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  • 1.
    Almandoz-Gil, Leire
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Persson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lindström, Veronica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Bergström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    In situ proximity ligation assay reveals co-localization of alpha-synuclein and SNARE proteins in murine primary neurons2018In: Frontiers in Neurology, E-ISSN 1664-2295, Vol. 9, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alpha Syn) is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and related neurological disorders. However, the physiological function of the protein and how this function relates to its pathological effects remain poorly understood. One of the proposed roles of aSyn is to promote the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex assembly by binding to VAMP-2. The objective of this study was to visualize the co-localization between aSyn and the SNARE proteins (VAMP-2, SNAP-25, and syntaxin-1) for the first time using in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA). Cortical primary neurons were cultured from either non-transgenic or transgenic mice expressing human aSyn with the A30P mutation under the Thy-1 promoter. With an antibody recognizing both mouse and human aSyn, a PLA signal indicating close proximity between aSyn and the three SNARE proteins was observed both in the soma and throughout the processes. No differences in the extent of PLA signals were seen between non-transgenic and transgenic neurons. With an antibody specific against human aSyn, the PLA signal was mostly located to the soma and was only present in a few cells. Taken together, in situ PLA is a method that can be used to investigate the co-localization of aSyn and the SNARE proteins in primary neuronal cultures

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  • 2.
    Behere, Anish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Bergström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Novel visualization of phosphorylated tau and alpha-synuclein aggregates in the Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease brainManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), display deposits of phosphorylated tau (pTau) and/or alpha-synuclein (pSyn) in affected parts of the brain. However, the pathological and morphological properties of these protein aggregates remain poorly characterized, due to lack of specificity and sensitivity of in situ detection techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate the patho-morphological properties of phosphorylated tau and α-syn aggregates on AD and PD brain tissues with a novel sensitive in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) technique. We took advantage of the sensitivity and <40 nm resolution of PLA, along with the selectivity of different antibodies directed against pTau and pSyn epitopes. Most notably, multiplex pTauS202, T205-pTauT231, singleplex pTauT231 and pSynS129 PLA recognized more extensive phosphorylated tau and αSyn pathology, compared to conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) using the same antibodies on adjacent brain sections. Furthermore, singleplex pTauT231 PLA captured additional pathological aggregates compared to the singleplex pTauS202, T205 PLA in late Braak stage AD brains, where traditional IHC failed to distinguish between pTauS202, T205 and pTauT231 pathology. Similarly, in PD brains, singleplex pSynS129 PLA detected novel pathological structures, such as intercellular thick tunneling nanotubes and pre-Lewy body intracytoplasmic aggregates, whereas pSynS129 IHC was limited to the detection of mature Lewy body/neurite pathology. Lastly, we could demonstrate that our dual PLA approach also can be applied to detect co-aggregates of pSyn-pTau.

  • 3.
    Beretta, Chiara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Dakhel, Abdulkhalek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Eltom, Khalid
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Uzoni, Simon
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg.
    Mothes, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rostami, Jinar
    Fletcher, John S.
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sehlin, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Michno, Wojciech
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Astrocytes with Alzheimer’s disease pathology provoke lipid droplet mediated cell-to-cell propagation of MHC II complexesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Astrocytes are critical for maintaining brain homeostasis, but are also highly involved in neuroinflammation. In the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain, reactive, inflammatory astrocytes are situated closely around amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. We have previously shown that reactive astrocytes ingest large quantities of soluble Aβ aggregates, but are unable to degrade the material, which leads to intracellular Aβ accumulation and severe cellular stress. A common response to cellular stress is the formation of lipid droplets (LDs). Novel data indicate that LDs play an important role in inflammatory processes. However, the involvement of LDs in AD inflammation and progression remains unclear.

    Methods. The aim of this study was to investigate how astrocytic Aβ pathology affects lipid metabolism and antigen presentation. For this purpose, human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived astrocytes were exposed to soluble Aβ42 aggregates and analyzed over time, using a battery of experimental approaches.

