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  • 1.
    Amin, Tamer G.
    et al.
    American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Conceptual metaphor and embodied cognition in science learning: Introduction to special issue2015In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, ISSN 0950-0693, Vol. 37, no 5-6, p. 745-758Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Same goal, but different paths: Learning, explaining and understanding entropy2015In: / [ed] Stefan Pålsson, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering students train to discuss conclusionsand results in different ways as part of their education. This is often done in connection to learning disciplinary knowledge where comparisons with and connections to previous courses play an important role. Students from different programs can have distinctly different repertoires of concepts and experiences when starting a course. This influences their learning on the course and how they communicate afterwards. We explore this issue in relation to engineering students’ explanations about entropy and how these change during a course in thermodynamics. A questionnaire study was done during the spring semester 2014 with students enrolling in a course on chemical thermodynamics. Students were asked to explain the concept of entropy and list scientific concepts they relate to entropy both before and after the course. A qualitative analysis was done for the 73 students who answered the questionnaire both before and after the course. Analysis showed that disorder was the most common aspect in student explanations, both before and after the course, but that many students used the concept ina more critical and reflective manner after the course. We also found that student explanations develop in richness by involving more aspects after the course. This development is dependent on the resources students bring with them when enrolling in the course. This is especially clear for students from the Master Programme in Chemical Engineering, who to a larger extent use microscopic elements, such as interaction between particles, in their explanations already before the course.

  • 3.
    Berggren, Mats
    et al.
    Tiundaskolan.
    Isleborn, Helena
    Tiundaskolan.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Karlstads universitet.
    Kärnkraftsdebatt ger möjlighet till kritiskt tänkande i högstadiefysiken2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I skolans styrdokument betonas vikten av att elever ges möjlighet att utveckla sitt kritiska tänkande. Detta är inte minst angeläget i dessa tider av tillgång till sociala medier och spridande av så kallade alternativa fakta. Trots sin positiva klang finns det dock ingen etablerad konsensus kring vad kritiskt tänkande egentligen är. Inom ramen för ett skolutvecklingsprojekt i samverkan mellan Uppsala universitet och Tiundaskolan, en 4-9-skola i Uppsala, utforskar vi hur kritiskt tänkande kan uttryckas i undervisningspraktiken i ämnena svenska, historia, matematik och fysik. Som exempel har vi i fysikämnet designat, genomfört och analyserat en undervisningssekvens utifrån kärnkraft som tema, där elever i årskurs 9 gavs möjlighet att anamma olika åsikter och argument i frågan genom rollspel. Eleverna genomförde en debatt, där de representerade olika parter: boende nära Forsmark, miljöorganisationen Grön Fred, och företag som utvecklar kärnkraft, respektive vindkraft. Före och efter debatten skrev eleverna individuella texter där de argumenterade för sin personliga åsikt i frågan: Ska kärnkraften bevaras som den är, läggas ner, eller utvecklas? Vi fann att de genom debatten fick goda möjligheter att utveckla och visa kunskaper motsvarande flera kunskapskrav i kursplanen i fysik som annars sällan berörs i fysikklassrummet, såsom, för betyg A: ”Eleven kan samtala om och diskutera frågor som rör energi, teknik, miljö och samhälle och skiljer då fakta från värderingar och formulerar ställningstaganden med välutvecklade motiveringar samt beskriver några tänkbara konsekvenser.” Som exempel på naturvetenskapligt förankrade argument utnyttjade eleverna genererad energi per utsläppt mängd koldioxid som ett mått vid jämförelser mellan kärnkraft och andra energikällor. I de individuella texterna höll de flesta eleverna fast vid sina åsikter från innan de arbetade med temat även efteråt, men nu med fler och mer nyanserade argument.

