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  • 1.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Accumulation and Persistence of Welfare Problems over Time2016In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 757-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses longitudinal Swedish data and investigates the accumulation and persistence of welfare problems over time. The data set was compiled in a first wave in 1979, a second wave in 1986–1987, a third wave in 1994–1995, and a fourth wave in 2002–2003 (N = 7,967). First, the results demonstrate that all welfare problems have a tendency to become persistent. For example, the probability of suffering from the lack of a close friend in the fourth wave was 57.1 % if the individual suffered from this welfare problem in the third wave. Second, economic problems constituted the welfare problem with the most associations with other welfare problems. Third, the accumulation of welfare problems significantly differed between different categories of individuals. For example, the accumulation of welfare problems was higher in men compared with women, immigrants compared with native Swedes, single individuals compared with individuals in couples, and poorly educated individuals compared with highly educated individuals. Finally, longitudinal analyses indicated individuals in certain categories have experienced cumulative disadvantages in welfare even during periods when individuals in other categories have experienced a positive trend in welfare. One such example is single parents during the period between 1979 and 1986–1987.

  • 2.
    Bask, Miia
    Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections Between Welfare Problems2011In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 103, no 3, p. 443-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education level and socio-economic class. Further, since the welfare disadvantages included in the analysis are chronic unemployment, economic problems, health problems, experiences of threat or violence, crowded housing, lack of a close friend and sleeping problems, we also have data on exactly which welfare problems each individual in the data set suffers from. In the empirical analysis, latent class factor analysis provides us not only with information on which individual characteristics that are important in the accumulation of welfare problems, but also gives us information on which disadvantages in fact are accumulated. First, we find that welfare problems do cluster. Second, the welfare problems that most often appear at a factor level with several disadvantages are experiences of threat or violence and sleeping problems. Finally, being an immigrant and being single are individual characteristics that turn up most often in factor levels with problem accumulation, whereas there is no distinctive difference between the sexes. However, women seem to be more prone to suffer from experiences of threat or violence and sleeping problems, while men are more likely to suffer from lack of a close friend.

  • 3.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Externalising and internalising problem behaviour among Swedish adolescent boys and girls2015In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the occurrence and coexistence of externalising and internalising problem behaviour among Swedish boys and girls, and investigated whether there are differences in the accumulation of problems among adolescents with different behavioural, demographic and social characteristics. The results are discussed in the context of self-salience schemas. The source material comprised all ninth grade pupils in a province in central Sweden in 2008 (N = 3,095). First, girls were found to be more prone to experience internalising problem behaviour, whereas no sex differences were found regarding externalising problem behaviour. Second, multidimensional scaling maps indicated that, compared with boys, self-esteem and the PsychoSomatic Problem (PSP) scale among girls more closely indicated externalising problem behaviour components, whereas anxiety was situated far from the other externalising problem behaviour indicators. Finally, linear regression analyses indicated family type as the primary explanatory background factor for externalising problem behaviour and economic hardship as the primary explanatory background factor for internalising problem behaviour.

  • 4.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors among Swedish boys and girls2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bask, Miia
    Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Increasing Inequality in Social Exclusion Occurrence: The Case of Sweden during 1979-20032010In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 299-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the risk of social exclusion among the Swedish population from a longitudinal perspective. In the empirical analysis, a person is considered socially excluded if he or she suffers from at least two of the following six welfare problems: chronic unemployment, economic problems, health problems, experiences of threat or violence, crowded housing and lack of interpersonal relationships. Our three main findings are as follows: There is no evidence that immigrants have been better integrated into Swedish society over time from the perspective of social exclusion risk. Instead, there are weak signs that their situation has become worse. Further, even though men are worse off than women as regards the odds for social exclusion, there are weak signs that their relative situation has improved over time. Finally, compared to couples without children, there is clear evidence that the odds for social exclusion for singles with children have increased over time and that the odds for social exclusion for couples with children have decreased over time. We can, therefore, conclude that among these groups, the inequality has increased over time. To be able to make these conclusions, we have fitted several specifications of a logistic regression model with random effects for panel data to our data set.

  • 6.
    Bask, Miia
    Karlstad University, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behavior among Swedish Youth: Explaining Multiple Disadvantages2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Patterns of Psycho-Social Distress Among Ageing Swedes2015In: Journal of Population Ageing, ISSN 1874-7884, E-ISSN 1874-7876, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 261-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines psycho-social distress among middle-aged and elderly Swedes. We analysed data on 3221 individuals who were 55 to 99 years old. Based on a latent class analysis, we identified four latent classes. Two classes were associated with higher levels of psycho-social problem accumulation. The class with the lowest level of problem accumulation contained the greatest number of individuals, whereas the classes with the highest level of psycho-social distress contained the least number of individuals. The analysis showed that being a man, being married, being a native Swede, or having several hobbies was associated with a low likelihood of belonging to a latent class that was characterised by psycho-social distress. Moreover, being a woman, being between 55 and 65 years of age, or being a widow was associated with a high likelihood of belonging to a latent class that was characterised by the highest levels of problem accumulation.

