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  • 1.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Belleza y utilidad: La cultura material2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Volym 3 i en polyvokal etnografi ('Etnografía 'weenhayek) med inriktning på materiell kultur. Arbetet är baserat på tre etnografiska samlingar från Världskulturmuseet i Göteborg och har syftet att skildra förändring och kontinuitet i den materiella kulturen hos indianfolket 'weenhayek under 1900-talet.

  • 2.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Campear y pescar: La organización socio-económica y política2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Este volumen ofrece una descripción detallada y diacrónica de la organización económica, social, política, y jurídica de los ‘weenhayek — cazadores y recolectores del bosque tropical seco del Chaco boliviano. El relato se inicia con una revisión crítica de las principales fuentes etnográficas sobre los pueblos del Chaco y, después de las secciones sobre el medio ambiente y la historia local, se presenta un intento de reconstruir la organización socio-económica de la ‘weenhayek antes de la colonización de la zona, es decir, antes del siglo XX. Además, sobre la base de las notas de campo del autor de más de seis años entre los ‘weenhayek, nuevos datos etnográficos están incluidos y nuestro conocimiento de este pueblo puesto al día.    Los datos demuestran que, a pesar de los cambios sociales evidentes, y en contraste con otros pueblos indígenas de la región, los ‘weenhayek han negado a ser integrados a la sociedad nacional, sino han elegido un “desarrollo alternativo”. Recientemente han sido capaces de reconstruir rasgos de su tradicional organización socio-económica que han estado ausentes desde la calamitosa Guerra del Chaco de los años 1930. Este tradicionalismo se caracteriza por la perpetuación de lo que se percibe como valores ‘weenhayek, mantiene una fuerte identidad étnica y una noción de continuidad cultural. Esto ha sido posible debido a la lentitud de la colonización, la organización social flexible basado en las alianzas entre pequeñas unidades independientes bilaterales, la independencia económica gracias a la comercialización de artesanía y la pesca, y la afirmación de derechos legales de partes de su antiguo territorio.

  • 3.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    De armonía a fuerza: La religión en una perspectiva diacrónica2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Este libro ofrece un panorama de la religión tradicional y pentecostal 'weenhayek, y la transición entre las dos. En la tradicional el elemento de chamanismo juega un rol importante. Sin embargo, existe también una serie de actividades que corresponde al individuo, por ejemplo la negociación con los guardianes de la naturaleza. En el pentecostalismo esta relación entre el individuo y la dimensión esotérica se desarrolla aún más. Los testimonios incluidos en este volumen refieren a ambas tradiciones y sugieren una continuidad religiosa más que una ruptura.

  • 4.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    El individuo y el ambiente: Cosmología, etnobiología y etnomedicina2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Volym 6 i en polyvokal etnografi från 'weenhayek-folket i Gran Chaco, Sydamerika. Arbetet skildrar kosmologi, etnobiologi och etnomedicin hos detta folk. Språk och klassifikation står i fokus.

  • 5.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Héroes y pícaros: Introducción al mundo mítico2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vol. 7 i en polyvokal etnografi om 'weenhayek-folket i Gran Chaco, Sydamerika. Arbetet beskriver, klassificerar och analyserar drygt 700 myter från detta indianfolk, varav cirka 400 är insamlade av författaren. De senare finns transkriberade och översatta i Volym 8 och 9 i serien.

  • 6.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Màànhyejas el narrador: Las historias de Thokwjwaj y ‘Ahuutsetajwaj2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    En este libro se presentan 114 narraciones dedicadas a dos figuras prominentes de la mitología ‘weenhayek, contadas por un solo narrador, el finado Celestino Màànhyejas Gómez. Este hombre literario, sin par entre los ‘weenhayek, cuenta 81 historias del pícaro Thokwjwaj y 33 del héroe cultural ‘Ahuutsetajwaj. Los cuentos resaltan en detalle y riqueza narrativa. Juntos constituyen un retrato de un protagonista de una generación literaria que jamás vuelva.    Esta obra es de especial valor ya que profundiza nuestro conocimiento de una cultura del Gran Chaco Boreal en una manera singular, en especial de la tradición oral, pero también del mundo mítico y hasta cognitivo de los ‘weenhayek. El conocimiento amplio de Màànhyejas de  su propia cultura ha sido una precondición necesaria para la producción de este material de tanta importancia para el americanismo en general y el conocimiento del Gran Chaco en particular.