    Results. Our results show that Aβ exposure induces LD accumulation in astrocytes, although the overall lipid composition remains unchanged. Moreover, astrocytes transfer LDs to neighboring cells via tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) and extracellular vesicle (EVs). Interestingly, we found that the antigen presenting protein major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) is present inside LDs, suggesting an active role of LDs in astrocytic antigen presentation. Immunohistochemical analysis of human brain tissue verified the presence of LD-loaded MHCII+ astrocytes in AD individuals. Moreover, we found infiltrated CD4+ T cells to be in close contact with astrocytes, confirming an astrocyte T cell cross-talk in the AD brain

    Conclusions. Taken together, our data show that Aβ pathology drastically affects lipid storage in astrocytes, which in turn modulates the astrocytic antigen presentation, indicating a role for astrocytic LDs in T cell responses in the AD brain.

  • 4.
    Beretta, Chiara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Nikitidou, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Gallasch, Linn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Sehlin, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Extracellular vesicles from amyloid-beta exposed cell cultures induce severe dysfunction in cortical neurons2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, article id 19656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a substantial loss of neurons and synapses throughout the brain. The exact mechanism behind the neurodegeneration is still unclear, but recent data suggests that spreading of amyloid-beta (A beta) pathology via extracellular vesicles (EVs) may contribute to disease progression. We have previously shown that an incomplete degradation of A beta (42) protofibrils by astrocytes results in the release of EVs containing neurotoxic A beta. Here, we describe the cellular mechanisms behind EV-associated neurotoxicity in detail. EVs were isolated from untreated and A beta (42) protofibril exposed neuroglial co-cultures, consisting mainly of astrocytes. The EVs were added to cortical neurons for 2 or 4 days and the neurodegenerative processes were followed with immunocytochemistry, time-lapse imaging and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Addition of EVs from A beta (42) protofibril exposed co-cultures resulted in synaptic loss, severe mitochondrial impairment and apoptosis. TEM analysis demonstrated that the EVs induced axonal swelling and vacuolization of the neuronal cell bodies. Interestingly, EV exposed neurons also displayed pathological lamellar bodies of cholesterol deposits in lysosomal compartments. Taken together, our data show that the secretion of EVs from A beta exposed cells induces neuronal dysfunction in several ways, indicating a central role for EVs in the progression of A beta -induced pathology.

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  • 5.
    Beretta, Chiara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Svensson, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics. Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, 1 Wakefield Street, WC1N 1PJ London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    Dakhel, Abdulkhalek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Zyśk, Marlena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Hanrieder, J.
    Sehlin, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Michno, Wojciech
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Amyloid-β deposits in human astrocytes contain truncated and highly resistant proteoforms2024In: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, ISSN 1044-7431, E-ISSN 1095-9327, Vol. 128, article id 103916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that develops over decades. Glial cells, including astrocytes are tightly connected to the AD pathogenesis, but their impact on disease progression is still unclear. Our previous data show that astrocytes take up large amounts of aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) but are unable to successfully degrade the material, which is instead stored intracellularly. The aim of the present study was to analyze the astrocytic Aβ deposits composition in detail in order to understand their role in AD propagation. For this purpose, human induced pluripotent cell (hiPSC)-derived astrocytes were exposed to sonicated Aβ42 fibrils and magnetic beads. Live cell imaging and immunocytochemistry confirmed that the ingested Aβ aggregates and beads were transported to the same lysosomal compartments in the perinuclear region, which allowed us to successfully isolate the Aβ deposits from the astrocytes. Using a battery of experimental techniques, including mass spectrometry, western blot, ELISA and electron microscopy we demonstrate that human astrocytes truncate and pack the Aβ aggregates in a way that makes them highly resistant. Moreover, the astrocytes release specifically truncated forms of Aβ via different routes and thereby expose neighboring cells to pathogenic proteins. Taken together, our study establishes a role for astrocytes in mediating Aβ pathology, which could be of relevance for identifying novel treatment targets for AD.