  • 8.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Patterns of Psycho-Social Distress among Middle-Aged and Elderly Swedes2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Social Exclusion across the Life-Course: A Look at Swedish Data2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Social Exclusion in Sweden during 1979-20032008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bask, Miia
    Stanford University, Stanford Center for the Study of Poverty and Inequality, Palo Alto, California, USA.
    Social Exclusion Occurrence in Sweden during 1979-2003: The Significance of Sex, Family Type and Nationality Background2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the risk of social exclusion among the Swedish population from a longitudinal perspective. To achieve this aim we use an unbalanced panel involving four waves. The first wave was gathered in 1979, the second during the period 1986-87, the third during the period 1994-95, and the fourth during the period 2002-03, giving a total number of respondents of 7,967. In the empirical analysis, a person is considered socially excluded if he or she suffers from at least two of the following six welfare problems: long-term unemployment, economic problems, health problems, experiences of threat or violence, crowded housing, and lack of interpersonal relationships. As explanatory variables for the risk of social exclusion, the following variables are used: sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education level and socio-economic class. We have fitted several specifications of a logistic regression model with random effects for panel data to our data set. Our main findings are as follows: First, there is no evidence that immigrants have been better integrated into Swedish society over time from the perspective of social exclusion risk. Instead, there are weak signs that integration has become worse. Second, even though men are worse off than women as regards the odds for social exclusion, there are weak signs that their relative situation has improved over time. Finally, there is clear evidence that the odds for exclusion for singles with children have increased over time and that the odds for exclusion for couples with children have decreased over time.

  • 12.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Welfare Problems among Immigrants across the Life Course: A Look at Swedish Data Using Repeated Measurement Analysis2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Welfare Problems among Immigrants across the Life Course: A Look at Swedish Data Using Repeated Measurement Analysis2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bask, Miia
    Umeå universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Welfare problems and social exclusion among immigrants in Sweden2005In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine social exclusion among immigrants in Sweden. The groups under scrutiny are native Swedes, first generation Swedes, naturalized Swedes, Nordic citizens and non-Nordic citizens. Specifically, because one goal of the welfare state is to break the connections between different welfare problems, we investigate the associations between welfare problems among different immigrant groups as well as among native Swedes. We find that the accumulation of welfare problems is higher among immigrant groups, but that the correlations between welfare problems are strongest among Swedes. Finally, we analyse social exclusion among immigrants using a logistic regression analysis. Because a regression analysis with explanatory variables such as demographic variables, human capital indicators and socioeconomic class cannot explain the difference between immigrants and native Swedes, it appears that discrimination is a probable explanation.

     

  • 15.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Welfare Problems and Social Exclusion among Immigrants in Sweden2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bask, Miia
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland.
    Young People's Paths to Marginalization2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Oslo & Akershus Univ, Coll Appl Sci, Norwegian Social Res NOVA, Oslo, Norway..
    Bask, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Cumulative (Dis) Advantage and the Matthew Effect in Life-Course Analysis2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, article id e0142447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To foster a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind inequality in society, it is crucial to work with well-defined concepts associated with such mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to define cumulative (dis) advantage and the Matthew effect. We argue that cumulative (dis) advantage is an intra-individual micro-level phenomenon, that the Matthew effect is an inter-individual macro-level phenomenon and that an appropriate measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the mechanism or dynamic process that generates inequality. The Matthew mechanism is, therefore, a better name for the phenomenon, where we provide a novel measure of the mechanism, including a proof-of-principle analysis using disposable personal income data. Finally, because socio-economic theory should be able to explain cumulative (dis) advantage and the Matthew mechanism when they are detected in data, we discuss the types of models that may explain the phenomena. We argue that interactions-based models in the literature traditions of analytical sociology and statistical mechanics serve this purpose.

  • 18.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University.
    Bask, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inequality Generating Processes and Measurement of the Matthew Effect2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of this paper is to clarify the differences and relationships between cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the Matthew effect. Its second aim, which is also its main contribution, is not only to present a new measure of the Matthew effect, but also to show how to estimate this effect from data and how to make statistical inference. We argue that one should utilize the positivity of the natural logarithm of the largest generalized eigenvalue for a non-linear dynamic process as evidence when claiming that the Matthew effect is present in the dynamic process that generates individuals’ socio-economic life-courses. Thus, our measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the dynamic process that generates socio-economic inequality and not on the outcome of this process.