  • 7.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    ‘Nuestro Camino’: Etnohistoria e historia2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Volym 2 i en polyvokal etnografi från 'weenhayek-folket i södra Bolivia och norra Argentina. Första avdelningen består av transkriberad etnohistoria; andra avdelningen av konventionell lokal historia med fokus på 'weenhayek-folket och dess indianska grannars historia.

  • 8.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Por la malla de una llica: Material y simbolismo en los tejidos de caraguatá2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Volym 4 i en polyvokal etnografi (Etnografía 'weenhayek) om 'weenhayek-folket i Gran Chaco, Sydamerika. Arbetet är en studie av fiberhantverket, dess användning och dess symbolik hos detta folk. Ett par bromelia-arter används för att tillverka tråd, snören, redskap, bärnät, kläder och väskor. Männens samlarväskor, som har flest och mest särpräglade mönster står i fokus för analysen. Arbetet är ett försök att försöka spegla en kultur genom ett av dess föremål ett "ethnographical key object".

  • 9.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Un tesoro cultural: La literatura oral2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    En este volumen se representa la variedad enorme de las narraciones ‘weenhayek. En contraste a Vol. 8, esta obra contiene cuentos de siete colaboradores ‘weenhayek, hombres y mujeres, jóvenes y ancianos. Además no se restringe a solamente los cuentos de pícaros o heroes culturales, aunque ellos también han sido representados, sino que incluye narraciones sobre orígenes, relaciones cosmológicas, historias de animales y historias fantásticas. En total, demuestra con certeza, la riqueza enorme del tesoro cultural y literario ‘weenhayek.

  • 10.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Ver y aprender: Efectos socioculturales de la educación tradicional y bilingüe.2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Volym 5 i en polyvokal etnografi om 'weenhayek-folket i Gran Chaco-området i södra Bolivia. Arbetet koncentreras på inlärning, uppfostran och skolgång hos dessa indianer under tre tidsperioder - den traditionella, den koloniala och den moderna (med tvåspråksundervisning).

  • 11.
    Helgesson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    "Walking in the Spirit": The Complexity of Belonging in Two Pentecostal Churches in Durban, South Africa2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on anthropological fieldwork carried out in the two Pentecostal congregations Red Hill and Olive Tree in Durban, South Africa, this dissertation discusses the complexity of the experience of belonging among the members. Red Hill is a ‘coloured’ congregation, while Olive Tree is ‘white’; a fact that in present-day South Africa still is of significance for the experience of belonging. With a phenomenological perspective on belonging, the dissertation discusses the aspects of home-making, balance and control, and emphasises how the experience of belonging includes both a temporal and a spatial dimension, as well as experiences of fear and hope.

    The following aspects of belonging are discussed: the experience of living in apartheid South Africa as a ‘coloured’ and ‘white’ and how these experiences continue to affect individuals; the conversion experience as an experience of ‘coming home’, existentially and socially through the belonging to a congregation; gendered aspects of the belonging experience in the context of the two congregations; different ways that the Pentecostal conviction are manifested in local and global social work and outreach; how the interpretation of ‘Israel’ works as a symbol of home-coming and belonging, though invoked in different ways in the two congregations. Inherent to these various experiences of belonging are power dynamics at different levels. These aspects point to the experience of belonging as an intersubjective experience that empowers both the individual and the collective.

    While the future is often stressed in the Pentecostal discourse and in much of the literature on Pentecostalism, this dissertation suggests the importance of taking past experiences into account when trying to understand how Pentecostalism manifests itself.

  • 12.
    Hellmark Lindgren, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Pregnoscape: Den gravida kroppen som arena för motstridiga perspektiv på risk, kön och medicinsk teknik2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pregnancy and birth are not only physiological processes but also socially and culturally organized events. Pregnancy is an individual experience as well as the focus of collective concerns and values. In this dissertation the pregnant body is understood as an arena of social truths and contesting perspectives: a public stage where different perspectives on medical technology, risk and gender are acted out. Swedish maternity care dominates the arena, and women have to adjust to the authority of medical knowledge. This, however, does not mean that women comply without questions. As the study shows they struggle for voice and agency which is reflected in pregnant women’s differing views and uses of biomedical knowledge and technology. Although the discourse on pregnancy and birth is highly ideological and marked by strong opinions, pregnant women in practice tend to be motivated by pragmatics rather than ideology. In order to understand the complexities and nuances of reproductive culture in Sweden, we need to move beyond distinctions such as the one between technology and the body, and instead focus on the experiential world of pregnant women in which technology is an integral part in everyday life and therefore taken for granted rather than problematised. The thesis is based on fieldwork at a maternity care center and interviews with pregnant women. Furthermore, discussion groups on the Internet and debates in mass media have been valuable sources of information.

