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  • 1.
    Aalto, Aino-Maija
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Childcare - A safety net for children? 2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how access to childcare affects health outcomes of children with unemployed parents using a reform that increased childcare access in some Swedish municipalities. For 4–5 year olds, we find an immediate increase in infection-related hospitalization, when these children first get access to childcare. We find no effect on younger children. When children are 10–11 years of age, children who did not have access to childcare when parents were unemployed are more likely to take medication for respiratory conditions. Taken together, our results thus suggest that access to childcare exposes children to risks for infections, but that need for medication in school age is lower for children who had access.

  • 2.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Job Polarization and Task-Biased Technological Change: Sweden, 1975–20052011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the connection between the Swedish wage profile of net job creation and Autor, Levy, and Murnane’s (2003) proposed substitutability between routine tasks and technology. We first show that between 1975 and 2005, Sweden exhibited a pattern of job polarization with expansions of the highest and lowest paid jobs compared to middle-wage jobs. We then use cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of job-specific employment to map out the importance of routine versus nonroutine tasks for these changes. Results are consistent with substitutability between routine tasks and technology as an important explanation for the observed job polarization during the 1990s and 2000s, but not during the 1970s and 1980s. In particular, the overrepresentation of routine tasks in middle-wage jobs can potentially explain 44 percent of the growth of low-wage jobs relative to middle-wage jobs after 1990 but largely lacks explanatory power in earlier years.

  • 3.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Piracy, Music, and Movies: A Natural Experiment2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effects of illegal file sharing (piracy) on music and movie sales. The Swedish implementation of the European Union directive IPRED on April 1, 2009 suddenly increased the risk of being caught and prosecuted for file sharing. We investigate the subsequent drop in piracy as approximated by the drop in Swedish Internet traffic and the effects on music and movie sales in Sweden. We find that the reform decreased Internet traffic by 18 percent during the subsequent six months. It also increased sales of physical music by 27 percent and digital music by 48 percent. Furthermore, it had no significant effects on the sales of theater tickets or DVD movies. The results indicate that pirated music is a strong substitute for legal music whereas the substitutability is less for movies.

  • 4.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Voter Turnout and the Size of Government2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the causal link between voter turnout and policy outcomes related to the size of government. Tax rate and public expenditures are the focal policy outcomes in this study. To capture the causal mechanism, Swedish and Finnish municipal data are used and a constitutional change in Sweden in 1970 is applied as an instrument for voter turnout in local elections. In 1970, Sweden moved from having separate election days for dierent levels of government, among other things, to a system with a single election day for political elections, thus reducing the cost associated with voting. This constitutional reform increased voter turnout in local elections in Sweden. The overall conclusion of this paper is that higher voter turnout yields higher municipal taxes and larger local public expenditures. Second, there is some evidence that higher turnout decreases the vote share for right-wing parties.

  • 5.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Effects Of Decentralization On School Resources: Sweden 1989-20022007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its school sector which, con- sequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether school resources became more un- equally distributed across municipalities in connection with the reforms and if local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local school resources differently as decentralization took place. Using municipal data the paper studies how per pupil spending and the teacher-pupil ratio has evolved over the period 1989– 2002, separating between three different waves of decentralization. As nothing much has happened with per pupil spending, the teacher-pupil ratio has become more evenly distributed across municipalities. Municipal tax base affects per pupil spending in the same way regardless of whether the school sector is cen- tralized or decentralized, but has a smaller effect on teacher-pupil ratio after the reforms. The less targeted grants are, the fewer teachers per pupil do the mu- nicipalities employ. The results for local preferences are less clear cut.

  • 6. Aksoy, Yunus
    et al.
    Basso, Henrique S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Coto-Martinez, Javier
    Lending Relationships and Monetary Policy2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial intermediation and bank spreads are important elements in the analysis of business cycle transmission and monetary policy. We present a simple framework that introduces lending relationships, a relevant feature of financial intermediation that has been so far neglected in the monetary economics literature, into a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with staggered prices and cost channels. Our main findings are: (i) banking spreads move countercyclically generating amplified output responses, (ii) spread movements are important for monetary policy making even when a standard Taylor rule is employed (iii) modifying the policy rule to include a banking spread adjustment improves stabilization of shocks and increases welfare when compared to rules that only respond to output gap and inflation, and finally (iv) the presence of strong lending relationships in the banking sector can lead to indeterminacy of equilibrium forcing the central bank to react to spread movements.