  • 19.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Bask, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Inequality Generating Processes and Measurement of the Matthew Effect2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper's first aim is to clarify the differences and relationships between cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the Matthew effect. Its second aim, which is its main contribution, is not only to present a new measure of the Matthew effect, but also to show how to estimate this effect from data and how to make statistical inference. We argue that one should utilize the positivity of the natural logarithm of the largest generalized eigenvalue for a non-linear dynamic process as evidence when claiming that the Matthew effect is present in the dynamic process that generates individuals' socio-economic life-courses. Thus, our measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the dynamic process that generates socio-economic inequality and not on the outcome of this process.

  • 20.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    University of Bergen.
    Bask, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Social Influence and the Matthew Mechanism: The Case of an Artificial Cultural Market2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that the Matthew effect, or Matthew mechanism, was present in the artificial cultural market Music Lab when social influence between individuals was allowed, whereas this was not the case when social influence was not allowed. We also sketch on a class of social network models, derived from social influence theory, that may gener-ate the Matthew effect. Thus, we propose a theoretical framework that may explain why the most popular songs were much more popular, and the least popular songs were much less popular, than when disallowing social influence between individuals.

  • 21. Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Bask, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Social influence and the Matthew mechanism: The case of an artificial cultural market2014In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 412, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that the Matthew effect, or Matthew mechanism, was present in the artificial cultural market Music Lab in one-fourth of the "worlds" when social influence between individuals was allowed, whereas this effect was not present in the "world" that disallowed social influence between individuals. We also sketch on a class of social network models, derived from social influence theory, that may generate the Matthew effect. Thus, we propose a theoretical framework that may explain why the most popular songs could be much more popular, and the least popular songs could be much less popular, than when disallowing social influence between individuals.

  • 22. Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Salmela-Aro, Katariina
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Pathways to educational attainment in middle adulthood: the role of gender and parental educational expectations in adolescence2014In: Gender Differences in Aspirations and Attainment: A Life Course Perspective / [ed] Schoon, I.; Eccles, J. S., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2014, p. 389-411Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we apply the expectancy-value model of motivation, particularly the family socialization aspect of the model (Eccles (Parsons) et al., 1983; Eccles, 1994, 2007; Wigfield & Eccles, 2002) to address a number of key questions regarding gender differences in adult attainment, in particular educational attainment. When some individuals in the work force of today were children, what kinds of expectations did they have for themselves? What expectations did their parents have for them? Did these expectations vary for girls and boys? Were parents' expectations about their children's future education related to the actual education that these adolescents later attained in midlife? How did the child's academic ability and characteristics of the family figure into this picture? We present original empirical findings, drawing on data collected for a Swedish longitudinal study that spans from childhood to middle adulthood. In line with the expectancy-value model of motivation, the family's socioeconomic status (SES) was identified as an important predictor of several outcomes. Consistent with the model, for both genders, the family's SES and parental educational expectations in middle adolescence predicted middle adult educational attainment. The importance of grades differed by gender in that the mathematics grade was a statistically significant predictor of middle adult educational attainment for males, while for females grades in Swedish were a statistically significant predictor of middle adult educational attainment. In this chapter, we situated these study findings in the wider pertinent scholarly literature and discussed the implications of our results as they might relate to efforts to promote equitable and optimal life chances for the current generation of European girls and boys.

  • 23.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Department of Social Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Department of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salmela-Aro, Katariina
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Department of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pathways to Educational Attainment in Middle Adulthood: The Role of Gender and Parental Educational Expectations in Adolescence2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Norwegian Social Research (NOVA), Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Ristikari, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Haapakorva, Pasi
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gissler, Mika
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Patterns of Childhood Economic Hardship and Early Adulthood Obstacles2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a vast literature investigating the effects of childhood living conditions, there are few studies that investigate the significance of the timing of economic hardship during childhood. This study used the 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort - including all children born in Finland in 1987 (N=59,476) to explore the patterns of childhood economic hardship. Sequence analysis was utilized to extract the patterns of economic hardship, measured as social assistance recipiency (SA). This resulted in five clusters: No SA at all; Occasional SA; Occasional SA, more during early 2000’s; Occasional SA, more during the 1990’s, and Moderate to heavy SA throughout. We then examined the relationship between childhood economic hardship patterns and five different later adolescence and early adulthood outcomes: Cohort members own adulthood SA recipiency, Psychiatric care, Criminal convictions, Early school leaving and Teenage pregnancy (for girls). We found strong relationships between all these outcomes and childhood economic hardship patterns. For example, regression analyses with No SA at all as a reference category showed large OR, especially regarding cohort members own adulthood SA. It seemed also that later childhood economic hardship was more harmful than the earlier economic hardship regarding adulthood SA recipiency.

