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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Perceptual organization of motion 1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Alm, Jan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dyslexia: Relevance of Concepts, Validity of Measurements, and Cognitive Functions2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis opens with an exposition of different uses of the term dyslexia. In that context its conceptual relevance is discussed. The empirical studies investigate a) different aspects of validity of cognitive and achievement instruments often used in diagnostic assessment of dyslexia, b) different cognitive profiles for adults with dyslexia, and c) the relationship between cognitive and achievement measures.

    Study I demonstrated the factor structure of the Swedish WAIS-R to be in close agreement with results of comparable analyses on normal and clinical groups in many countries world-wide, giving strong support for the construct validity of the Swedish WAIS-R for a group of adults diagnosed with dyslexia. The results from the three-factor solution were interpreted in terms of theoretical constructs, notably those posited by Carroll (1993) and Horn (1989).

    The cognitive profiles of a sample of Swedish adults diagnosed with dyslexia—when using the three factors, the ACID profile, and the four-category Bannatyne profile—all resemble closely the profiles observed for a wide array of U.S. samples of children and adults diagnosed with dyslexia or learning disabilities. Gender differences on Digit Symbol, favoring females, were substantial in magnitude for the present sample, consistent with a bulk of research on gender differences for samples of normal individuals and of those identified with learning problems.

    In Study II, factor analysis of nine Swedish achievement tests often used for dyslexia assessment yielded five meaningful factors in a group of adults diagnosed with dyslexia. Factors appeared to measure decoding, visual speed, reading comprehension, reading fluency, and phonological ability. The relationship between the five achievement factors and WAIS-R variables was subsequently examined. The Visual Speed and Reading Comprehension factors each correlated significantly with four of six global WAIS-R scores (two of three IQs and two of three factor scores). Visual Speed tended to correlate significantly with nonverbal scores and Reading Comprehension with verbal scores. Although the Phonological Ability factor did not correlate significantly with any verbal or nonverbal global score, it did correlate significantly with the Freedom from Distractibility factor and with all its component subtests—Digit Span, Arithmetic, and Digit Symbol. Decoding (technical reading skill) showed no significant relationship to any WAIS-R variable studied. More surprisingly, the Reading Fluency factor failed to show significant relationships to the WAIS-R.

    Study III examined the validity of The Word Chain Test, a frequently used instrument in Swedish screening and diagnostic assessments of dyslexia. Different sources of validity evidence were evaluated. In summary, the results failed to support validity both for the WRI-index and the Wordchain subtest, suggesting that the instrument seems to be of questionable value in screening or diagnostic assessment of dyslexia.

    List of papers
    1. The Swedish WAIS-R Factor Structure and Cognitive Profiles for Adults with Dyslexia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish WAIS-R Factor Structure and Cognitive Profiles for Adults with Dyslexia
    2002 In: Journal of Learning Disabilities, ISSN 0022-2194, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 321-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91479 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-03-24 Created: 2004-03-24Bibliographically approved
    2. Achivement Factors in Dyslexia Assessment: Relations to Cognitive Factors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achivement Factors in Dyslexia Assessment: Relations to Cognitive Factors
    Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91480 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-03-24 Created: 2004-03-24Bibliographically approved
    3. A Validation Study of the Swedish Word Chain Test
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Validation Study of the Swedish Word Chain Test
    Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91481 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-03-24 Created: 2004-03-24Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Andersson, Britta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Dichotic listening and hemispheric asymmetry in children: an experimental study of the influence of directed attention 1989Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Hearing as behaviour: psychological aspects of acquired hearing impairment in the elderly 1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Older Women and Food: Dietary Intake and Meals in Self-Managing and Disabled Swedish Females Living at Home2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was to study elderly self-managing and disabled women’s dietary intake and meals in relation to age, household structure (single-living or cohabitant), disability and cooking ability. The women were aged 64-88 years and living at home, in the mid-eastern part of Sweden. The self-managing women were randomly selected. The disabled women – suffering from Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke – were selected from patient records. A total of 139 self-managing and 63 disabled women participated. Two dietary assessment methods were used: a repeated 24-h recall and a three-day estimated food diary, providing dietary intake for five non-consecutive days. The results indicate that elderly women still living in their homes seem to manage a sufficient dietary intake despite disability and high age. The reported energy intakes in all groups of women were low, which might be explained by an actual low intake and/or under-reporting. The portion sizes seemed to be smaller in the highest age group, leading to lower intakes of some nutrients. Thus also the nutrient density of the food should be given greater consideration. The meal pattern was shown to be regular and the distribution of main meals and snacks was found to be satisfactory. Meals and snacks that were defined as such by the women themselves thus seem to be more significant from an energy and nutritional perspective. Perceived cooking ability co-varied with energy and nutrient intake as well as with meal pattern.