  • 13.
    Hole, Elizabeth Åsa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Neither Here - Nor There: An Anthropological Study of Gujarati Hindu Women in the diaspora2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1950s, a wave of migrants left India to find work in the West. Many never returned, but instead settled in the West. There were also many Asians who left to live in East African countries. In the beginning of the 1970s, Idi Amin decided to finalise the Africanisation of Uganda. Other East African nations were also part of this trend. At that time, several thousand Asians were expelled. Among these people were many Gujarati Hindus, all with their roots in Gujarat in the north-western part of India. By various routes and in different waves of relocation, some of these people came to find new homes, for example in Britain and Sweden.

    With respect to Gujarati Hindu diaspora groups in Coventry, Britain, and Mariestad, Sweden, the author aims to answer the questions: Which factors affected what, how, or why they decided to keep or abandon some of their culture and religious traditions? How much of this process happened by choice, and how much was based on necessity due to time and circumstance? How has the size of the group of settlers, in relation to the majority living in those places, affected their choices? How might the size of the local diasporic community itself come to influence their cultural maintenance?

    In this thesis the author focuses mainly on the aspects of identity that are found in gender discourse (women’s roles) and the diaspora discourse among Gujarati Hindu women. This is done in relation to cosmology addressed to a gender discourse on how gender roles are changing in diaspora when confronted with the modern world. The main contribution is therefore not to ethnicity and identity theory in general, but in demonstrating the different determiners affecting the lives of Gujarati Hindu women in the diaspora.

  • 14.
    Jernsletten, Johnny-Leo Ludviksen
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    "Med rett til å gjete...": Utfordringer og muligheter i Liehittäjä konsesjonssameby2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Phd-thesis focuses upon the unique reindeer management system in Kalix- and Torne Valley (Swedish: Tornedalen) – the concession reindeer management system – small in territorial extent, yet highly significant in principle. The concession reindeer management system is interesting in several different ways. It has an interesting historical development – a development that differs from the development within Lappmarken. Furthermore, a development of the legal framework connected to the concession reindeer management system has taken place, and the traditional “vérdde”-relations have been revitalized and modernized, through the contract reindeer system. This system could also be described as an “embedded” management system.

    The concept of the concession management system means that there exists a concession or permission to stay year-around in the Kalix- and Torne Valleys, in other words below the Lappmark border. The legal basis for the concession reindeer management system is connected to the Sámi reindeer herding rights (Sw: renskötselsrätt) through a Sámi concession holder, while the right to use this area, especially the right to use the summer pastures, is connected with the contract reindeer owners’ private ownership of land. The concession reindeer management system could therefore be viewed as both a cultural cornerstone and an industry based upon a Sámi and a local customary law and private property in Tornedalen. The concession, given from the government, is a time-limited permission (1-10 years) involving the Swedish government, one or several Sámi concession holders, and indirectly, the private land owners (the contract reindeer owners).

    One of the significant differences from the Sámi reindeer managemnt system is the role of the contract reindeer owner as a reindeer herding member of the concession Sámi village. The concession reindeer management system is of unique interest, because it offers an opportunity to look into a management system that, compared to other reindeer management systems, is different in history, in legal framework, and in local management practice. It offers solutions to many of the challenges the industry faces today.

  • 15.
    Lutz, Peter A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Tinkering Care Moves: Senior Home Care in Practice2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation builds on the current anthropological studies of care relations in practice. It draws inspiration from science and technology studies (STS) and postfeminist technoscience. A qualitative ethnographic approach grounds the empirical data collection and analysis. This entails ethnographic fieldwork with senior home care in the United States and Sweden during 2007–2008 and 2011–2012. Analytical attention centers on how movements situate various tensions of senior home care in practice. Four interrelated published works comprise the main thematic chapters. Each article exemplifies how human and nonhuman relations move and mediate care. They develop several heuristic terms that advance ideas about how older people, aging bodies, technologies, spaces, and times that tinker each other through movements of care in practice. The comprehensive summary frames these articles with an overview of the primary thematic orientations and methodological concerns. A discussion of the main contributions and implications of the dissertation concludes the work.