  • 7.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Monetary Policy and Swedish Unemployment Fluctuations2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely spread belief among economists is that monetary policy has relatively short-lived effects on real variables such as unemployment. Previous studies indicate that monetary policy affects the output gap only at business cycle frequencies, but the effects on unemployment may well be more persistent in countries with highly regulated labor markets. We study the Swedish experience of unemployment and monetary policy. Using a structural VAR we find that around 30 percent of the fluctuations in unemployment are caused by shocks to monetary policy. The effects are also quite persistent. In the preferred model, almost 30 percent of the maximum effect of a shock still remains after ten years.

  • 8.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Post, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Cointegration And The Stabilizing Role Of Exchange Rates2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that empirical results concerning the behavior of áoating exchange rates di§er between otherwise identical cointegrated and non-cointegrated VAR models. In particular, virtually all ten-year movements in nominal exchange rates are due to fundamental supply and demand shocks when long run equilibrium relationships between the levels of the variables are included in the empirical speciÖcation. Another major di§erence between the models with the opposite im- plication for the shock creation versus shock absorption debate is that non-fundamental exchange rate shocks have much larger e§ects on output and ináation in the cointegrated models. Finally, impulse re- sponse functions in the Örst di§erence speciÖcation die out within a year whereas adjustment to long run equilibrium continues for up to ten years in the cointegrated models. Hence a correct speciÖcation of the long-run equilibrium dynamics of exchange rates is essential for capturing also short-run behavior of exchange rates.

  • 9.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Post, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Exchange Rates and Asymmetric Shocks in Small Open Economies2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    If floating exchange rates stabilize shocks rather than create shocks, a country that joins a monetary union or fixes its exchange rate looses a stabilizing mechanism. We use a first difference structural VAR on trade weighted macroeconomic data to study the role of floating ex- change rates for five "small open economies" with inflation targets. By including both domestic and foreign variables and using a combination of long and short-run restrictions, we identify asymmetric shocks more carefully than previous studies. Only in Sweden and Canada does the nominal exchange rate appreciate significantly in response to asym- metric demand shocks and depreciate to asymmetric supply shocks. Most exchange rate movements are caused by speculation and are not responses to fundamental shocks. However, these exchange rate shocks have negligible effects on output and inflation. Our findings indicate that exchange rates are neither stabilizing nor destabilizing but may be loosely characterized as disconnected from the rest of the economy.

  • 10.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Welz, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Can a time-varying equilibrium real interest rate explain the excess sensitivity puzzle?2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong response of long-term interest rates to macroeconomic shocks has typically been explained in terms of informational asymme- tries between the central bank and private agents. The standard mod- els assume that the equilibrium real interest rate is constant over time and independent of structural shocks. We incorporate time-variation in the equilibrium real interest rate as function of structural shocks to e.g. productivity and demand. This extended model implies that forward interest rates at long horizons move about 40 basis points as the short-term interest rate increases one percentage point. In terms of regressions of changes in long-term interest rates on changes in the short-term interest rate, including a time-varying equilibrium real in- terest rate explains about half of the puzzle.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Teacher density and student achievement in Swedish compulsory schools2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how student achievement is affected by resource increases in the Swedish compulsory school due to a special government grant that was enforced in the academic year of 2001/02. The analysis is based on register data that contains all students that completed compulsory schooling (ninth grade) between 1998 and 2005. The results show that socio- economic variables explain a great deal of the variation in student achievement. The study also shows that the increased resources have not had a statistical significant positive effect on the average student’s achievement. This conclusion holds true when different measures of student achievement are used. Increased resources have however improved student achievement for students with low educated parents. If teacher density is increased with 10 percent students with low educated parents are expected to increase their grade point average ranking with about 0.4 percentile units.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Ethnic Enclaves, Self-Employment and the Economic Performance of Refugees2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I estimate the causal effect of ethnic enclaves on the probability of self-employment. To account for neighborhood selection I make use of a refugee dispersal program. Results indicate that larger ethnic enclaves, measured as the share of self-employed coethnics in the municipality immigrants first arrive into, effects the probability of self-employment positively, while the share of all other coethnics has a negative effect. Results however also indicate that there is a long term economic penalty to being placed with a larger share of self-employed coethnics, an effect which is partly mediated through the choice of selfemployment.