    Further, a qualitative dietary assessment method, FBCE, was analysed. It was concluded that it must be supplemented with a dietary assessment method providing energy intake figures to ensure a sufficient intake, especially when studying groups at risk for low energy intake.

    Furthermore, the aim was to perform a dropout analysis. When studying older women and food, a low participation rate might be expected since the most active, the very ill as well as the disabled tend to decline participation, but also since food is a gender issue. Food could, especially for women, be a sensitive area of discussion, even though older women seem to choose "healthy foods" and eat "proper meals".

    List of papers
    1. Food and nutrient intake in a group of self-managing elderly Swedish women
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Food and nutrient intake in a group of self-managing elderly Swedish women
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing numbers of elderly women living at home, there is an interest to investigate the dietary intake of this group.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the food and nutrient intake in a group of self-managing elderly women in Sweden.

    DESIGN: A 3-day self-reported food diary and a repeated 24-h dietary recall were used. The study comprised 135 single-living or married/cohabiting women (mean age 79.5 8.0 years).

    RESULTS: Mean energy intake for the whole group was 6.8 1.9 MJ, and low energy figures were obtained in all age groups indicating some possible under-reporting with a calculated EIrep/BMRest of 1.24 0.36 for the whole group. Overall, energy and nutrient intake was similar in the different age groups (64-68 yrs, 74-78 yrs and 84-88 yrs). Reported intakes of vitamin D (4.8 2.7 mg), tocopherol (5.9 2.2 mg), iron (8.5 2.9 mg), folate (200 8.7 mg) and selenium (29 11 mg) were low compared to recommended intakes. Only minor differences between women in different household types were found. The women reported a variety of food items in their diet.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results from this study indicate that self-managing elderly women report low energy figures, but have a sufficient intake of most nutrients. However, there is a tendency that the oldest women, i.e. 84-88 yrs have lower intakes.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89943 (URN)12679824 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12 Last updated: 2018-09-10
    2. Five-day food intake in elderly female outpatients with Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Five-day food intake in elderly female outpatients with Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 414-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the intake of food, energy and selected nutrients in elderly outpatients, i.e. women with Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

    Sixty-three elderly women aged 64-88 years participated in the study. For assessing dietary intake, a repeated 24-h recall and an estimated food diary for three consecutive days were used.

    RESULTS:

    The mean age was 73.4 +/- 6.6 years. Mean reported daily energy intake was 6.4 +/- 1.7 MJ, i.e. lower than reference figures for all groups. However, looking at nutrient density, only intakes of vitamin E and folate were below recommended levels. The most frequently consumed food groups were bread, coffee, milk products, buns and cookies, and spreads.

    CONCLUSION:

    The reported energy intake among the elderly female outpatients was low. This might be explained by actual low intake and/or under-reporting. However, the intake of most vitamins and minerals, i.e. nutrient density, was adequate, with the exception of vitamin E and folate intake, which was below recommended levels. Food intake showed large variation and good diet composition, and there was a tendency towards high consumption of food items that are easily prepared and eaten.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89989 (URN)15359362 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2002-10-03 Created: 2002-10-03 Last updated: 2018-09-10
    3. Meals and snacks among elderly self-managing and disabled women
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Meals and snacks among elderly self-managing and disabled women
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 149-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and distribution of self-managing and disabled elderly women's eating events, as well as to investigate which definition/names the women had given their different eating events and to categorise these into meals and snacks. An additional aim was to study the composition of meals and snacks, and analyse the nutritional significance of these eating events in terms of energy and macronutrients.