    List of papers
    1. Clutter Moves in Old Age Homecare
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clutter Moves in Old Age Homecare
    2010 (English)In: New Technologies and Emerging Spaces of Care / [ed] Michael Schillmeier, Farnham: Ashgate, 2010, p. 77-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the notion of 'clutter moves' as an experimental heuristic for tracing how movement threads together a range of messy entities in old age homecare ecologies including older people and their technical arrangements. It is based on empirical data originating from an ethnographic study of old age homecare in the United States. Here the category of home clutter was revealed as more complex than it is commonly portrayed in popular or scholarly accounts, especially gerontology and geriatric–related literature on risk. This literature frequently cites general household clutter as a hazard in the domestic environment. In such reports moving around with cluttered things tends to threaten a dangerous outcome for older people. But what other possibilities emerge when analytical attention focuses on relational movements between older people and their cluttered collections of homely things? The chapter suggests that the moves between collecting and distributing clutter must be considered. For instance, it highlights how home clutter can afford older people additional movements that are not readily apparent. The chapter ends with reflections on the notion of clutter technology to extend the heuristic of clutter moves and help rethink conceptual assumptions about new technologies for home care.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Farnham: Ashgate, 2010
    Keywords
    United States, elderly, home care, technology
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Social Anthropology Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Cultural Anthropology; Health Care Research; Human-Computer Interaction; Caring Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292762 (URN)9780754678649 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-01-10
    2. Surfacing Moves: Spatial-Timings of Senior Home Care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surfacing Moves: Spatial-Timings of Senior Home Care
    2013 (English)In: Social Analysis: Journal of Cultural and Social Practice, ISSN 0155-977X, E-ISSN 1558-5727, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 80-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Like many countries, Sweden faces the challenge of population aging and senior care. Compared with institutionalized health care, senior home care offers a viable option, promising familiar surroundings and lower costs. However, those performing senior home care sometimes resist time management policies that pressure such care in practice. Some scholars analyze this situation as opposition between ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ time. This article takes a different route. It explores how time surfaces in Swedish senior home care through relational movements of care. These enlist things such as schedules, machines, and aging bodies. To this end, the article also experiments with ‘surfacing’ as an ethnographic heuristic for figuring the coming togeher of different times and spaces of care. The article concludes that surfacing matters not only in senior home care but also in the field-desk of ethnographic analysis.

    Keywords
    ethnography, elderly, home care, socio-material relations, spatial-timings, surfacing, Sweden, time management
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects Social Anthropology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Cultural Anthropology; Human-Computer Interaction; Caring Sciences; Health Care Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292766 (URN)10.3167/sa.2013.570106 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-01-10
    3. Multivalent moves in senior home care: From surveillance to care-valence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multivalent moves in senior home care: From surveillance to care-valence
    2015 (English)In: Anthropology & Aging, ISSN 2374-2267, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 145-163Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of care argue that it is a relational phenomenon, whereby human and nonhuman entities enter into transformative relations. In this light, different entities of care potentially mediate one another in practice, sometimes with surprising and unforeseen effects. In this article, I trace a similar argument. Drawing on ethnographic material from Sweden and the United States, I proffer that careful attentions to older people at home produce multivalent moves with transformative effects. Increasingly, such attentions encompass new technologies to monitor and observe aging bodies. On this topic, the healthcare literature often invokes the idea of care surveillance. Certainly, surveillance can offer a valuable analytical purchase in the study of care. Yet, care attentions are not always straightforward. Rather, the moving around of aging bodies with technologies can obstruct and transform care and its attentions. At the same time, care attentions can also obstruct and transform aging bodies and their technologies. I argue that the existence of these multivalent, somatechnic moves challenges the notion of surveillance in care. To strengthen this argument, I draw on STS-inspired anthropological studies of care. In turn, I also develop the heuristic term “care-valence”. The key advantage with this term, I proffer, is that it offers an analytical compliment to the notion of care surveillance and helps refocus the analysis on multivalent moves in care. 