  • 4.
    Dolo, Gilbert
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University.
    Stimulating and supporting inquiry-based science learning with infrared cameras in South Africa2017In: / [ed] Mike K. Mholo & Carolyn Stevenson-Milln, Bloemfontein, South Africa: AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2017, p. 243-245Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Gregorcic, Bor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Department of Engineering and Physics, Karlstad University.
    Conceptual Blending as an Interpretive Lens for Student Engagement with Technology: Exploring Celestial Motion on an Interactive Whiteboard2018In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present and analyze video data of upper secondary school students’ engagement with a computer-supported collaborative learning environment that enables them to explore astronomical phenomena (Keplerian motion). The students’ activities have an immersive and exploratory character, as students engage in open-ended inquiry and interact physically with the virtual environment displayed on an interactive whiteboard. The interplay of students’ playful exploration through physical engagement with the simulation environment, their attention to physics concepts and laws, and knowledge about the real planets orbiting the Sun presents an analytical challenge for the researcher and instructor encountering such complex learning environments. We argue that the framework of conceptual blending is particularly apt for dealing with the learning environment at hand, because it allows us to take into account the many diverse mental inputs that seem to shape the student activities described in the paper. We show how conceptual blending can be brought together with theoretical ideas concerned with embodied cognition and epistemology of physics, in order to provide researchers and instructors with a powerful lens for looking critically at immersive technology-supported learning environments.

  • 6.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Good use of a ‘bad’ metaphor: Entropy as disorder2017In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 205-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entropy is often introduced to students through the use of the disorder metaphor. However, many weaknesses and limitations of this metaphor have been identified, and it has therefore been argued that it is more harmful than useful in teaching. For instance, under the influence of the disorder metaphor, students tend to focus on spatial configuration with regard to entropy but disregard the role of energy, which may lead their intuition astray in problem solving. Albeit so, a review of research of students’ ideas about entropy in relation to the disorder metaphor shows that students can use the metaphor in developing a more nuanced, complex view of the concept, by connecting entropy as disorder to other concepts such as microstates and spreading. The disorder metaphor—in combination with other explanatory approaches—can be used as a resource for learning, in giving students an early flavour of what entropy means, so long as we acknowledge its limitations; we can put this “bad” metaphor to good use in teaching.

  • 7.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    The disorder metaphor for entropy: Friend or Foe?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entropy is often introduced by use of the disorder metaphor in thermodynamics, but many weaknesses of the metaphor have been identified [1]. By influence of the disorder metaphor, students tend to focus on spatial configuration with regards to entropy but disregard the role of energy in problem solving [2]. There are also many natural phenomena where an entropy increase comes together with increasing visual disorder, such as the formation of liquid crystals. Due to such identified weaknesses, it has been argued that the disorder metaphor for entropy is more harmful than useful and should be avoided in teaching [1]. Another, alternative perspective is to regard the entropy metaphor as a useful resource for students’ development of an intuitive idea of entropy. From this perspective, the goal of teaching is not to eliminate disorder from students’ conceptualisation of entropy, but help them refine the understanding of when it can be useful and when it does not apply [3]. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the disorder metaphor can be useful in the teaching of entropy, and – if that is the case – how its weaknesses can be addressed in the teaching practice. Students’ ideas of entropy were probed through open questionnaire items before and after a university course in thermodynamics [4], and through follow-up interviews with pairs of students one year after the course [5]. The majority of students made use of the disorder metaphor in describing what entropy means, both before and after the course. In addition, they tended to develop a more nuanced, complex view of the concept, by connecting entropy as disorder to other microscopic concepts such as microstates and spreading. In the follow-up interviews, although acknowledging that disorder is not a scientific concept, students still found it useful for getting a qualitative understanding of entropy. In general, every metaphor breaks down at one point, where it is no longer useful. When we introduce metaphors in teaching, we have to bring up explicitly how to interpret the compared domains (in this case disorder and entropy) and how they relate to one another, and what limitations the metaphors have [6]. The disorder metaphor – in combination with other explanatory approaches – can be used to give students an early flavour of what entropy means, so long as we acknowledge its limitations.