    Subjects. Elderly women, both self-managing (n=139) and disabled (n=63; with Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke), aged 64–88 years, and living at home participated.

    Methods. A repeated 24 h recall and an estimated food diary for three consecutive days were used.

    Results. The eating events defined by the women that were categorised as meals contributed 74% of the total daily energy intake, while snacks contributed 22–23%. The meals that the women had defined as dinner, was the most energy dense meal. The frequency of eating events not defined by the women, was 30–34%, but contributed only 3–4% of the total daily energy intake. The disabled women had a significantly lower energy content in meals and most snacks, compared to the self-managing women.

    Conclusion. The main conclusion was that elderly women still living at home had their meals distributed during the day and that these meals were characterised by individuality and flexibility.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89945 (URN)10.1016/S0195-6663(03)00052-7 (DOI)14550312 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12 Last updated: 2018-09-10
    4. Associations between perceived cooking ability, dietary intake and meal patterns among elderly women.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between perceived cooking ability, dietary intake and meal patterns among elderly women.
    Show others...
    2002 In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89946 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Meals and energy intake among elderly women - an analysis of qualitative and quantitative dietary assessment methods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Meals and energy intake among elderly women - an analysis of qualitative and quantitative dietary assessment methods
    Show others...
    2001 In: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 467-476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89947 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Reasons among older Swedish women of not participating in a food survey.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reasons among older Swedish women of not participating in a food survey.
    Show others...
    2002 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 561-567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89948 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12 Last updated: 2015-01-10
  • 6.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science.
    Essays on financial time series models: Stochastic volatility and long memory1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work consists of five articles about the statistical aspects of financial time series models. The first three papers investigate and develop the inverse normal Gaussian stochastic volatility (NIGSV) model, initially suggested by Barndorff- Nielsen (1997). In the first paper, Barndorff-Nilsen's model is generalized in order to be able to produce a more flexible lag structure. The moments of the squared process, important properties of volatility models, are derived. The topic of the second paper is the performance of the maximum likelihood estimator of the NIGSV model. In the third paper a comparison of the NIGSV model with two other commonly used volatility models is made.

    The long memory property is the topic of the last two papers. In the fourth paper two improvements of the commonly used GPH-estimator of Geweke and Porter-Hudak (1983) are proposed and studied by means of a Monte Carlo study. In the fifth paper the problem of distinguishing between short term and long term memory in volatilityis investigated.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reactions to novelties: Developmental aspects1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis considers different aspects of infants' and children's reactions to novelties, that is, unfamiliar persons, objects, and situations. In Study I, the developmental phenomenon stranger wariness was investigated from a temperamental perspective. Stranger wariness at age 10 months was found to be marginally predicted by 5-month individual variation in reactions to frustration, to sensory stimulation, and to novelties and to be predictive of 2-year social inhibition. These results indicate that 10-month stranger wariness does not only reflect a developmental transition but also an individual disposition to be responsive to social novelties.

    In line with what has been suggested for the behavioral inhibition construct, Study II showed that 2-year-olds' reactions to social and non-social novelties should be considered as belonging to one construct. Furthermore, the relations within and between latency, negative/inhibited and positive/approaching reactions to social and non-social novelties were found to be very similar, implying that identifying children as uninhibited means that they are disposed not only towards lack of negative/inhibited reactions, but also towards approaching/positive reactions when confronted with novelties.

    Study III concerned preschool social inhibition in relation to attachment security and social experiences in terms non-parental care. The relative contributions of the three variables to school-age social competence with peers and social self-esteem were also investigated. It was found that attachment security and social inhibition were unrelated to each other and that they made significant independent contributions to the explanation of social competence, whereas social self-esteem was only predicted by preschool social inhibition.

  • 8.
    Annas, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Fears, phobias and the inheritance of learning 1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Araya, Tadesse
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stereotypes: Suppression, Forgetting, and False Memory2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents four studies investigating (1) whether incidentally primed control-related words can attenuate the impact of activated stereotypes on subsequent evaluation of a target person, (2) the impact of motivated forgetting on the recall of stereotypically congruent and incongruent information, and (3) the impact of a directed forgetting instruction on the false recall and recognition of nonpresented stereotypical information.

