, Ronald I.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, ISIS Pulsed Neutron & Muon Source, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Sörby, Magnus H.
    Inst Energy Technol, Dept Neutron Mat Characterizat, POB 40, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    Marzano, Fernanda Lodi
    Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Zipprich, Wolfgang
    Volkswagen AG, D-38436 Wolfsburg, Germany.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brant, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Cation Ordering and Oxygen Release in LiNi0.5-xMn1.5+xO4-y (LNMO): In Situ Neutron Diffraction and Performance in Li Ion Full Cells2019In: ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 3323-3335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) as the positive electrode are prone to fast capacity fading, especially when operated in full cells and at elevated temperatures. The crystal structure of LNMO can adopt a P4(3)32 (cation-ordered) or Fd (3) over barm (disordered) arrangement, and the fading rate of cells is usually mitigated when samples possess the latter structure. However, synthesis conditions leading to disordering also lead to oxygen deficiencies and rock-salt impurities and as a result generate Mn3+. In this study, in situ neutron diffraction was performed on disordered and slightly Mn-rich LNMO samples to follow cation ordering-disordering transformations during heating and cooling. The study shows for the first time that there is not a direct connection between oxygen release and cation disordering, as cation disordering is observed to start prior to oxygen release when the samples are heated in a pure oxygen atmosphere. This result demonstrates that it is possible to tune disordering in LNMO without inducing oxygen deficiencies or forming the rock-salt impurity phase. In the second part of the study, electrochemical testing of samples with different degrees of ordering and oxygen content has been performed in LNMO vertical bar vertical bar LTO (Li4Ti5O12) full cells. The disordered sample exhibits better performance, as has been reported in other studies; however, we observe that all cells behave similarly during the initial period of cycling even when discharged at a 10 C rate, while differences arise only after a period of cycling. Additionally, the differences in fading rate were observed to be time-dependent rather than dependent on the number of cycles. This performance degradation is believed to be related to instabilities in LNMO at higher voltages, that is, in its lower lithiation states. Therefore, it is suggested that future studies should target the individual effects of ordering and oxygen content. It is also suggested that more emphasis during electrochemical testing should be placed on the stability of samples in their delithiated state.

  • 3.
    Asfaw, Habtom D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Maibach, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Ångström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Bacsik, Zoltan
    Sahlberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Boosting the thermal stability of emulsion–templated polymers via sulfonation: an efficient synthetic route to hierarchically porous carbon foams2016In: ChemistrySelect, ISSN 2365-6549, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 784-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchically porous carbon foams with specific surface areas exceeding 600 m2 g−1 can be derived from polystyrene foams that are synthesized via water-in-oil emulsion templating. However, most styrene-based polymers lack strong crosslinks and are degraded to volatile products when heated above 400 oC. A common strategy employed to avert depolymerization is to introduce potential crosslinking sites such as sulfonic acids by sulfonating the polymers. This article unravels the thermal and chemical processes leading up to the conversion of sulfonated high internal phase emulsion polystyrenes (polyHIPEs) to sulfur containing carbon foams. During pyrolysis, the sulfonic acid groups (-SO3H) are transformed to sulfone (-C-SO2-C-) and then to thioether (-C−S-C-) crosslinks. These chemical transformations have been monitored using spectroscopic techniques: in situ IR, Raman, X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Based on thermal analyses, the formation of thioether links is associated with increased thermal stability and thus a substantial decrease in volatilization of the polymers.