    1. F. Lambert (2002) J. Chem. Ed. 78 187.
    2. C. Brosseau & J. Viard (1992) Ensen. Cienc. 10 13.
    3. B. D. Geller et al (2014) Am. J. Phys. 82 394.
    4. J. Haglund et al (2015) Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. 16 537.
    5. J. Haglund et al (2016) Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. 17 489.
    6. R. Duit (1991) Sci. Ed. 75 649.
  • 8.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Värmekameror i fysikundervisningen: Övningar från mellanstadiet och uppåt2016In: Från forskning till fysikundervisning: Bidrag från konferensen i Malmö 14-15 mars 2016 / [ed] Karin Stolpe och Gunnar Höst, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 35-39Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid konferensen ”Från forskning till fysikundervisning” i Lund, 14-15 mars 2016, fick deltagarna möjlighet att prova på övningar med värmekamerorutifrån fenomen som värmeledning i metall respektive trä, vad som sker då en isbit smälter i vatten respektive i saltlösning, eller energiomvandling då ett bouleklot slår i marken. Värmekameran är en kraftfull och lättanvänd teknik för att visualisera värmerelaterade fenomen, som annars är ganska svårtillgängliga för våra sinnen. Med fallande priser blir värmekameran nu ett alltmer realistiskt alternativ även i skolundervisningen. I vår forskning har vi studerat hur värmekamerorkan användas vid fysikundervisning för olika åldersnivåer, från förstaklassare upp till laborationer på universitetet. Vi har funnit att värmekameran inspirerar elever att genomföra egna undersökningar, men också att tekniken i sig inte är tillräcklig för att elever ska förstå fenomen som till exempel värmeledning i relation till ledande eller isolerande material. En möjlig pedagogisk väg är att introducera elever till en värmeflödesmodell där värme flödar från föremål med högre temperatur till föremål med lägre temperatur.

  • 9.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Infrared cameras in inquiry-based thermodynamics laboratory exercises in university physics2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrared (IR) cameras hold the potential to make otherwise invisible thermal phenomena visible. In this way, they may be used to give students disciplinary affordance to central concepts in thermodynamics, such as the mechanisms of heat transfer and thermal properties of different materials. In the present, design-based study, open-ended laboratory exercises are developed for university thermodynamics courses, implemented and evaluated in an iterative fashion. Physics and engineering students investigate the function of a laboratory set-up, for instance a heat pump, with the help of handheld IR cameras. Data is collected by means of observation, video and audio recording, and analysed from the perspective of students’ expression of conceptions in the thermal domain and how the technology provides disciplinary affordance to the topic. Findings include that the technology invites the students to ask questions in relation to the laboratory equipment, which typically drives their inquiry in relevant directions. In addition, in contrast to previously investigated secondary students, these university students are found to explore the functionality of the IR cameras beyond the intuitive interpretation of them as visual thermometers. For instance, the provided software is used to produce striking image work for their reports, and they investigate the influence of the emissive and reflective properties of different surfaces. Directing the IR camera to a mirror provides disciplinary affordance to the phenomenon of reflection of infrared radiation, rather than a reliable temperature reading of its surface.

  • 10.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Chemical engineering students’ ideas of entropy2015In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, E-ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 537-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermodynamics, and in particular entropy, has been found to be challenging for students, not least due to its abstract character. Comparisons with more familiar and concrete domains, by means of analogy and metaphor are commonly used in thermodynamics teaching, in particular the metaphor ‘entropy is disorder’. However, this particular metaphor has met major criticism. In the present study, students (N = 73) answered a questionnaire before and after a course on chemical thermodynamics. They were asked to: (1) explain what entropy is; (2) list other scientific concepts that they relate to entropy; (3) after the course, describe how it had influenced their understanding. The disorder metaphor dominated students’ responses, although in a more reflective manner after the course. The view of entropy as the freedom for particles to move became more frequent. Most students used particle interaction approaches to entropy, which indicates an association to the chemistry tradition. The chemistry identification was further illustrated by enthalpy and Gibbs free energy being the concepts most often mentioned as connected to entropy. The use of these two terms was particularly pronounced among students at the Chemical Engineering programme. Intriguingly, no correlation was found between the qualitative ideas of entropy and the results of the written exam, primarily focusing on quantitative problem solving. As an educational implication, we recommend that students are introduced to a range of different ways to interpret the complex concept entropy, rather than the use of a single metaphor.