  • 13.
    Ando, Michihito
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Estimating the effects of nuclear power facilities on local income levels: A quasi-experimental approach2013Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ando, Michihito
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    How Much Should We Trust Regression-Kink-Design Estimates?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Regression Kink (RK) design with a finite sample, a confounding smooth nonlinear relationship between an assignment variable and an outcome variable around a threshold can be spuriously picked up as a kink and result in a biased estimate. In order to investigate how well RK designs handle such confounding nonlinearity, I firstly implement Monte Carlo simulations and then study the effect of fiscal equalization grants on local expenditure using a RK design. Results suggest that RK estimation with a confounding nonlinearity often suffers from bias or imprecision and estimates are credible only when relevant covariates are controlled for.

  • 15.
    Ando, Michihito
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Japan.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Engström, Gustav
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics.
    The Risks of Nuclear Disaster and Its Impact on Housing Prices2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a data set on housing sales transactions we explore the potentialeeffct of the Fukushima disaster on housing prices in Sweden. Incontrast to most earlier findings in other countries we do not find anydisproportionate effect from the Fukushima disaster on housing prices in vicinity of nuclear power plants in Sweden.

  • 16.
    Angelov, Nikolay
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Modelling Firm Mergers As A Roommate Problem2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a way to model firm mergers using a matching game known as the roommate problem, whereby firms are assumed to make preference rankings of po- tential merger partners. The position of a firm in another firm’s ranking is assumed to be governed by an index, which in turn consists of a deterministic part and of a stochastic one, similar to the latent indices used in standard discrete-choice models. Given all firms’ preferences, game-theoretic mechanisms lead to a matching whereby each firm is either self-matched or assigned a merger partner. We derive expressions for the probability of a merger between a specific firm pair, and also a log-likelihood function for estimation using firm-specific data. Using a simulation in a setting with groups of three firms involved in roommate games within each group, the model’s finite-sample properties are examined.

  • 17.
    Angelov, Nikolay
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Structural Breaks In Iron-Ore Prices: The Impact Of The 1973 Oil Crisis2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the time-series properties of the price of iron ore. The focus is on testing a unit-root null hypothesis against a trend-stationary alternative, with a structural break allowed under both hypotheses. We consider unit-root tests with or without structural breaks, applied on historical prices of five different qualities of Swedish and Brazilian iron ore. New and more accurate critical values for the exogenous-break tests are calculated, and several of the asymptotic tests are accompanied by their bootstrap counterparts due to the limited sample sizes.

    Using unit-root tests allowing for an exogenous structural break in 1973, the null hypothesis of a unit root is rejected for three of the five series. The sign and nature of the estimated breaks correspond to the state of the iron and steel industry during the first half of the 1970s. The bootstrap tests give results close to those from the asymptotic ones.

  • 18.
    Anil, Kumar
    et al.
    Research Department, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Estimating Taxable Income Responses with Elasticity Heterogeneity2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the implications of heterogeneity in the elasticity of taxable income (ETI) for tax-reform based estimation methods. We theoretically show that existing methods yield elasticities that are biased and lack policy relevance. We illustrate the empirical importance of our theoretical analysis using the NBER tax panel for 1979-1990. We show that elasticity heterogeneity is the main explanation for large differences between estimates in the previous literature. Our preferred, newly suggested method yields elasticity estimates of approximately 0.7 for taxable income and 0.2 for broad income.

  • 19. Aronsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Micheletto, Luca
    Where Should the Elderly Live and Who Should Pay for their Care? A Study in Demographics and Geographical Economics2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich literature analyzing the problems that will arise as the share of elderly and retired in the population increases in the near future. However, the locational decisions among the elderly as well as their implications in terms of taxes/transfers and of allocation of responsibilities for elderly care between the federal and local levels have not received much attention. In this paper we aim at investigating these issues. For this purpose we explore a model where there is a big city and a set of small villages, and where congestion effects and agglomeration forces are at work at the level of the big city. We also assume that the population is divided between two groups of agents, workers and retired, which differ with respect to the degree of mobility. In the first part of the paper we study and characterize the inefficiencies that arise because of individuals’ free location choice in the context of a unitary government. In the second part of the paper we consider a fiscal federalism structure and we investigate the suitable instruments that are needed in order to decentralize the optimal allocation obtained under full centralization.