    In three experiments, Study I showed that participants initially primed with the social category, immigrant, and subsequently primed with words that were evocative of control or self-control made less negative impression of a target displaying ambiguous behaviors than participants not exposed to such words.

    Study II, using a directed-forgetting paradigm, demonstrated in two experiments that participants subliminally primed with Swedish facial photographs who later studied stereotypically incongruent words roughly recalled an equal number of items regardless of the forget or remember instructions.

    Study III showed that participants primed with the social category, immigrant and then studied a list of stereotypically related and unrelated words falsely recognized more nonpresented stereotypical words when they were furnished with a forget than a remember instruction. Similarly, Study IV (Experiment 2) demonstrated that participants primed with the social category, immigrant, but not with a neutral category, falsely recalled more nonpresented stereotypical words when their cognitive capacity was depleted through a concurrent memory load task.

    The thesis presents a review and a discussion of some of the theoretical underpinnings of the extant literature on stereotyping and intergroup relations and of the social implications of the present findings.

  • 10.
    Arnqvist, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Phonemic awareness in preschool children: four studies on the relationship between phonemic awareness, reading ability and short-term memory 1991Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Axelson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science.
    On variance estimation for the two-phase regression estimator2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Regression estimation under two-phase sampling is a cost-effective technique for estimating a finite population total. This dissertation consists of four papers, summarized in an introductory chapter, all of which focus on the use of auxiliary information in estimating the variance of the generalted regression estimator under two-phase sampling.

    The first paper deals with the analysis of results from so-called computersimulation experiments for policy analysis. In particular, we consider applications based on input from the National Resources Inventory, which is a stratified two-stage area sample of nonfederal land in the United States. The estimation problem is formulated in terms of generalised two-phase regression estimation, and a variance estimation strategy is developed.

    In the second paper, a new approach to variance estimation is suggested. Compared with the reference estimators considered, the new approach, which may be seen as a generalisation of the approach used in paper one, makes more extensive use of the available auxiliary information, and hence it may be expected to be more efficient.

    Yet another approach to variance estimation is discussed in the third paper. Although conceptually different from the approach discussed in the second paper, it yields very similar results when applied to the generalized regression estimator under two-phase sampling. The approach may readily be extended to allow for variance estimation under multi-phase sampling.

    The fourth paper, finally, deals with jackknife variance estimation. Twoestimators of potential practical interest are derived, and the estimators are compared empirically by means of a small-scale Monte Carlo study.

  • 12.
    Barron, Karin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Disability and gender: Autonomy as an indication of adulthood1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this dissertation was initially to examine the relationship between a continuedrequirement of practical assistance in adult life and autonomy. As the work has proceeded, thefocus has come to increasingly be on identifying social obstacles to autonomy, particularly fordisabled young women.

    The fast part deals with the transition from adolescence to adulthood for physically disabledyoung people. Some of the questions raised in this study are developed further in thesucceeding three articles. The first article (Part II) focuses on physically disabled girls/youngwomen and how they internalize societal norms and values. The interest is on how these normsand values affect the possibility to autonomy in everyday life for the young women. The secondarticle (Part III) emhasizes the importance of a gender perspective in educational research ondisability. The third article (Part IV) deals with ethical problems in qualitative social research onmarginalized groups.

    The comprehensive summary consists of a discussion on the research process in this work.The methodological approach has been qualitative interviews with 24 physically disabled youngpeople. The summary also includes a discussion on the chosen theoretical perspective, i.e.social constructionism, and a brief overview of some of the results in this work. Then follows adiscussion on the results in a somewhat broader societal framework. Finally them is a briefsummary of the different parts of the dissertation.

  • 13.
    Bengtsgård, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social inhibition and socioemotional functioning in middle childhood2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social inhibition, or in lay language "shyness", means a tendency to react with fearful and hesitant behaviors innovel social encounters. Lowinhibition, on the other hand is associated with a capacity to easily approachnovel social situations. However, low-inhibition might co-occur with difficulties in inhabiting undesired socialbehaviors. When disinhibited behavior in the sense of a lack of normal reserve, or indiscriminate socialbahaviors, is seen, this phenomenon is, in this thesis, named overfriendliness.