  • 4.
    Asfaw, Habtom Desta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Roberts, Matthew R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. DTU.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nanosized LiFePO4-decorated emulsion-templated carbon foam for 3D micro batteries: a study of structure and electrochemical performance2014In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 6, no 15, p. 8804-8813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we report a novel 3D composite cathode fabricated from LiFePO4 nanoparticles deposited conformally on emulsion-templated carbon foam by a sol–gel method. The carbon foam is synthesized via a facile and scalable method which involves the carbonization of a high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE) polymer template. Various techniques (XRD, SEM, TEM and electrochemical methods) are used to fully characterize the porous electrode and confirm the distribution and morphology of the cathode active material. The major benefits of the carbon foam used in our work are closely connected with its high surface area and the plenty of space suitable for sequential coating with battery components. After coating with a cathode material (LiFePO4nanoparticles), the 3D electrode presents a hierarchically structured electrode in which a porous layer of the cathode material is deposited on the rigid and bicontinuous carbon foam. The composite electrodes exhibit impressive cyclability and rate performance at different current densities affirming their importance as viable power sources in miniature devices. Footprint area capacities of 1.72 mA h cm−2 at 0.1 mA cm−2 (lowest rate) and 1.1 mA h cm−2 at 6 mA cm−2(highest rate) are obtained when the cells are cycled in the range 2.8 to 4.0 V vs. lithium.

  • 5.
    Berastegui, Pedro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Electrochemical reactions of AgFeO2 as negative electrode in Li- and Na-ion batteries2018In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 401, p. 386-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AgFeO2 nanoparticles synthesized via precipitation at room temperature are investigated in Li- and Na-ion cells through electrode coatings with an alginate binder. The electrochemical reactions of AgFeO2 with Li+ and Na+ions, as well as its role as alternative negative electrode in these cell systems are carefully evaluated. Initial Li uptake causes irreversible amorphization of the AgFeO2 structure with concomitant formation of Ag0 nanoparticles. Further Li incorporation results in conversion into Fe0 nanoparticles and Li2O, together with Li-alloying of these Ag0 clusters. Similar mechanisms are also found upon Na uptake, although such processes are hindered by overpotentials, the capacity and reversibility of the reactions with Na+ ions being not comparablewith those of their Li+ counterparts. The behaviour of AgFeO2 at low potentials vs. Li+/Li displays a synergic pseudo-capacitive charge storage overlapping Li-Ag alloying/de-alloying. This feature is exploited in full cells having deeply lithiated AgFeO2 and LiFePO4 as negative and positive electrodes, respectively. These environmentally friendly iron-based full cells exhibit attractive cycle performances with ≈80% capacity retention after 1000 cycles without any electrolyte additive, average round trip efficiency of ≈89% and operational voltage of 3.0 V combined with built-in pseudo-capacitive characteristics that enable high cycling rates up to≈25C.

  • 6.
    Blidberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Uppsala universitet.
    Sobkowiak, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania CV AB.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Battery Performance of PEDOT Coated LiFeSO4F Cathodes with Controlled PorosityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Blidberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Sobkowiak, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Identifying the Electrochemical Processes in LiFeSO4F Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries2017In: Chemelectrochem, Vol. 4, no 8, p. 1896-1907Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical performance of tavorite LiFeSO4F can be considerably improved by coating the material with a conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene); PEDOT). Herein, the mechanisms behind the improved performance are studied systematically by careful electrochemical analysis. It is shown that the PEDOT coating improves the surface reaction kinetics for the Li-ion insertion into LiFeSO4F. For such coated materials no kinetic limitations remain, and a transition from solid state to solution-based diffusion control was observed at 0.6 mA cm−2 (circa C/2). Additionally, the quantity of PEDOT is optimized to balance the weight added by the polymer and the improved electrochemical function. Post mortem analysis shows excellent stability for the LiFeSO4F-PEDOT composite, and maintaining the electronic wiring is the most important factor for stable electrochemical cycling of LiFeSO4F. The insights and the methodology used to determine the rate-controlling steps are readily transferable to other ion-insertion-based electrodes, and the findings are important for the development of improved battery electrodes.