  • 20.
    Bahar Baziki, Selva
    et al.
    Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    Ginja, Rita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Borota Milicevic, Teodora
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Trade Competition, Technology and Labor Re-allocation2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the changes in labor allocation across firms and industries in response to changes in technology (captured by the adoption of information and communication technologies, ICT) and import competition, due to increased exposure to trade competition from China. We use detailed matched worker-firm data from the Swedish manufacturing sector. We provide new evidence on the mobility of heterogeneous workers across firms and document increased assortative matching of workers in ICT intensive industries. However, the sorting patterns are not uniform across industries within this group. The adoption of ICT along with stronger Chinese import competition results in a significant skill upgrade within high-wage firms. In contrast, in the absence of strong pressures in import competition, sorting occurs at the low end of the worker-firm distribution, i.e. low-skill workers allocate to low-wage firms. Industries with low ICT intensity do not exhibit any of these sorting patterns. We rationalize our empirical findings through a labor market matching model which is able to explain the increased assortative matching in ICT intensive industries through an increase in the relative demand for qualified workers.

  • 21.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Floro, Maria
    Effect Of Microfinance On Vulnerability, Poverty and Risk In Low Income Households2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty and unpredictability faced by low-income households increase their vulnerability making poverty even more unbearable. India’s National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)-initiated Self-Help Group (SHG) program, which is currently the largest and fastest growing microfinance program in the developing world, has been aggressively promoted as a way of combating poverty. This paper investigates whether or not SHG participation results in reducing poverty and vulnerability. A theoretical framework is developed to examine the mechanisms through which the pecuniary and non-pecuniary effects of the SHG program on the beneficiaries’ earnings and empowerment, influence their households’ ability to manage risk. Going beyond the traditional poverty estimates, we use a vulnerability measure which quantifies the welfare loss associated with poverty as well as different types of risks like aggregate and idiosyncratic risks. Applying this measure to an Indian panel survey data for 2000 and 2003, we find that SHG members have lower vulnerability as compared to a group of non-SHG (control) members. Furthermore, we find that the poverty contributes to about 80 percent of the vulnerability faced by the household followed by aggregate risk.

  • 22.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Floro, Maria
    Department of Economics, American University.
    Reducing Vulnerability through Microfinance: Evidence from Indian Self Help Group Program2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate if participation in Indian Self Help Group microfinance program (SHG) results in reducing vulnerability. Vulnerability estimates are constructed using cross-sectional SHG rural household survey data, collected in 2003. The potential selection bias is eliminated by propensity score matching to estimate the average treatment on treated effect using nearest neighbour matching and local linear regression algorithm. We find that despite a disproportionately high percentage of poor in the SHG members, vulnerability is not significantly different between the SHG and non-SHG members. This result is found to be robust using sensitivity analysis and Rosenbaum bounds method.

  • 23.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Varghese, Adel
    Department of Economics, Texas A & M University.
    Being Patient with Microfinance: The Impact of Training on Indian Self Help Groups2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the impact of training provided by facilitators of Self Help Groups (SHGs).  This evaluation provides one of the first studies of the impact of ‘microfinance plus,’ or the disbursement of services beyond credit. Indian SHGs are mainly NGO-formed microfinance groups but funded by commercial banks. We correct for membership selection bias with data on current as well as future SHG members. We then account for potential training endogeneity with propensity score matching. Regression and unadjusted matching results indicate that training does not aid in asset accumulation but can reverse the negative impact of credit on income.  However, regression adjusted matching which controls for both participation and training selection bias reveals that training impacts assets but not income. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses performed on these estimates.

  • 24.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Varghese, Adel
    Department of Economics, Texas A & M University, TAMU 4228.
    Delivery Mechanisms and Impact of Training through Microfinance2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the effect of delivery mechanisms for training provided by facilitators of self help groups (SHGs). Indian SHGs are unique in that they are mainly NGO ‐formed microfinance group  but later funded by commercial banks. We correct for both membership and training endogeneity. Training impacts assets but not income. Underlying conditions that benefit training include better infrastructure (as in paved roads), linkage model type, and training organizer.

  • 25.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Varghese, Adel
    Does Self Help Group Participation Lead to Asset Creation?2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the effect of Self Help Group participation on a long term impact parameter, namely asset creation. Indian Self Help Groups (SHGs) are unique in that they are mainly NGO-formed microfinance groups but later funded by commercial banks. The results reveal that longer membership in SHGs positively impacts asset creation, robust to various asset specifications. With longer participation in SHGs, members move away from pure agriculture as an income source towards other sources such as livestock income. Training by NGOs positively impacts asset creation but the type of SHG linkage per se has no effect.