    Study I and Study II aimed at investigating socioemotional functioning in socially high and low-inhibitedchildren, with a special focus on overfriendliness. In Study I, high- and low-inhibited groups were compared toa medium-inhibited group with respect to problem behaviors and social competencies. Among low-inhibitedchildren, a group of overfriendly children was compared to a low-overfriendly group. Study II aimed atfurthering the knowledge about socioemotional functioning in high-inhibited children and in low-inhibitedchildren, when considering high and low overfriendliness. Study III considered problem behaviors in high-andlow-inhibited children when taking dysregulation - as indicated by negative emotionality and impersistence invarious activities - into account. Dysregulation was found to be associated with comorbid internalizing,externalizmg and attention problem behaviors. Results from the three studies show that high social inhibitionwas associated with a heightened risk for internalizing problem behaviors, less well developed socialcompetencies and socioemotional distress reactions. Low social inhibition was, if not co-occurring withoverfriendliness or with broad dysregulation, associated with especially well functioning development, and withlow risk for internalizing problems. Overfriendliness was primarily characterized by attention problembehaviors. When compared with the low-overfriendly group the high-overfriendly group also showed morethrill seeking, hyperactivity, externalising problem behaviors, internalizing problem behaviors, and less welldeveloped social competencies.

    Results indicated presence of different developmental pathways among socially low-inhibited children, andpointed to the importance of taking the heterogeneity among low-inhibited children into account in the study ofsocioemotional development.

  • 14.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Bostaden - välfärdsstatens marknadsvara1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Berglund, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Studies regarding the concept formation of young children and their performance on logical tasks 1991Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Berlin, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Inhibitory Control and Executive Functioning in Hyperactivity/ADHD2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examined inhibition, executive functioning and their possible relation to childhood problems of hyperactivity and inattention, in its clinical form referred to as Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD). Concurrent as well as longitudinal relations were of interest, and both clinical and non-clinical samples were studied.

    Study I demonstrated concurrent relations between executive inhibition and both hyperactivity and conduct problems in preschool. However, the relation between inhibition and conduct problems could be attributed to the large overlap between hyperactivity and conduct problems.

    In Study II, linear relations were found between executive inhibition and hyperactivity, whereas inhibition to the unfamiliar was related to hyperactivity, social initiative, as well as social anxiety. Non-linear analyses showed that children with high levels of both types of inhibition were at risk for developing low social initiative and social anxiety, whereas children with low levels of inhibition were at risk for developing hyperactivity, but at the same time protected from social anxiety.

    In Study III, executive inhibition was longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms in both school and at home for boys, but only in the school context for girls. Executive inhibition was also related to more general executive functioning deficits, and concurrent relations were found between executive functioning and ADHD symptoms, although in both cases only for boys. Inhibition and executive functioning made independent contributions to the understanding of ADHD symptoms for boys, and together explained about half the variance in inattention problems.

    In Study IV, group differences were found between ADHD children and controls for both inhibition and various other executive function measures. These measures also discriminated well between groups. The best model, which included measures tapping inhibition, working memory and emotion regulation, classified 86% of the children correctly.

    In summary, the results of the present thesis were mostly supportive of Barkley’s hybrid model of ADHD, although it should be noted that the question of whether inhibition should be regarded as primary to other executive functions requires further investigation.

  • 17.
    Birgegård, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Producing, Preventing, and Explaining Persistent Complex Subliminal Stimulation Effects2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong recent focus on unconscious processes has increased interest in subliminal stimulation and similar experimental technologies. Assumptions about the persistence of effects of unconscious stimulation are generally conservative, referring to seconds or minutes (Silverman, 1977; Velmans, 1991). In Study I, five experiments (N = 365) showed complex effects of unconscious stimulation ten days after subliminal exposure, implying that persistence estimates need reevaluation. Experimental stimuli were "mommy and I are one" (MIO) and "mommy and I are dissimilar" (MIDIS), and neutral control stimuli. Effects consisted of higher correlations between measures pertaining to the self-mother relationship and measures of psychological adjustment.