  • 11.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Language aspects of engineering students’ view of entropy2016In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, E-ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 489-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entropy is a central concept in thermodynamics, but has been found to be challenging to students due to its abstract nature and the fact that it is not part of students’ everyday language. Interviews with three pairs of engineering students (N = 6) were conducted and video recorded regarding their interpretation and use of the entropy concept, one year after a course on chemical thermodynamics. From a syntax perspective, students were asked to assess whether sentences involving temperature, internal energy, and entropy make sense. With a focus on semantics, they were asked to rank a set of notions with regards to how closely they are related to entropy, how scientific they are, and how useful they are for explaining what entropy is. From a pragmatics point of view, students were asked to solve two qualitative problems, which involve entropy. The results show that these chemistry students regard internal energy, but not entropy, as a substance-like entity. The students’ ranking of how closely related to entropy notions are and how useful they are for explaining entropy was found to be strongly negatively correlated to how scientific the notions were seen to be. For example, disorder was seen as highly unscientific, but very useful for explaining entropy. In the problem-solving tasks, Chemical Engineering students were comfortable relating entropy to enthalpy and Gibbs free energy, the three notions being seen to form a “trinity” in thermodynamics. However, the students had challenges grasping the unchanged entropy in reversible, adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas, in which they did not consider how entropy relates to the second law of thermodynamics. In final reflections on their learning processes, the students saw weak connections between their problem-solving skills and their conceptual understanding of entropy, although acknowledging that both aspects of learning are important.

  • 12.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Chemical engineering students’ conceptions of entropy2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of the second law of thermodynamics and the closely connected entropy concept is central in thermodynamics, and thereby also in physics and chemistry education. Nonetheless, entropy has been found to be particularly challenging for students, not least due to its abstract character. One common approach to teaching and learning about entropy has been to make comparisons with more familiar and concrete domains, by means of analogy and metaphor, such as the metaphor ‘entropy is disorder’, which however has met with criticism in science education. In the present study, students (N = 73) filled out a questionnaire before and after a course on chemical thermodynamics. They were asked to: (1) describe their understanding of what entropy is; (2) list the most important other scientific concepts they relate to entropy; (3) after the course, also reflect on how their understanding of entropy had developed. Our analyses show that the disorder metaphor dominated the students’ responses, although in a more reflective manner after the course. The idea of entropy as the freedom for particles to move about gained in popularity. A majority of the students engaged particle interaction approaches to entropy, which indicates their identification within the chemistry tradition. This chemistry identification was further illustrated by enthalpy and Gibbs free energy being the concepts most often mentioned as connected to entropy. Intriguingly, no correlations were found between these qualitative ideas of entropy and the results of the written exam, primarily focusing on quantitative problem solving.

  • 13.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet.
    Introduktionen av begreppet energikvalitet i svenska läroplaner2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet energikvalitet infördes i grundskolans styrdokument i Lpo 94, i relation till mål att sträva emot i kursplanen för fysik. Vi har undersökt hur energikvalitet kom att inkluderas i kursplanen, inte minst mot bakgrund av att begreppet sällan används inom fysik som akademiskt fält. Vi fann att energikvalitet utvecklades inom teknisk termodynamik och kom att användas inom miljörörelsen i kampen mot kärnkraft under 1970-talet. Ett av argumenten var att vi inte ska värma våra hus med direktverkande el, eftersom det är slöseri med energi av hög kvalitet; som att skära smör med en motorsåg. Energikvalitet infördes först i en kurs i energi på maskingrenen på fyraårig teknisk linje 1983, men anammades på bred front i samband med de stora läroplanerevisionerna 1994. Arbetet med utvecklingen av kursplanerna i de naturvetenskapliga ämnena och teknik inför 1994 leddes till en början av den naturvetenskapsdidaktiska forskaren Björn Andersson. Ambitionen var att sätta in naturvetenskapen i ett bredare bildnings- och samhällsperspektiv, till vilket energikvalitet som begrepp kunde bidra. En av ledamöterna i den övergripande läroplanekommittén, fysikprofessor Tor Ragnar Gerholm, kom dock att utveckla alternativa kursplaneförslag för de aktuella ämnena, av en snävare karaktär närmare innehållet i de motsvarande akademiska disciplinerna. Gerholms förslag kom till stor del att ligga till grund för de slutligen beslutade styrdokumenten. Att energikvalitet kom med i kursplanen för fysik kan ses som ett undantag där samhälleliga perspektiv på naturvetenskapen beaktades, efter påtryckningar i didaktisk, utbildningspolitisk debatt. Didaktisk forskning efter införandet i kursplanerna har visat att elever och lärare har svårt att förhålla sig till energikvalitet i fysikundervisningen, vilket vi tolkar som en konsekvens av att begreppet inte riktigt passar in i den i övrigt inomvetenskapliga strukturen.