    Keywords
    Aging Bodies, Care Technology, Home Care, Surveillance, Sweden, United States
    National Category
    Social Anthropology Information Systems, Social aspects Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292800 (URN)10.5195/aa.2015.105 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-01-10
    4. Comparative Tinkering with Care Moves
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Tinkering with Care Moves
    2016 (English)In: Practicing Comparison. Revitalizing the Comparative Act / [ed] Deville, J. et al., Manchester: Mattering Press , 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter stems from ethnographic fieldwork in the United States and Sweden. This work traces relations between people and technology as they come together in gatherings or socio-technical collectives for care. These hetergenious collectives situate interrelated consequences for the human and nonhuman actors concerned, but these are rarely smooth. Instead, they comprise ongoing tensions or frictions, which situate multiple acts of negotiation or tinkering. In this way, 'care moves' offers a conceptual-empirical figure for fine-tuning ethnographic attention to care as a rough and tinkered process. It denotes an analytical emphasis on care as a mediating phenomenon interwoven with collective relations on the move, empirically and conceptually, that entai both effects and affects. At the same time, the chapter does not seek a standardised social scientific comparison of two national healthcare systems. Rather than rely on established categories, it focuses on how to ethnographically tinker together - and thus care with - transnational comparisons in a more fluid manner. As such, it seeks an experimental and ethnographic approach sensitive to the specific ways care moves with its collective relations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Manchester: Mattering Press, 2016
    Keywords
    research methods, comparison, ethnography, senior home care, Sweden, United States
    National Category
    Social Anthropology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292803 (URN)978-0-9931449-0-5 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-01-10
  • 16.
    Provenzano, Fabio
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    “It is all about territory”: A study of a segregated group of Roma in Rome, Italy2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On 25th July 2008 to 4th November 2011 the Italian government activated a state of emergency due to the presence of ‘nomadic encampments’ throughout the nation, leading to the current urbanising plan named ‘The Nomad Plan’. The main objective of this plan is to transfer 6,000 Roma into 13 authorised camps monitored by guards and 24h video-cameras, located outside Rome's perimeter.

    The purpose of this research, based on field work conducted in Rome, Italy from January to March of 2013, is to understand the segregation of a group of ex-Yugoslavian Roma. To do so, the aim of the essay is to analyse the relationship between Roma and social cooperatives. The latter are brokers between Roma and government, being outsourced NGOs providing service to include Roma groups into society. Fieldwork was based on interviews and two months' participant observation in a volunteer social service agency located near a Roma settlement.

    Significant issues that emerged from the research are the strengthening of territorial struggle and control between Roma families prompted by policies geared towards the building of leadership. Moreover, the thesis argues that the reinforcement of segregation is mostly due to Roma dependence on service given inside settlements. Lastly, humanitarianism is likely to be the main framework guiding social cooperatives' practice and discourse on Roma people in Italy. 

  • 17.
    Smekal, Peter
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    The Threatened Paradise: Tourism on a Greek Island2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about attitudes and practices of foreign tourists in Ólymbos, a village in the north of the Greek island of Kárpathos. Based upon several periods of fieldwork from 1999 to 2005, it focuses on the discomfort with tourism and the tourist role which is shared by many holidaymakers, and which also can be found in various types of representations of the area. The fact that these ‘anti-tourist’ notions are so prominent in Ólymbos has partially to do with the special character of the village, and with the development of tourism in itself. Until the end of the 1980s Kárpathos received relatively few, mostly independently travelling tourists, often returning year after year. Especially the secluded north of the island was the more or less exclusive domain of foreign visitors appreciating its ‘off the beaten track’ and ‘traditional’ character. Since then mass tourism has slowly been encroaching, with Ólymbos becoming a sightseeing attraction.

    The analysis of different tourist activities illustrates, moreover, tourism’s significance as an arena for the confirmation and display of lifestyles, and for the reproduction of ‘social distinctions’ among vacationers and other ‘voluntary strangers’. ‘Anti-tourism’ – trying to demonstrate to oneself and others that one is not a ‘tourist’ by, among other things, overtly criticizing tourism and tourists – is a way of confirming one’s self-image as ‘non-tourist’, and of boosting one’s prestige in the eyes of others. This is not only a matter of verbally displaying attitudes; it is also a question of role-playing. One result of this study is that an important anti-tourist role model in places like Ólymbos is ‘the resident’, rather than ‘the traveller’.

    Putting the case of ‘anti-tourism’ among the foreign visitors to northern Kárpathos into further theoretical context, the thesis discusses the importance of the strong anti-tourist current in Western culture. It is argued that Romanticism, with its idealized individualism, its rejection of modern mass society, its nostalgic yearning for the past, and its fascination with exotic ‘counterworlds’, is a key to the paradoxes of tourism and the source of its self-contradictory illusions, as well as a vital link between ‘anti-tourism’ and anthropology.

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