  • 25.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Norwegian Social Research (NOVA), Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Ristikari, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Haapakorva, Pasi
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gissler, Mika
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Timing and Duration of Childhood Economic Hardship and Early Adulthood Obstacles2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Norwegian Social Research, Norway, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Ristikari, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Hautakoski, Ari
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Gissler, Mika
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Psychiatric diagnoses as grounds for disability pension among former child welfare clients2017In: Lotus international, ISSN 1124-9064, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 365-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Department of Social Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Salmela-Aro, Katariina
    Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Burned out to drop out: Exploring the relationship between school burnout and school dropout2013In: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 511-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the development of school burnout among Finnish youth aged 16-18, specifically with regard to the following three components: a cynical attitude toward the school, feelings of inadequacy as a student, and exhaustion at school. There is evidence of an increase in all three components over time, but only among students on the academic track. There appear to be differences in burnout levels between those who drop out from school and those who do not, and the risk of an individual with high levels of cynicism or feelings of inadequacy dropping out is clearly higher than among those who score low on these two components. When various explanatory variables are controlled for, cynicism still remains a significant factor explaining drop out, and a low grade point average appears to be a major explanatory variable for school dropout. This study is especially interesting in the context of Finland, known for its equality-striving and high-quality educational system. Finnish youth, compared with youth in many other countries, nevertheless have a low level of in-school well-being. We use the Finnish Educational Transitions data (N = 878) collected in four waves, the first three on an annual basis and the fourth 5 years after the first one.

  • 28.
    Halleröd, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective2008In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central aim of the present paper is to analyse the degree to which welfare problems accumulate over time and to what extent such an accumulation is related to class position and household formation. We utilize longitudinal data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, following a panel that was first interviewed in 1979 and, thereafter, re-interviewed three times (1986–87, 1994–95 and 2002–03). We use structural equation modelling to extract latent deprivation indexes based on seven manifest indicators. Thereafter, the indexes are used as input values in a latent growth curve (LGC) model when estimating an intercept variable and a slope variable. We finally estimate two structural models. In the first model, the relation over time between class position, class mobility and deprivation are estimated, and the second model deals with the relationship between household types, change of household type and deprivation. Several interesting results can be reported. We find a strong relationship between the deprivation indexes over time. The LGC model can also confirm a positive relationship between deprivation intercept and deprivation slope. That is, individuals who score high on the deprivation index from the beginning are increasingly prone to accumulate additional welfare problems over time. The analysis also reveals a clear class gradient as well as effects of class mobility. In addition, it is shown that deprivation affects class mobility, meaning that we can confirm selection effects. Also household constellation and changes of household type are closely connected to deprivation and changes in deprivation over time. The analysis reveals selection effects even in this case.

  • 29.
    Tronstad, Kristian
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, OsloMet- Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Nygaard, Marit Owren
    Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, OsloMet- Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Bask, Miia
    NOVA, OsloMet- Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Accumulation of welfare problems among immigrants in Norway2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses a large-scale survey of living conditions among immigrants in Norway. Data were collected by Statistics Norway in 2016 and covered 12 of the largest immigrant groups in Norway. This aim of the present report is analyse the kinds of welfare problems experienced by immigrants. Which immigrants accumulate most welfare problems? What are the main predictors of welfare problems among immigrants in Norway? How does the accumulation of welfare problems relate to general life satisfaction among immigrants? In addition, we compare the accumulation of welfare problems among immigrants with the total population.

    An early draft of this report was presented at the International Forum on Migration Statistics 2018, in Paris in January. A more recent draft was presented internally at a seminar for migration researchers at Oslo Metropolitan University. We would like to thank participants at both events for constructive and valuable feedback. This project was commissioned and financed by the Directorate of Integration and Diversity (IMDi). We would like to thank IMDi for making possible this interesting and challenging project, and especially Anja Wedde Sveen and Eivind Hageberg, both at IMDi, for cooperation underway. Project leader has been Kristian Rose Tronstad of the Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, NIBR. Tronstad has conducted the statistical analyses and written most of the report. Marit Nygaard at NIBR has contributed on analysis and discussion of the results. Miia Bask at Norwegian Social Research, NOVA, has written about the theory of accumulation of welfare problems in Chapter 3.

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