  • 14.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tension between visions of science education: The case of energy quality in Swedish secondary science curricula2017In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 323-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to contribute to an understanding of how curricular change is accomplished in practice, including the positions and conflicts of key stakeholders and participants, and their actions in the process. As a case, we study the treatment of energy in Swedish secondary curricula in the period 1962–2011 and, in particular, how the notion of energy quality was introduced in the curricula in an energy course at upper secondary school in 1983 and in physics at lower secondary school in 1994. In the analysis, we use Roberts’ two competing visions of science education, Vision I in which school science subjects largely mirror their corresponding academic disciplines and Vision II that incorporates societal matters of science. In addition, a newly suggested Vision III represents a critical perspective on science education. Our analysis shows how Vision II and III aspects of science education have gained importance in curricula since the 1980s, but in competition with Vision I considerations. Energy quality played a central role in providing Vision II and III arguments in the curricular debate on energy teaching. Subsequent educational research has found that Swedish teachers and students struggle with how to relate to energy quality in physics teaching, which we explain as partly due to the tension between the competing visions.

  • 15.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Linköpings universitet.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet.
    Primary school children's ideas of mixing and of heat as expressed in a classroom setting2014In: Journal of Baltic Science Education, ISSN 1648-3898, E-ISSN 2538-7138, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 726-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates primary school children’s (7-8 year-old, N = 25) ideas of mixing of marbles and of heat, expressed in small-group predict-observe-explain exercises, and drawings representing the children’s own analogies in a classroom setting. The children were typically found to predict that marbles of two different colours would mix when rocked back and forth on a board. This idea of mixing is slightly more advanced than previously reported in the literature. The children’s ideas of heat included reference to warm objects, their own bodies when exercising, and the process of one warm solid object heating another object in direct contact. In addition, through scaffolding, some of the children expressed a substance view of heat. Finally, the potential and challenges in probing children’s ideas through a combination of data collection techniques in a classroom setting are reflected upon.

  • 16.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Hedberg, David
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    Students’ framing of laboratory exercises using infrared cameras2015In: Physical Review Special Topics : Physics Education Research, ISSN 1554-9178, E-ISSN 1554-9178, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 020127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal science is challenging for students due to its largely imperceptible nature. Handheld infraredcameras offer a pedagogical opportunity for students to see otherwise invisible thermal phenomena. In thepresent study, a class of upper secondary technology students (N = 30) partook in four IR-cameralaboratory activities, designed around the predict-observe-explain approach of White and Gunstone. Theactivities involved central thermal concepts that focused on heat conduction and dissipative processes suchas friction and collisions. Students’ interactions within each activity were videotaped and the analysisfocuses on how a purposefully selected group of three students engaged with the exercises. As the basis foran interpretative study, a “thick” narrative description of the students’ epistemological and conceptualframing of the exercises and how they took advantage of the disciplinary affordance of IR cameras in thethermal domain is provided. Findings include that the students largely shared their conceptual framing ofthe four activities, but differed among themselves in their epistemological framing, for instance, in how farthey found it relevant to digress from the laboratory instructions when inquiring into thermal phenomena.In conclusion, the study unveils the disciplinary affordances of infrared cameras, in the sense of their use inproviding access to knowledge about macroscopic thermal science.

  • 17.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Hedberg, David
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping.
    Schönborn, Konrad J
    Linköping University.
    Thermal cameras in school laboratory activities2015In: Physics Education, ISSN 0031-9120, E-ISSN 1361-6552, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 424-430Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal cameras offer real-time visual access to otherwise invisible thermodynamic phenomena, which are conceptually demanding for learners during traditional teaching. We present three studies of students’ interaction with laboratory activities that employ infrared (IR) cameras to teach challenging thermal concepts at grades 4, 7 and 10-12. Visualization of heat-related concepts in combination with predict-observe-explain (POE) experiments offers students and teachers a pedagogically powerful means for unveiling abstract yet fundamental physics concepts.

  • 18.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Hedberg, David
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping.
    Xie, Charles
    Concord Consortium, MA, USA.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    Värmekameror gör det osynliga synligt2014In: Venue, ISSN 2001-788XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av värmekameror framträder lejonen på Serengeti tydligt på kilometers håll i natten på BBC:s senaste filmer och läckande fjärrvärmeledningar kan numera upptäckas från helikopter. Det kan låta som science fiction, men den snabba teknikutvecklingen inom detta område gör att vi nu kan ”göra det osynliga synligt” även i det naturvetenskapliga klassrummet.