    These ethically problematic findings prompted investigation in Study II of whether debriefing information to participants could prevent persistent effects of subliminal stimuli, an issue not previously investigated. Two experiments (N=188) tested two kinds of information to participants following subliminal MIDIS or control stimulation. Results showed different persistent effects depending on participant sex. Simple information about the stimulus was effective in preventing these, but elaborate information describing the effects and mechanisms for them was not. The findings have implications for ethical recommendations for subliminal research, and suggest that this unexplored area requires more attention.

    In Study III, a theoretical account for the persistent effects is presented, based on unconscious activation of a relational schema containing goal motivation. Unless the goal is fulfilled or activation dissipates due to attributability or irrelevance of the goal, the activation will be maintained (motivated maintenance). Being unconscious, the influence results in automatic schematic processing of environmental cues, including perceptual, judgment, and behavioral biases. These in turn interactively maintain the activation of the schema (interactive maintenance).

    The discussion includes the conclusion that previous estimates of the persistence of unconscious stimulation effects need revision. Theoretical and empirical questions concerning the studies are discussed and ethical research implications are considered.

    List of papers
    1. Persistent complex subliminal activation effects: First experimental observations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistent complex subliminal activation effects: First experimental observations
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 302-316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A strong recent focus on unconscious processes has increased interest in subliminal stimulation and other experimental activation technologies. Five experiments using male and female university students (N = 365) were carried out to compare 5-ms exposures of "mommy and I" stimuli with 5-ms control stimulation. Measures of self-mother similarity and other variables taken 7-14 days after exposure were more strongly correlated among experimental participants. Such complex, persistent effects may follow when powerfully activating stimuli administered under wholly unconscious conditions provokes schematic processing of social information and behavioral confirmation. These scientifically exciting and ethically problematic findings imply a need for further reduction of the role accorded to conscious volition and control in psychology.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91177 (URN)10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.302 (DOI)12916572 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2003-12-17 Created: 2003-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Debriefing after subliminal stimulation: Does information to participants prevent persistent effects?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Debriefing after subliminal stimulation: Does information to participants prevent persistent effects?
    2003 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91178 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-12-17 Created: 2003-12-17 Last updated: 2014-01-24Bibliographically approved
    3. A theoretical account of persistent effects of subliminal stimuli: Unattributable automatic salience of motivationally relevant cues
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A theoretical account of persistent effects of subliminal stimuli: Unattributable automatic salience of motivationally relevant cues
    2003 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91179 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-12-17 Created: 2003-12-17 Last updated: 2014-01-24Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Bring, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Variable importance and regression modelling 1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Brobäck, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Hemispheric asymmetry and classical conditioning: an experimental study of lateralization of learning 1988Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Carlbring, Per
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Panic! Its Prevalence, Diagnosis and Treatment via the Internet2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As evidenced by several trials, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment for Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD). However, therapists are short in supply, and patients with agoraphobia may not seek therapy due to fear of leaving their homes or traveling certain distances. A major challenge therefore is to increase the accessibility and affordability of evidence-based psychological treatments.

    This thesis is based on five studies; three treatment studies set up as randomized controlled trails (RCT), one prevalence study, and one study testing the equivalence of an Internet-administered diagnostic assessment tool with a clinician-administered interview.

    Study I showed that the Swedish 12-month PD prevalence is consistent with findings in most other parts of the Western world (2.2%; CI 95% 1.0%-3.4%). There was a significant sex difference, with a greater prevalence for women (3.6%) compared to men (0.7%).

    Study II showed that the validity of the computerized diagnostic interview (CIDI-SF) was generally low. However, the agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder modules had good specificity and sensitivity, respectively.

    The three RCTs showed, directly or indirectly, that Internet-based self-help is superior to a waiting-list. When 10 individual weekly sessions of CBT for PD was compared with a 10-module self-help program on the Internet, the results suggest that Internet-administered self-help, plus minimal therapist contact via e-mail, is as effective as traditional individual CBT (80% vs. 67% no longer met criteria for panic disorder; composite within-group effect size was Cohen’s d= 0.78 vs. 0.99). One-year follow-up confirmed the results (92% vs. 88% no longer met criteria for panic disorder; d= 0.80 vs. 0.93). The results generally provide evidence to support the continued use and development of Internet-distributed self-help programs.