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  • 6.
    Brolin, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Bergström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Altered distribution of SNARE proteins in primary neurons exposed to different alpha-synuclein speciesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Brolin, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics. Univ Hlth Network, Krembil Brain Inst, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Med, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Tanz Ctr Res Neurodegenerat Dis, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Bergström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Altered Distribution of SNARE Proteins in Primary Neurons Exposed to Different Alpha-Synuclein Proteoforms2023In: Cellular and molecular neurobiology, ISSN 0272-4340, E-ISSN 1573-6830, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 3023-3035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing evidence indicates that the pathological alpha-synuclein (a-syn) aggregation in Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) starts at the synapses. Physiologic a-syn is involved in regulating neurotransmitter release by binding to the SNARE complex protein VAMP-2 on synaptic vesicles. However, in which way the SNARE complex formation is affected by a-syn pathology remains unclear. In this study, primary cortical neurons were exposed to either a-syn monomers or preformed fibrils (PFFs) for different time points and the effect on SNARE protein distribution was analyzed with a novel proximity ligation assay (PLA). Short-term exposure to monomers or PFFs for 24 h increased the co-localization of VAMP-2 and syntaxin-1, but reduced the co-localization of SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1, indicating a direct effect of the added a-syn on SNARE protein distribution. Long-term exposure to a-syn PFFs for 7 d reduced VAMP-2 and SNAP-25 co-localization, although there was only a modest induction of ser129 phosphorylated (pS129) a-syn. Similarly, exposure to extracellular vesicles collected from astrocytes treated with a-syn PFFs for 7 d influenced VAMP-2 and SNAP-25 co-localization despite only low levels of pS129 a-syn being formed. Taken together, our results demonstrate that different a-syn proteoforms have the potential to alter the distribution of SNARE proteins at the synapse.

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  • 8.
    Clausen, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Combination of Growth Factor Treatment and Scaffold Deposition Following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Show a Temporary Effect on Cellular Regeneration2013In: Glia, ISSN 0894-1491, E-ISSN 1098-1136, Vol. 61, p. S196-S196Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Clausen, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Lindh, Tone
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Shabnam, Salimi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Combination of growth factor treatment and scaffold deposition following traumatic brain injury has only a temporary effect on regeneration2014In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1588, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is hampered by the poor regenerative capacity of the brain. Today there is no treatment available that effectively restores lost brain tissue, but much research is focused on the stimulation of endogenous neural stem cells to viably and functionally repopulate the injured parenchyma. It is crucial that the therapies have a proven long-term effect on both regeneration and functional recovery to be clinically interesting. Here we have studied the induction of stem cell activation in rats at three weeks and six weeks after inducing TBI using controlled cortical impact model at a severe setting. We combined intracerebroventricular growth factor and scaffold treatment in order to accomplish an optimal effect on the stem cell regeneration. Immediately after TBI epidermal growth factor infusion with osmotic minipumps was started and continued for seven days. The pumps were removed and an extracellular matrix scaffold containing vascular endothelial growth factor was deposited into the cortical cavity. Three weeks after injury there was a positive effect of the treatment with a significant increase in neuronal and astrocytic regeneration. However, after six weeks there was no difference in the number of newly generated neurons and astrocytes in treated or untreated rats. Evaluation of tissue loss and spatial learning in the Morris water maze corroborated that the treatment had no effect at the later time point. Our results highlight the importance of long-term studies to ensure that a promising effect on tissue regeneration and functional outcome is not only temporary.