  • 8.
    Blidberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Alfredsson, Maria
    Univ Kent, Sch Phys Sci, Canterbury CT2 7NH, Kent, England.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Electronic changes in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-coated LiFeSO4F during electrochemical lithium extraction2019In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 418, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The redox activity of tavorite LiFeSO4F coated with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), i.e. PEDOT, is investigated by means of several spectroscopic techniques. The electronic changes and iron-ligand redox features of this LiFeSO4F-PEDOT composite are probed upon delithiation through X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The PEDOT coating, which is necessary here to obtain enough electrical conductivity for the electrochemical reactions of LiFeSO4F to occur, is electrochemically stable within the voltage window employed for cell cycling. Although the electronic configuration of PEDOT shows also some changes in correspondence of its reduced and oxidized forms after electrochemical conditioning in Li half-cells, its p-type doping is fully retained between 2.7 and 4.1 V with respect to Li+/Li during the first few cycles. An increased iron-ligand interaction is observed in LixFeSO4F during electrochemical lithium extraction, which appears to be a general trend for polyanionic insertion compounds. This finding is crucial for a deeper understanding of a series of oxidation phenomena in Li-ion battery cathode materials and helps paving the way to the exploration of new energy storage materials with improved electrochemical performances.

  • 9.
    Carboni, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Naylor, Andrew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Graphite for K-ion Batteries: Stability and Formation of SEI layer2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Carboni, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Naylor, Andrew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Unlocking high capacities of graphite anodes for potassium-ion batteries2019In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 21070-21074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphite is considered a promising candidate as the anode for potassium-ion batteries (KIBs). Here, we demonstrate a significant improvement in performance through the ball-milling of graphite. Electrochemical techniques show reversible K-intercalation into graphitic layers, with 65% capacity retention after 100 cycles from initial capacities and extended cycling beyond 200 cycles. Such an affinity of the graphite towards storage of K-ions is explained by means of SEM and Raman analyses. Graphite ball-milling results in a gentle mechanical exfoliation of the graphene layers and simultaneous defect formation, leading to enhanced electrochemical performance.

  • 11.
    Doubaji, Siham
    et al.
    Univ Cadi Ayyad, FST Marrakesh, LCME, Marrakech 40000, Morocco..
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Saadoune, Ismael
    Univ Cadi Ayyad, FST Marrakesh, LCME, Marrakech 40000, Morocco.;Univ Mohammed VI Polytech, Ctr Adv Mat, Ben Guerir, Morocco..
    Gorgoi, Mihaela
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat & Energie, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Solhy, Abderrahim
    Univ Mohammed VI Polytech, Ctr Adv Mat, Ben Guerir, Morocco..
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Passivation Layer and Cathodic Redox Reactions in Sodium-Ion Batteries Probed by HAXPES2016In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cathode material P2-NaxCo2/3Mn2/9Ni1/9O2, which could be used in Na-ion batteries, was investigated through synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). Nondestructive analysis was made through the electrode/electrolyte interface of the first electrochemical cycle to ensure access to information not only on the active material, but also on the passivation layer formed at the electrode surface and referred to as the solid permeable interface (SPI). This investigation clearly shows the role of the SPI and the complexity of the redox reactions. Cobalt, nickel, and manganese are all electrochemically active upon cycling between 4.5 and 2.0V; all are in the 4+ state at the end of charging. Reduction to Co3+, Ni3+, and Mn3+ occurs upon discharging and, at low potential, there is partial reversible reduction to Co2+ and Ni2+. A thin layer of Na2CO3 and NaF covers the pristine electrode and reversible dissolution/reformation of these compounds is observed during the first cycle. The salt degradation products in the SPI show a dependence on potential. Phosphates mainly form at the end of the charging cycle (4.5V), whereas fluorophosphates are produced at the end of discharging (2.0V).

