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  • 1.
    Apel, Jan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Daggers, knowledge & power2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates how far the organisation of a traditional technology corresponds to the degree of social complexity in a sedentary, agrarian society. An examination of the production of flint daggers during the Late Stone Age and Early Bronze Age of Scandinavia indicates the presence of formal apprenticeship systems based on corporate descent groups. Thus, the Late Neolithic societies in Scandinavia were more complex than previously thought. The flint dagger technology is subjected to an operational-chain analysis. This method is rooted in Durkeimian sociology and, consequently, technical gestures are regarded as social phenomena that are learned in social contexts. Two important concepts form the basis of my investigation: (1) knowledge (connaissance) and (2) know-how (savoir-faire). Knowledge has an explicit and declarative character and can be communicated to others; it can be passed from teacher to pupil by word of mouth, signs or written language. Know-how is an unconscious memory that springs from practical experience only. It is intuitive, connected with body movements and can only be learned by practical repetition. The gestures involved in each of the defined dagger-production stages were graded according to their relative degree of knowledge and know-how during practical experiments. Some stages were based on simple knowledge and a low degree of know-how. Other stages demanded a fair proportion of knowledge, in the form of recipes for action, and very high degree of know-how. This suggests that the craftsmanship was handed down through the generations by a form of apprenticeship system based on hereditary principles. The logic behind this reasoning is twofold. First, in such a system, the time needed to transmit know-how through the generations made the principle of kinship the most convenient mechanism for recruitment. Second, flint and manufacturing skills were valuable assets that stimulated some form of limited access and thus regulations of group membership. Accordingly, fixed social institutions were present in the Late Neolithic communities of Scandinavia and the presence of such formal institutions are indications of a fairly high level of social complexity. The flint-technology therefore entailed a highly developed craftsmanship, and the flint daggers were distributed over large areas of northern and central Europe by corporate groups or by regional and local elites. This interpretation is also related to Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice. Terms such as symbolic capital and habitus are used to give social meaning to the technology and its role, actively and metaphorically, in the reproduction of the Scandinavian Late Neolithic communities.

  • 2.
    Arwinge, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Internal Control: A study of concept and themes2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of internal control has developed along with audit practice. As demands have been made for greater accountability in corporate governance, the significance of internal control systems in companies has increased. Traditionally internal control has had a fairly direct relationship to financial reporting quality but wider approaches to internal control have expanded those boundaries much further. Stakeholders are increasingly concerned with the effectiveness of internal controls, and disclosure requirements are making firms to go public with regard to their internal control systems. From a design perspective,current research suggests that internal control designs are contingent upon variables such as company strategies, risk appetite, regulatory characteristics, and organizational size. Also there is much to learn about internal control quality, and the way internal control quality is associated with overall corporate governance quality. This book fills that gap.

  • 3.
    Hallgren, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Identitet i praktik: Lokala, regionala och överregionala sociala sammanhang inom nordlig trattbägarkultur2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses the introduction of cultural practices such as cultivation, cattle herding, pottery craft and specific lithic traditions in the region around the Baltic Sea during the Stone Age. The main focus is on the Early Neolithic (4000-3300 cal. BC) Funnel Beaker Culture of Mälardalen and Bergslagen in eastern Central Sweden. Archaeological material from neighbouring parts of Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, northern Poland and northern Germany are also included in the discussion. The thesis does not attempt to explain why practices like agriculture and ceramic production were introduced, rather it discusses when and how they took place. The archaeological material is discussed as remains of activities like living, crafting, cultivating, herding – cultural practices that were created through participation and performance. It is argued that participation in these activities shaped aspects of the participants' identity.

  • 4.
    Lekberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Yxors liv, människors landskap: En studie av kulturlandskap och samhälle i Mellansveriges senneolitikum2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with the social situation of Late Neolithic society, as it can be studied in the contextual formation and the accumulation of wealth in the Late Neolithic landscape of Central Sweden (c. 2350-1700 cal. BC). I claim that Scandinavian hammer axes of this period (in Scandinavian archaeology traditionally referred to as ‘simple shaft-hole axes’) exhibit traits of context-dependent differences and morphologically identifiable value relativity. Hence, they are capable of disclosing a landscape of contexts, action spheres and dispersal of value when mapped. The studies show that there is an unequal distribution of wealth in the disguised cultural landscape of the stray finds, and the question is how, and in what context, this inequality should be understood. The value perspective is used as an aid in a discussion about center and periphery and accumulation of wealth in the cultural landscape and society of Late Neolithic Scandinavia, and a proposition as to the structures of power and contact in such a society. A wider European outlook seems to provide the hammer axes, as well as Scandinavian Late Neolithic society as a whole, with a Bronze Age context of pan-European contacts, possibly based upon earlier, Corded-Ware networks of interaction.

  • 5.
    Lidström Holmberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Saddle querns and Gendered Dynamics of the Early Neolithic in Mid Central Sweden2004In: Coast to coast - arrival: results and reflections : proceedings of the final Coast to Coast Conference, 1-5 October 2002 in Falköping, Sweden, Uppsala: Coast to Coast Project, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History , 2004, p. 199-231Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Sundström, Lars
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Det hotade kollektivet: Neolitiseringsprocessen ur ett östmellansvenskt perspektiv2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation questions the established view on the social process in connection with Neolithisation. Therefore it has been necessary to discuss more general principles, on how to understand this process of change, when iterant hunter-gatherers became settled farmers. The dissertation begins with a theoretical discussion on the foundations for the interpretation and most important a discussion on differences between the interpretations presented and the treatment of the empirical material on which they are based.

    A necessary point of departure for understanding the implications an incorporation of domesticates in prehistoric society, i.e. emergence of Funnel Beaker Culture in Sweden, is a principal discussion, social mechanisms of hunters-gatherers on one hand and peoples reactions to changes threatening the social ideology, on the other. Four case studies are used to discuss people’s reaction to change. They clearly indicate that the reaction involved the lifting up of blurred and semiconscious structures to a conscious, ideological level. Inherent in this awareness process has been an active use of material culture, both in the production of symbols and in communication. The most important reason for stating that the Neolithisation must have meant a clear break with the earlier existence is the abandonment of itinerant way of life, both geographically and socially. This abandonment resulted in reactionary process involving material culture. Thus the material culture of the Funnel-Beaker period can be perceived as instruments of reproduction of a historically well-anchored egalitarian ideology. In the dispersed settlement system of autonomous individual farmsteads the collective aggregation sites are given a focal role of the discussion on social reproduction.

    The social mechanisms of the Early Neolithic society of Eastern Central Sweden are investigated on a local settlement level by an analysis of the production of locally available raw material. This study involve a petrological investigation showed a system of local management in relation to raw material extraction, production and consumption. This system is considered as one way of upholding the social ideology historically situated in the life style of hunters and gatherers.

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