  • 10.
    de la Vega, Maria Pagnon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Michno, Wojciech
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychiat & Neurochem, S-43180 Gothenburg, Sweden.;UCL, Dept Neurosci, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Guener, Goekhan
    Tech Univ Munich, German Ctr Neurodegenerat Dis DZNE & Neuroprote, Sch Med, Klinikum Rechts Isar, D-81377 Munich, Germany..
    Zielinski, Mara
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Biol Informat Proc, Julich Ctr Struct Biol, Struct Biochem IBI 7, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, JuStruct, Julich Ctr Struct Biol, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Degerman Gunnarsson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Brundin, RoseMarie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Danfors, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Soderberg, Linda
    BioArctic AB, S-11251 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Nilsson, Lars N. G.
    Univ Oslo, Dept Pharmacol, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Willbold, Dieter
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Biol Informat Proc, Julich Ctr Struct Biol, Struct Biochem IBI 7, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, JuStruct, Julich Ctr Struct Biol, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Heinrich Heine Univ Dusseldorf, Inst Phys Biol, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.;State Univ, Res Ctr Mol Mech Aging & Age Related Dis, Moscow Inst Phys & Technol, Dolgoprudnyi 141701, Russia..
    Mueller, Stephan A.
    Tech Univ Munich, German Ctr Neurodegenerat Dis DZNE & Neuroprote, Sch Med, Klinikum Rechts Isar, D-81377 Munich, Germany..
    Schroeder, Gunnar F.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Biol Informat Proc, Julich Ctr Struct Biol, Struct Biochem IBI 7, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, JuStruct, Julich Ctr Struct Biol, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Heinrich Heine Univ Dusseldorf, Phys Dept, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany..
    Hanrieder, Jorg
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychiat & Neurochem, S-43180 Gothenburg, Sweden.;UCL, Dept Neurodegenerat Dis, Queen Sq Inst Neurol, London WC1N 3BG, England..
    Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.
    Tech Univ Munich, German Ctr Neurodegenerat Dis DZNE & Neuroprote, Sch Med, Klinikum Rechts Isar, D-81377 Munich, Germany.;Munich Cluster Syst Neurol SyNergy, D-81377 Munich, Germany..
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Sehlin, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    The Uppsala APP deletion causes early onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease by altering APP processing and increasing amyloid beta fibril formation2021In: Science Translational Medicine, ISSN 1946-6234, E-ISSN 1946-6242, Vol. 13, no 606, article id eabc6184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Point mutations in the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) cause familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) by increasing generation or altering conformation of amyloid beta (A beta). Here, we describe the Uppsala APP mutation (Delta 690-695), the first reported deletion causing autosomal dominant AD. Affected individuals have an age at symptom onset in their early forties and suffer from a rapidly progressing disease course. Symptoms and biomarkers are typical of AD, with the exception of normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A beta 42 and only slightly pathological amyloid-positron emission tomography signals. Mass spectrometry and Western blot analyses of patient CSF and media from experimental cell cultures indicate that the Uppsala APP mutation alters APP processing by increasing beta-secretase cleavage and affecting alpha-secretase cleavage. Furthermore, in vitro aggregation studies and analyses of patient brain tissue samples indicate that the longer form of mutated A beta, A beta Upp1-42(Delta 19-24), accelerates the formation of fibrils with unique polymorphs and their deposition into amyloid plaques in the affected brain.

  • 11.
    Ekmark-Lewén, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lindstrom, Veronica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Gumucio, Astrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ihse, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Behere, Anish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Kahle, Philipp J.
    Hertie Inst Clin Brain Res, Dept Neurodegenerat, Tubingen, Germany.;German Ctr Neurodegenerat Dis, Tubingen, Germany..
    Nordstrom, Eva
    BioArctic AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Maria
    BioArctic AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Bergström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Early fine motor impairment and behavioral dysfunction in (Thy-1)-h[A30P] alpha-synuclein mice2018In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 8, no 3, article id e00915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Intraneuronal inclusions of alpha-synuclein are commonly found in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease and other a-synucleinopathies. The correlation between alpha-synuclein pathology and symptoms has been studied in various animal models. In (Thy-1)-h[A30P] alpha-synuclein transgenic mice, behavioral and motor abnormalities were reported from 12 and 15 months, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these mice also display symptoms at earlier time points.

    Methods: We analyzed gait deficits, locomotion, and behavioral profiles in (Thy-1)-h[A30P] alpha-synuclein and control mice at 2, 8, and 11 months of age. In addition, inflammatory markers, levels of alpha-synuclein oligomers, and tyrosine hydroxylase reactivity were studied.

    Results: Already at 2 months of age, transgenic mice displayed fine motor impairments in the challenging beam test that progressively increased up to 11 months of age. At 8 months, transgenic mice showed a decreased general activity with increased risk-taking behavior in the multivariate concentric square field test. Neuropathological analyses of 8- and 11-month-old mice revealed accumulation of oligomeric alpha-synuclein in neuronal cell bodies. In addition, a decreased presence of tyrosine hydroxylase suggests a dysregulation of the dopaminergic system in the transgenic mice, which in turn may explain some of the motor impairments observed in this mouse model.

    Conclusions: Taken together, our results show that the (Thy-1)-h[A30P] alpha-synuclein transgenic mouse model displays early Parkinson's disease-related symptoms with a concomitant downregulation of the dopaminergic system. Thus, this should be an -appropriate model to study early phenotypes of alpha-synucleinopathies.