    List of papers
    1. 12-month prevalence of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia in the Swedish general population
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>12-month prevalence of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia in the Swedish general population
    2002 In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 207-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91567 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-04-13 Created: 2004-04-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Is the Internet-administered CIDI-SF Equivalent to a Clinician-administered SCID Interview?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the Internet-administered CIDI-SF Equivalent to a Clinician-administered SCID Interview?
    Show others...
    2002 In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 183-189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91568 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-04-13 Created: 2004-04-13 Last updated: 2016-01-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Treatment of panic disorder via the Internet: A randomized trial of a self-help program
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of panic disorder via the Internet: A randomized trial of a self-help program
    Show others...
    2001 (English)In: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 751-764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This controlled study, evaluated an Internet-delivered self-help program plus minimal therapist contact via e-mail for people suffering front panic disorder. Out of the 500 individuals screened using the self-administered diagnostic instrument Composite International Diagnostic Interview in shortened form (World Health Organization, 1999), 41 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These participants were randomized to either treatment via the Internet or to a waiting-list control. The main components of the treatment were psychoeducation. breathing retraining, cognitive restructuring, interoceptive exposure. in vivo exposure, and relapse prevention. From pre- to post- test self-help, participants improved significantly more on almost all dimensions. The results from this experiment generally provide evidence for the continued use and development of self-help programs for panic disorder distributed via the Internet.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91569 (URN)10.1016/S0005-7894(01)80019-8 (DOI)000175072600009 ()
    Available from: 2004-04-13 Created: 2004-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Treatment of panic disorder via the Internet: a randomized trial of CBT vs. applied relaxation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of panic disorder via the Internet: a randomized trial of CBT vs. applied relaxation
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, ISSN 0005-7916, E-ISSN 1873-7943, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A randomized trial was conducted of two different self-help programs for panic disorder (PD) on the Internet. After confirming the PD-diagnosis with an in-person structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID) interview 22 participants were randomized to either applied relaxation (AR) or a multimodal treatment package based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Overall, the results suggest that Internet-administered self-help plus minimal therapist contact via e-mail has a significant medium to large effect (Cohen's d=0.71 for AR and d=0.42 for CBT). The results from this study generally provide evidence to support the continued use and development of Internet-distributed self-help programs.

    Keywords
    Internet, Panic disorder, Self-help-techniques, Bibliotherapy
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91570 (URN)10.1016/S0005-7916(03)00026-0 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-04-13 Created: 2004-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Treatment of Panic Disorder: Live Therapy vs. Self-Help via Internet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of Panic Disorder: Live Therapy vs. Self-Help via Internet
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1321-1333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A randomized trial was conducted comparing 10 individual weekly sessions of cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia with a 10-module self-help program on the Internet. After confirming the PD diagnosis with an in-person structured clinical interview (SCID) 49 participants were randomized. Overall, the results suggest that Internet-administered self-help plus minimal therapist contact via e-mail can be equally effective as traditional individual cognitive behaviour therapy. Composite within-group effect sizes were high in both groups, while the between-group effect size was small (Cohen's d=16). One-year follow-up confirmed the results, with a within-group effect size of Cohen's d=0.80 for the Internet group and d=0.93 for the live group. The results from this study generally provide evidence to support the continued use and development of Internet-distributed self-help programs.

    Keywords
    Internet, Panic disorder, Self-help techniques, Bibliotherapy
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91571 (URN)10.1016/j.brat.2004.10.002 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-04-13 Created: 2004-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14
  • 21.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Unemployment duration and attrition 1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Carter, Ned
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Functional analyses of stimuli influencing retail theft 1996Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Dahl, Joanne Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    The psychological treatment of epilepsy: a behavioral approach 1987Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Edlund, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Dieting in Swedish children and adolescents 1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Eklund, Calle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Withdrawal from methadone maintenance treatment in Sweden 1996Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 26.