  • 12.
    Doubaji, Siham
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Saadoune, Ismael
    LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Dahbi, Mohammed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Synthesis and characterization of a new layered cathode material for sodium ion batteries2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 266, p. 275-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the high abundance of sodium and its low cost compared to lithium, sodium ion batteries have recently attracted a renewed interest as possible candidates for stationary and mobile energy storage devices. Herein, we present a new sodium ion intercalation material, Na5CO2/3Mn2/9Ni1/9O2, which has been synthesized by a sol gel route in air followed by a heat treatment at 800 degrees C for 12 h. Its structure has been studied by X-ray diffraction showing that the material crystallized in a P2-type structure (space group P6(3)/mmc). As far as the electrochemical properties of NaxCo2/3Mn2/9Ni1/9O2 as positive electrode are concerned, this compound offers a specific capacity of 110 mAh g(-1) when cycled between 2.0 and 4.2 V vs. Na+/Na. The electrodes exhibited a good capacity retention and a coulombic efficiency exceeding 99.4%, as well as a reversible discharge capacity of 140 mAh g(-1) when cycled between 2.0 and 4.5 V. These results represent a further step towards the realization of efficient sodium ion batteries, especially considering that the synthesis method proposed here is simple and cost effective and that all the electrochemical measurements were carried out without any use of additives or any optimization for both the materials and the cell components. 

  • 13.
    Liu, Chenjuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Zhu, Jiefang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China.
    3-D binder-free graphene foam as cathode for high capacity Li-O2 batteries2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 25, p. 9767-9773Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    To provide energy densities higher than those of conventional Li-ion batteries, a Li–O2 battery requires a cathode with high surface area to host large amounts of discharge product Li2O2. Therefore, reversible formation of discharge products needs to be investigated in Li–O2 cells containing high surface area cathodes. In this study, a binder-free oxygen electrode consisting of a 3-D graphene structure on aluminum foam, with a high defect level (ID/IG = 1.38), was directly used as the oxygen electrode in Li– O2 batteries, delivering a high capacity of about 9 *104 mA h g-1 (based on the weight of graphene) at the first full discharge using a current density of 100 mA ggraphene-1 . This performance is attributed to the 3-D porous structure of graphene foam providing both an abundance of available space for the deposition of discharge products and a high density of reactive sites for Li–O2 reactions. Furthermore, the formation of discharge products with different morphologies and their decomposition upon charge were observed by SEM. Some nanoscaled LiOH particles embedded in the toroidal Li2O2 were detected by XRD and visualized by TEM. The amount of Li2O2 formed at the end of discharge was revealed by a titration method combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis. 

  • 14.
    Maibach, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Jeschull, Fabian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Surface Layer Evolution on Graphite During Electrochemical Sodium-tetraglyme Co-intercalation2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 14, p. 12373-12381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One obstacle in sodium ion batteries is the lack of suitable anode materials. As recently shown, the most common anode material of the state of the art lithium ion batteries, graphite, can be used for sodium ion storage as well, if ether based electrolyte solvents are used. These solvents cointercalate with the sodium ions leading to the highly reversible formation of ternary graphite intercalation compounds (t-GIC). In order for the solvent cointercalation to work efficiently, it is expected that only a very thin surface layer forms during electrochemical cycling. In this article, we therefore present the first dedicated study of the surface layer evolution on t-QICs using soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This technique with its inherent high surface sensitivity and low probing depth is an ideal tool to study the underlying interfacial reactions during the sodiation and desodiation of graphite. In this report, we apply this approach to graphite composite electrodes cycled in Na half cells with a 1 M sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (NaFSI/TEG-DME) electrolyte. We have found a surface layer on the cycled electrodes, mainly composed of salt decomposition products and hydrocarbons, in line with irreversible capacity losses observed in the electrochemical cycling. Although this surface layer does not seem to block cointercalation completely, it seems to affect its efficiency resulting in a low Coulombic efficiency of the studied battery system.