  • 26.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Varghese, Adel
    Department of Economics, Texas A & M University.
    Microfinance ‘Plus’: The Impact of Business Training on Indian Self Help Groups2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The provision of business training with microfinance leads to a positive impact on assets for the participating households. We correct for membership selection bias and account for potential training endogeneity with propensity score matching, using data from the Self Help Group microfinance program in India.

  • 27.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Varghese, Adel
    The Impact of Skill Development and Human Capital Training on Self Help Groups2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the effect of training, in both skill development and human capital, provided by facilitators of self help groups (SHGs). Indian SHGs are unique in that they are mainly NGO-formed microfinance groups but later funded by commercial banks. The results suggest that, in general, training does not impact assets but training can reverse the potentially negative effect of credit on income. Moreover, training is more effective for asset accumulation in villages with better infrastructure. In terms of training delivery, results show that the most effective linkage is when NGOs form groups and banks finance SHGs.

  • 28.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science, Statistics.
    Does Microfinance Empower Women?: Evidence from Self Help Groups in India2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfinance programs like the Self Help Bank Linkage Program in India have been increasingly promoted for their positive economic impact and the belief that they empower women. However, only a few studies rigorously examine the link between microfinance and women’s empowerment. This paper contributes by arguing that women empowerment takes place when women challenge the existing social norms and culture, to effectively improve their well being. It empirically validates this hypothesis by using quasi-experimental household sample data collected for five states in India for 2000 and 2003. A general structural model is estimated by employing appropriate techniques to treat the ordinal variables in  order to estimate the impact of the Self Help Group (SHG) on women empowerment for 2000 and 2003. The results strongly demonstrate that on average, there is a significant increase in the women empowerment of the SHG members group. No such significant change is observed however, for the members of the control group. The elegance of the result lies in the fact that the group of SHG participants show clear evidence of a significant and higher empowerment, while allowing for the possibility that some members might have been more empowered than others.

  • 29.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Differences in regional and delivery mechanisms in India’s SHG programme 2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how the impact on women empowerment varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent. Using household survey data from five states in India, we correct for selection bias to estimate a structural equation model. Our results reveal that in the southern states of India empowerment of women takes place through economic factors. For the other states, we find a significant correlation between women empowerment and autonomy in women’s decision-making and network, communication and political participation respectively. We do not however find any differential causal impact of different delivery methods (linkage models).

  • 30.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University.
    Bask, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inequality Generating Processes and Measurement of the Matthew Effect2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of this paper is to clarify the differences and relationships between cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the Matthew effect. Its second aim, which is also its main contribution, is not only to present a new measure of the Matthew effect, but also to show how to estimate this effect from data and how to make statistical inference. We argue that one should utilize the positivity of the natural logarithm of the largest generalized eigenvalue for a non-linear dynamic process as evidence when claiming that the Matthew effect is present in the dynamic process that generates individuals’ socio-economic life-courses. Thus, our measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the dynamic process that generates socio-economic inequality and not on the outcome of this process.

  • 31.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    University of Bergen.
    Bask, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Social Influence and the Matthew Mechanism: The Case of an Artificial Cultural Market2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that the Matthew effect, or Matthew mechanism, was present in the artificial cultural market Music Lab when social influence between individuals was allowed, whereas this was not the case when social influence was not allowed. We also sketch on a class of social network models, derived from social influence theory, that may gener-ate the Matthew effect. Thus, we propose a theoretical framework that may explain why the most popular songs were much more popular, and the least popular songs were much less popular, than when disallowing social influence between individuals.

  • 32.
    Bask, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    A Case for Interest Rate Inertia in Monetary Policy2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that it is not necessary for the central bank to react to the exchange rate to have a desirable outcome in the economy. Indeed, when the Taylor rule includes contemporaneous data on the variables in the rule, the central bank can disregard from the exchange rate as long as there is enough with interest rate inertia in monetary policy. The reason is that interest rate inertia and a reaction to the current nominal exchange rate change are perfect substitutes in monetary policy. Hence, we give a rationale for the central bank to focus on the interest rate

    change rather than the interest rate level to have a desirable outcome in the economy, which we define as a determinate rational expectation equilibrium that is stable under least squares learning.