  • 19.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Melander, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Pendrill, Ann-Marie
    National Resource Centre for Physics Education, Lund University.
    Xie, Charles
    Concord Consortium.
    Schönborn, Konrad J
    Linköping University.
    Infrared cameras in science education2016In: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 75, no March, p. 150-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    IR cameras provide disciplinary affordance to thermal phenomena2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Linköping University.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    Thermal imaging supports the learning and teaching of thermodynamics2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Central concepts in the teaching of thermal science, such as heat and temperature, are abstract in the sense that we cannot directly see how they are manifested in nature. In learning about thermal phenomena, we rely largely on our sense of touch to assess the perceived hotness or coldness of objects, and tend to believe – misleadingly – that our sense of touch is a dependable thermometer. Accordingly, science education research has found thermal concepts to be challenging for students to grasp. In taking on this conceptual challenge, we have initiated a research programme, in which we explore how hand-held infrared (IR) cameras can support students’ understanding of thermal phenomena, by making the invisible visible. We have developed laboratory exercises involving IR cameras for different levels of physics education, based on a predict, observe and explain (POE) approach. In a pilot study, 7th graders were invited to experience the sensation that metal feels colder than wood at room temperature, and see heat convection through a sheet-metal knife when they held it for two minutes. In a subsequent study, as part of a storyline, two classes of 4th graders were introduced to a heat-flow model and interacted with four laboratory stations, relating to heat and thermal insulation. Furthermore, in a study that broadened the scope to mechanics at the upper secondary level, students were asked to explain the increased temperature due to friction between an eraser and a table, or as a large metal ball fell onto asphalt. In all contexts to date, IR cameras – basically interactive thermal looking glasses – have been found to be an engaging, easy-to use technology. In particular, they invite  ‘instant inquiry’ of thermal phenomena, and stimulate the adoption of a macroscopic heat-flow model. Further development of IR-camera supported laboratory exercises for university teaching is under way.

  • 22.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    Värmekameror hjälper elever se naturfenomen2015In: LMNT-nytt, ISSN 1402-0041, no 1, p. 18-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av en handhållen värmekamera kan elever se hur värme leds genom metall, och hur andra material som trä eller plast isolerar. På samma sätt kan de se värmeutvecklingen då ett suddgummi dras mot ett bord eller ett bouleklot slår i marken. Den här typen av fenomen har vi ofta sopat under mattan i undervisningen, eller förklarat i termer av ”värmeförluster”, utan att kunna ge egentliga belägg. Med andra ord, värmekameror gör det möjligt för elever att se fenomen som annars är osynliga.

  • 23.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, S-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, S-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, S-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Taking on the heat: A narrative account of how infrared cameras invite instant inquiry2016In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 685-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of technology, social learning, and scientific models offers pedagogical opportunities for science education. A particularly interesting area is thermal science, where pupils often struggle with abstract concepts, such as heat. In taking on this conceptual obstacle, we explore how hand-held infrared (IR) visualization technology can strengthen pupils’ understanding of thermal phenomena. Grounded in the Swedish physics curriculum and part of a broader research programme on educational uses of IR cameras, we have developed laboratory exercises around a thermal storyline, in conjunction with the teaching of a heat-flow model. We report on a narrative analysis of how a group of five fourth graders, facilitated by a researcher, predict, observe and explain (POE) how the temperatures change when they pour hot water into a ceramic coffee mug and a thin plastic cup. Four chronological episodes are described and analysed as group interaction unfolded. Results revealed that the pupils engaged cognitively and emotionally with the POE task, and in particular, held a sustained focus on making observations and offering explanations for the scenarios. A compelling finding was the group’s spontaneous generation of multiple “what-ifs” in relation to thermal phenomena, such as blowing on the water surface, or submerging a pencil into the hot water. This was followed by immediate interrogation with the IR camera; a learning event we label instant inquiry. The pupils’ expressions largely reflected adoption of the heat-flow model. In conclusion, IR cameras could serve as an access point for even very young pupils to develop complex thermal concepts.

  • 24.
    Haglund, Jesper