  • 15.
    Meng, Qijun
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fan, Lizhou
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liu, Haidong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Cuartero, Maria
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    de Marco, Roland
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Fac Sci Hlth Educ & Engn, 90 Sippy Dows Dr, Sippy Downs, Qld 4556, Australia;Univ Queensland, Sch Chem & Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden;Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China.
    Efficient BiVO4 Photoanodes by Postsynthetic Treatment: Remarkable Improvements in Photoelectrochemical Performance from Facile Borate ModificationIn: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-splitting photoanodes based on semiconductor materials typically require a dopant in the structure and co-catalysts on the surface to overcome the problems of charge recombination and high catalytic barrier. Unlike these conventional strategies, a simple treatment is reported that involves soaking a sample of pristine BiVO4 in a borate buffer solution. This modifies the catalytic local environment of BiVO4 by the introduction of a borate moiety at the molecular level. The self-anchored borate plays the role of a passivator in reducing the surface charge recombination as well as that of a ligand in modifying the catalytic site to facilitate faster water oxidation. The modified BiVO4 photoanode, without typical doping or catalyst modification, achieved a photocurrent density of 3.5 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V and a cathodically shifted onset potential of 250 mV. This work provides an extremely simple method to improve the intrinsic photoelectrochemical performance of BiVO4 photoanodes.

  • 16.
    Ojwang, Dickson O.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Arrhenius Lab, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm Univ, Arrhenius Lab, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wardecki, Dariusz
    Stockholm Univ, Arrhenius Lab, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Renman, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Häggström, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Ericsson, Tore
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Mahmoud, Abdelfattah
    Forschungszentrum Julich, JARA FIT, Julich Ctr Neutron Sci JCNS, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, JARA FIT, Peter Grunberg Inst PGI, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Univ Liege, Inst Phys, Inst Chem B63APTIS, LCIS GREENMAT, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Hermann, Raphael P.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, JARA FIT, Julich Ctr Neutron Sci JCNS, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, JARA FIT, Peter Grunberg Inst PGI, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Mat Sci & Technol Div, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm Univ, Arrhenius Lab, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Structure Characterization and Properties of K-Containing Copper Hexacyanoferrate2016In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 55, no 12, p. 5924-5934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper hexacyanoferrate, Cu-II[Fe-III(CN)(6)](2/3)center dot nH(2)O, was synthesized, and varied amounts of IC ions were inserted via reduction by K2S2O3 (aq). Ideally, the reaction can be written as Cu-II[Fe-III(CN)(6)](2/3)-nH(2)O + 2x/3K(+) + 2x/3e(-)K(+) <-> K-2x/3 Cu-II[Fe-x(II).Fe-1-x(II),(CN)(6)](2/3)-nH(2)O. Infrared, Raman, and Mossbauer spectroscopy studies show that Fe-II is continuously reduced to Fell with increasing x, accompanied by a decrease of the a-axis of the cubic Fn (3) over barm unit cell. Elemental analysis of K by inductively coupled plasma shows that the insertion only begins when a significant fraction similar to 10% of the Fe-III, has already been reduced. Thermogravimetric analysis shows a fast exchange of water with ambient atmosphere and a total weight loss of similar to 26 wt % upon heating to 180 degrees C, above which the structure starts to decompose. The crystal structures of Cu-III[Fe-III(CN)(6)](2/3)center dot nH(2)O and K2/3Cu[Fe(CN)(6)](2/3)center dot nH(2)O were refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. In both, one-third of the Fe(CN)(6) groups are vacant, and the octahedron around Cull is completed by water molecules. In the two structures, difference Fourier maps reveal three additional zeolitic water sites (8c, 32f, and 48g) in the center of the cavities formed by the-Cu-N-C-Fe- framework. The K-containing compound shows an increased electron density at two of these sites (32f and 48g), indicating them to be the preferred positions for the K+ ions.

  • 17.
    Oltean, Gabriel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    On the electrophoretic and sol-gel deposition of active materials on aluminium rod current collectors for three-dimensional Li-ion micro-batteries2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 562, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrophoretic deposition of titanium oxide particles, as well as sol-gel synthesis of thin films of TiO2 employing a titanium isopropoxide precursor solution, were studied as possible deposition routes for the coating of aluminium pillar current collectors intended for three-dimensional Li-ion micro-batteries. While electrophoresis of TiO2 particles was homogeneously covering the two-dimensional aluminium substrates, it was difficult to conformally coat the three-dimensional current collectors with this technique. The sol-gel approach, on the other hand, gave rise to thin and amorphous TiO2 layers on the Al rod based current collectors. The latter could be cycled for 100 cycles indicating that such straightforward sol-gel approaches may be used for the manufacturing of 3D electrodes for Li-ion micro-batteries.