  • 33.
    Bask, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Madeira, João
    University of Exeter Business School.
    The Increased Importance of Asset Price Misalignments for Business Cycle Dynamics2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model with trend extrapolation in asset pricing that we fit to quarterly U.S. macroeconomic time series with Baye-sian techniques. To be more precise, we modify the DSGE model in Smets and Wouters (2007) by incorporating asset traders who use a mix of fundamental analysis and trend extrapolation in asset pricing. We conclude that trend extrapolation in asset pricing is quantitatively relevant, statistically significant and results in a substantial improvement of the model’s fit to the data. We also find that the strength in trend extrapolation is much stronger during the Great Moderation than it was prior to this period. Moreover, allowing for asset mispricing leads to more pronounced hump-shaped dynamics of the asset price and investment. Thus, asset price misalignments should be an important ingredient in DSGE models that aim to understand business cycles dynamics in general and the interaction between the real and financial sectors in particular.

  • 34.
    Bask, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Proaño, Christian R.
    Department of Economics, The New School for Social Research, New York, NY.
    Optimal Monetary Policy under Learning in a New Keynesian Model with Cost Channel and Inflation Inertia2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that a so-called expectations-based optimal monetary policy rule has desirable properties in a standard New Keynesian model augmented with a cost channel and inflation rate expectations that are partly backward-looking. In particular, optimal monetary policy under commitment is associated with a determinate rational expectations equilibrium that is stable under least squares learning for all parameter constellations considered, whereas, under discretion in policy-making, the central bank has to be sufficiently inflation rate averse for the rational expectations equilibrium to have the same properties.

  • 35.
    Bask, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Widerberg, Anna
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Measuring the Stability of a Dynamic System: The Case of the Stock Market Turmoil 2007-20082010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the change in actual and potential market risks in the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) during the two-year period 2007-2008 can be analyzed with the help of (λ, σ2)-analysis. In the empirical analysis, the average of the Lyapunov exponents for the dynamic system generating DJIA returns is used as the stability measure, , whereas the squared DJIA return is used as the variability measure, λ, whereas the squared DJIA return is used as the variability measure, σ2. The main findings are as follows: (i) the potential market risk in the DJIA did not fluctuate that much during 2007, with the exceptions of early fall and near the end of the year; (ii) the potential market risk fluctuated a lot during 2008, especially in early August and in the middle of September; and (iii) the actual market risk in the DJIA was considerably higher near the end of 2008, especially in October, compared with the rest of the period.

  • 36.
    Bastani, Spencer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Using the Discrete Model to Derive Optimal Income Tax Rates2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I perform numerical simulations of the discrete model of optimal income taxation employing a large number of taxpayer types. Moreover, I indicate how the results depend on the number of types used to represent the wage distribution. Finally, I compare simulations of the continuous and discrete optimal tax models under identical circumstances based on US wage data.

  • 37.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Micheletto, Luca
    Depatrment of Law, University of Milan.
    Child Care Subsidies, Quality, and Optimal Income Taxation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine the desirability of subsidizing child care expenditures in a model where parents can choose both the quantity and the quality of child care services they purchase in the market. Our vehicle of analysis is a Mirrleesian optimal tax framework where child care services not only enable parents to work, but also contribute to children's formation of human capital. In addition, there are externalities related to the parents' choice of child care arrangements for their offspring. Using a quantitative simulation model calibrated to the US economy, we evaluate the relative merits of some the most common forms of child care subsidies (tax deductions, tax credits, and opting-out public provision schemes) in terms of their effectiveness in alleviating the distortions associated with income taxation and increasing the quality of child care chosen by parents.

  • 38.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Blumkin, Tomer
    Department of Economics, Ben Gurion University, Israel.
    Micheletto, Luca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Anti-discrimination Legislation and the Efficiency-Enhancing Role of Mandatory Parental Leave2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study a setting where anti-discrimination legislation gives rise to adverseselection in the labor market. Firms rely on nonlinear compensation contracts toscreen workers who differ in their family/career orientation. This results in a labormarket equilibrium where career-oriented workers are offered an inefficientlylow duration of parental leave. In addition, family-oriented workers are offeredlower wages as compared to their equally skilled career-oriented counterparts. Wedemonstrate the usefulness of mandatory parental leave rules in mitigating thedistortion in the labor market and derive conditions under which a Pareto improvementis possible. We also characterize the optimal parental leave policy andhighlight the possibility for parental leave legislation to eliminate the wage penaltyof family-oriented workers by supporting pooling employment contracts.

  • 39.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University.
    Lundberg, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Political preferences for redistribution in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)