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  • 12.
    Eltom, Khalid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Mothes, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Libard, Sylwia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Neurooncology and neurodegeneration. Department of Pathology, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics. University Health Network, Krembil Brain Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Molecular Geriatrics.
    Astrocytic accumulation of tau fibrils isolated from Alzheimer’s disease brains induces inflammation, cell-to-cell propagation and neuronal impairment2024In: Acta neuropathologica communications, E-ISSN 2051-5960, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulating evidence highlights the involvement of astrocytes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. We have previously demonstrated that human iPSC-derived astrocytes ingest and modify synthetic tau fibrils in a way that enhances their seeding efficiency. However, synthetic tau fibrils differ significantly from in vivo formed fibrils. To mimic the situation in the brain, we here analyzed astrocytes’ processing of human brain-derived tau fibrils and its consequences for cellular physiology. Tau fibrils were extracted from both AD and control brains, aiming to examine any potential differences in astrocyte response depending on the origin of fibrils. Our results show that human astrocytes internalize, but fail to degrade, both AD and control tau fibrils. Instead, pathogenic, seeding capable tau proteoforms are spread to surrounding cells via tunneling nanotubes and exocytosis. Notably, accumulation of AD tau fibrils induces a stronger reactive state in astrocytes, compared to control fibrils, evident by the augmented expression of vimentin and GFAP, as well as by an increased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and MCP-1. Moreover, conditioned media from astrocytes with AD tau fibril deposits induce synapse and metabolic impairment in human iPSC-derived neurons. Taken together, our data suggest that the accumulation of brain-derived AD tau fibrils induces a more robust inflammatory and neurotoxic phenotype in human astrocytes, accentuating the nature of tau fibrils as an important contributing factor to inflammation and neurodegeneration in AD. 

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  • 13.
    Enarsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Larsson, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling is uncoupled from initial differentiation of central nervous system stem cells to neurons2002In: Molecular Cancer Research, ISSN 1541-7786, E-ISSN 1557-3125, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about signaling pathways in response to external signals is needed to understand the regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation toward particular cell fates. The Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway has been suggested to play an essential role in neuronal differentiation. We have examined ERK signaling in the transition from multipotent stem cell to post-mitotic progeny using primary stem cells from the rat embryonic cortex. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a stem cell mitogen, whereas platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA) expands a pool of committed neuronal precursors from stem cells. When comparing ERK activation by these growth factors, we found that FGF-2 stimulates high and PDGF-AA lower levels of ERK phosphorylation in stem cells. Differentiation was monitored as down-regulation of the bHLH transcription factor mammalian achaete-scute homologue-1 (MASH1). Even in the absence of active ERK, MASH1 became down-regulated and microtubule-associated protein 2-positive cells could form. Thus, ERK activation seems dispensable for the earliest steps of CNS stem cell differentiation.

  • 14.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Enarsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Immature neurons from CNS stem cells proliferate in response toplatelet-derived growth factor2001In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 3483-3491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying external signals involved in the regulation of neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation is fundamental to the understanding of CNS development. In this study we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can act as a mitogen for neural precursor cells. Multipotent stem cells from developing CNS can be maintained in a proliferative state under serum-free conditions in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and induced to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes on withdrawal of the mitogen. PDGF has been suggested to play a role during the differentiation into neurons. We have investigated the effect of PDGF on cultured stem cells from embryonic rat cortex. The PDGF alpha-receptor is constantly expressed during differentiation of neural stem cells but is phosphorylated only after PDGF-AA treatment. In contrast, the PDGF beta-receptor is hardly detectable in uncommitted cells, but its expression increases during differentiation. We show that PDGF stimulation leads to c-fos induction, 5'-bromo-2'deoxyuridine incorporation, and an increase in the number of immature cells stained with antibodies to neuronal markers. Our findings suggest that PDGF acts as a mitogen in the early phase of stem cell differentiation to expand the pool of immature neurons.