  • 18.
    Oltean, Viorica-Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Renault, Stéven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes2016In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 142Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested.

  • 19. Pfeiffer, Tobias V.
    et al.
    Kedia, Puneet
    Messing, Maria E.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Schmidt-Ott, Andreas
    Precursor-Less Coating of Nanoparticles in the Gas Phase2015In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1027-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces a continuous, gas-phase method for depositing thin metallic coatings onto (nano)particles using a type of physical vapor deposition (PVD) at ambient pressure and temperature. An aerosol of core particles is mixed with a metal vapor cloud formed by spark ablation by passing the aerosol through the spark zone using a hollow electrode configuration. The mixing process rapidly quenches the vapor, which condenses onto the core particles at a timescale of several tens of milliseconds in a manner that can be modeled as bimodal coagulation. Gold was deposited onto core nanoparticles consisting of silver or polystyrene latex, and silver was deposited onto gold nanoparticles. The coating morphology depends on the relative surface energies of the core and coating materials, similar to the growth mechanisms known for thin films: a coating made of a substance having a high surface energy typically results in a patchy coverage, while a coating material with a low surface energy will normally "wet" the surface of a core particle. The coated particles remain gas-borne, allowing further processing.

  • 20.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Investigation of the Electrode/Electrolyte Interface of Fe2O3 Composite Electrodes: Li vs Na Batteries2014In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 26, no 17, p. 5028-5041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     We have investigated the properties of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces of composite electrodes based on nanostructured iron oxide cycled in Li- and Na-half cells containing analogous electrolytes (i.e., LiClO4  or NaClO4  in ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate (EC:DEC)). A meticulous nondestructive step-by-step analysis of the first discharge/charge cycle has been conducted via soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. In

    this way, diff erent depths were probed by varying the photon energy (hν ) for both electrochemical systems. The results of this thorough study clearly highlight the diff erences and the similarities of their respective solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layers in terms of formation, composition, structure, or thickness, as well as their conversion mechanisms. We specifi cally point out that the SEI coverage is more pronounced, and a homogeneous

    distribution rich in inorganic species exists in the case of Na, compared to the organic/inorganic layered structure observed for the Li system. The SEI formation gradually occurs during the fi rst discharge in both Li- and Na-half cells. For Na, a predeposit layer is formed directly by simple contact of the electrode with the electrolyte. Despite using similar electrolytes, the nature of the cation (Li+  or Na+ ) has signifi cant impact on the overall composition/structure of the resulting SEI.

  • 21.
    Rehnlund, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Electrodeposition of Vanadium Oxide/Manganese Oxide Hybrid Thin Films on Nanostructured Aluminum Substrates2014In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 161, no 10, p. D515-D521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodeposition of functional coatings on aluminum electrodes in aqueous solutions often is impeded by the corrosion of aluminum. In the present work it is demonstrated that electrodeposition of vanadium, oxide films on nanostructured aluminum substrates can be achieved in acidic electrolytes employing a novel strategy in which a thin interspacing layer of manganese oxide is first electrodeposited on aluminum microrod substrates. Such deposited films, which were studied using SEM, XPS, XRD, and surface enhances Raman scattering as well as chronopotentiometry, are shown to comprise a mixture of vanadium oxidation states (i.e. IV and V). As this all-electrochemical approach circumvents the problems associated with aluminum corrosion, the approach provides new possibilities for the electrochemical coating of nanostructured Al substrates with functional layers of metal oxides. The latter significantly facilitates the development of new procedures for the manufacturing of three-dimensional aluminum based electrodes for lithium ion microbatteries. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Rehnlund, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University.
    Ångstrom, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry. Stockholm University.
    Sahlberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.