  • 15.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Larsson, Jimmy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Stem cell factor is a chemoattractant and a survival factor for CNS stem cells2004In: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 301, no 2, p. 201-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration of neural cells to their final positions is crucial for the correct formation of the central nervous system. Several extrinsic factors are known to be involved in the regulation of neural migration. We asked if stem cell factor (SCF), well known as a chemoattractant and survival factor in the hematopoietic lineage, could elicit similar responses in neural stem cells. For that purpose, a microchemotaxis assay was used to study the effect of SCF on migration of neural stem cells from the embryonic rat cortex. Our results show that SCF-induced chemotaxis and that specific antibodies to SCF or tyrosine kinase inhibitors abolished the migratory response. The SCF-receptor, Kit, was expressed in neural stem cells and in their differentiated progeny. We also show that SCF is a survival factor, but not a mitogen or a differentiation factor for neural stem cells. These data suggest a role for SCF in cell migration and survival in the developing cortex.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Gabriel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lindström, Veronica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Rostami, Jinar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Nordström, Eva
    BioArct AB, Stockholm.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Bergström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Alpha-synuclein oligomer-selective antibodies reduce intracellular accumulation and mitochondrial impairment in alpha-synuclein exposed astrocytes2017In: Journal of Neuroinflammation, E-ISSN 1742-2094, Vol. 14, article id 241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to its neurotoxic properties, oligomeric alpha-synuclein (α-syn) has been suggested as an attractive target for passive immunization against Parkinson’s disease (PD). In mouse models of PD, antibody treatment has been shown to lower the levels of pathogenic α-syn species, including oligomers, although the mechanisms of action remain unknown. We have previously shown that astrocytes rapidly engulf α-syn oligomers that are intracellularly stored, rather than degraded, resulting in impaired mitochondria.

    Methods: The aim of the present study was to investigate if the accumulation of α-syn in astrocytes can be affected by α-syn oligomer-selective antibodies. Co-cultures of astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes were derived from embryonic mouse cortex and exposed to α-syn oligomers or oligomers pre-incubated with oligomer-selective antibodies.

    Results: In the presence of antibodies, the astrocytes displayed an increased clearance of the exogenously added α-syn, and consequently, the α-syn accumulation in the culture was markedly reduced. Moreover, the addition of antibodies rescued the astrocytes from the oligomer-induced mitochondrial impairment.

    Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that oligomer-selective antibodies can prevent α-syn accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured astrocytes.

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  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Gabriel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lööv, Camilla
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Harvard Med Sch, Neurosci Program, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Persson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lázaro, Diana F.
    Univ Med Ctr Gottingen, Dept Expt Neurodegenerat, Gottingen, Germany.
    Takeda, Shuko
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Harvard Med Sch, Neurosci Program, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Bergström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Sehlin, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Balaj, Leonora
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Harvard Med Sch, Neurosci Program, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    György, Bence
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Harvard Med Sch, Neurosci Program, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Dept Pathol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Outeiro, Tiago F
    Univ Med Ctr Gottingen, Dept Expt Neurodegenerat, Gottingen, Germany; Max Planck Inst Expt Med, Gottingen, Germany; Newcastle Univ, Med Sch, Inst Neurosci, Framlington Pl, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE2 4HH, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Breakefield, Xandra O
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Harvard Med Sch, Neurosci Program, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Hyman, Bradley T
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Harvard Med Sch, Neurosci Program, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics. Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Charlestown, MA 02129 USA; Harvard Med Sch, Neurosci Program, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Secretion and uptake of α-synuclein via extracellular vesicles in cultured cells2018In: Cellular and molecular neurobiology, ISSN 0272-4340, E-ISSN 1573-6830, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1539-1550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Parkinson’s disease and other Lewy body disorders, the propagation of pathology has been accredited to the spreading of extracellular α-synuclein (α-syn). Although the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood, cell-to-cell transfer of α-syn via exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been reported. Here, we investigated whether altered molecular properties of α-syn can influence the distribution and secretion of α-syn in human neuroblastoma cells. Different α-syn variants, including α-syn:hemi-Venus and disease-causing mutants, were overexpressed and EVs were isolated from the conditioned medium. Of the secreted α-syn, 0.1–2% was associated with vesicles. The major part of EV α-syn was attached to the outer membrane of vesicles, whereas a smaller fraction was found in their lumen. For α-syn expressed with N-terminal hemi-Venus, the relative levels associated with EVs were higher than for WT α-syn. Moreover, such EV-associated α-syn:hemi-Venus species were internalized in recipient cells to a higher degree than the corresponding free-floating forms. Among the disease-causing mutants, A53T α-syn displayed an increased association with EVs. Taken together, our data suggest that α-syn species with presumably lost physiological functions or altered aggregation properties may shift the cellular processing towards vesicular secretion. Our findings thus lend further support to the tenet that EVs can mediate spreading of harmful α-syn species and thereby contribute to the pathology in α-synucleinopathies.

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  • 18.