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  • 1.
    Alkarp, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Det Gamla Uppsala: Berättelser & Metamorfoser2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ancient Uppsala is a most versatile place. At various times it has sated all types of scholar, nourished every kind of ideology, and fed all forms of doubt. Portrayals of the site have almost exclusively been made at times when it was necessary to define the relationship between the people and the elite, the elite and the Crown, or the Crown and the Church. These narratives take many forms – ancient myths, missionary tales, stories of princely power play, the struggle for social integration in early modern Sweden, or tales about absolute royal power, the free peasant, the oppressed serf, centralism, or the manipulation of history. Uppsala, almost without exception, was the stage on which vital scenes of this kind were played out.  This type of narrative, of which there is no shortage, is the main focus of this thesis. It aims to analyse how the image of Viking Age and medieval Uppsala was formed and has changed at various times, to follow the threads of discussion, and to place ideas pertaining to the site in their historical and intellectual context. The thesis sheds light on two periods in particular: the Gothism of the seventeenth century, and the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the latter period characterized by nationalism, racial biology, and political extremism.

    The dreams (and nightmares) of scholars are contrasted with the Gamla Uppsala of reality. Abundant archive material readily allows us to follow the nature of daily life in Gamla Uppsala parish, and to analyse how its inhabitants protected themselves from the material and spiritual destruction of the site. Today, the most significant archaeological observations are often made in the archive, where ‘ancient’ remains are frequently reappraised as relatively mundane products of the more recent past.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Med historien i ryggen: Om den arkeologiska uppgiften2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores the boundaries of archaeology. Its subject is an archaeological practice that no longer seems to be able to challenge our modern conception of the world. We are faced with an archaeology that takes the form of a conservative and repetitive practice, because of the discipline’s demand that discussions on epistemology and ontology within its discourse should be incorporated in a presupposed teleological assignment. They must be part of the modern archaeological project or else their critique is irrelevant.

    The initial disappointment is transformed into an inquisitive exploration of archaeology’s limitations. At the archaeological frontier several keywords are used to illustrate the architecture of that archaeological space. Concepts such as narrative, time, the trace and reality act as themes for a conversation on archaeology and the archaeological. Postprocessual archaeology is called upon as a primary discussant in this conversation, playing the part of a textual embodiment of a virtual archaeological formula. One major component of this formula that is discussed is archaeology’s connection to the historical. History as a narrative form, as a perspective on time and as a metanarrative to refer our statements to, is found to be a metaphysical fundament for the archaeological project, delimiting our understanding of the temporal relationship between the past and the present.

    The thesis briefly discusses an alternative nostalgic archaeology but this hypothetical post-historic archaeology can never be articulated, since its destiny will be the same as all other similar attempts within archaeology – i.e. to become part of an updated modern archaeological practice. The exploration then ends with an insight that there is no escape from either archaeology or modernity. What is left is only to point out the boundaries, and to let the dreams of freedom that go beyond them keep us from falling into a discursive sleep.

  • 3. Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Germanerna och Rom1997Book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Edenmo, Roger
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Prestigeekonomi under yngre stenåldern: Gåvoutbyten och regionala identiteter i den svenska båtyxekulturen2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis identifies and discusses some fundamental changes that took place during the middle neolithic period in Sweden, with the introduction of the Boat Axe Culture. The possibility of intrepreting the Corded Ware Cultures by way of networks, identified through the regional designes of battle axes, are proposed. With the aid of a reconsideration of the typology of the Swedish boat axes, ethnographic examples of gift-exchanges, and a theoretical reappraisal of the implications of archaeological praxis for prehistorc life-worlds, new possibillities for interpreting the changing role of such prestige items as the boat-axes are presented. A new chronological scheme is also presented for the Swedish boat axes, with a tripartite division of the latter middle neolithic into MN BI-III. The value of the boat axe is further considered to be explicable only in terms of a prestige item, dependent on a system of exchange for its continual valuation. Central to this discussion is the relationship between value and exchange. Several regions within the Swedish Boat Axe Culture are identified, and the boat axes in two of these regions in the southern part of the Mälar valley are thoroughly examined. It is shown that during the cours of the Boat Axe period, the emphasis gradually changed from a regional to an intra-regional focus concerning the development of types and special designes of the boat axes. Identified similarities and dissimilarities of contemporary boat axes within and between regions are explained as a result of a parallel change in gift exchanges, from a regional focus to an intra-regional focus. An hierarchical ordering of the latter middle neolithic soceity is also identified, where only a portion of the boat-axes were selected as burial gifts. This development is chartered onto the broader neolithic development in Sweden, with special focus on the role of prestige items such as battle axes. A fundamental change is identified as taking place during the Boat Axe period, when the full implications of a prestige economy were implemented and the major strategies for power settled on the inter-regional level.

  • 5.
    Fischer, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    ”Brief Events and Long-Term Change : the Slow Impact of Foreign Influences in Valsgärde”2008In: Valsgärde Studies: the Place and its People, Past and Present. / [ed] Svante Norr, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and ancient History, Uppsala University , 2008, 1, p. 167-198Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Gräslund, Anne-Sofie
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Valsgärde Studies: the Place and its People, Past and Present2008In: Valsgärde Studies: the Place and its People, Past and Present, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University , 2008, p. 65-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the impressive mound Valsgärde 57, containing a female cremation grave from c. 700 AD, as the starting point, two richly furnished female cremation graves from the first half of the 10th century AD, Valsgärde 85 and 94, are discussed. An analysis of the find assemblages leads to the conclusion that the two vomen represent both social and religious power.

  • 7.
    Göthberg, Hans
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Bebyggelse i förändring: Uppland från slutet av yngre bronsålder till tidig medeltid2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation discusses settlements from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the Early Middle Ages in eastern Middle Sweden, especially the Mälar valley area, with a focus on Uppland. Chronologically, the emphasis is in the Early Iron Age. A large number of the settlements were discovered during investigations in the late 80s and early 90s. Many settlements were, located on arable land, which means that the degree of preservation varies. An important limitation, which influences our interpretation, is that only parts of the settlements have been investigated.

    The discussion is divided into four main themes on different levels of interpretation. The first theme is the construction and function of the houses. Variations in construction, function and size are the basis for a proposal of a house chronology for Uppland and the Mälar valley area. The houses are characterised by a three aisled construction, which lasted almost the whole of the discussed time period. On a more detailed level, there was a large variation, which indicates that the local needs were given much importance.

    The second theme is the structure, variation and main tendencies of the settlement. During the larger part of the period discussed here, the settlements were characterised by scattered settlement sites, which developed in the Roman Iron Age into a successively more concentrated settlement distribution.

    The third theme is the change in settlements based on systems of agriculture and social differentiation, and how these changes influenced the settlement pattern. Such changes are e.g. the emergence of fairly stable settlements and agricultural systems, and the transition from an agriculture dominated by cattle to one based on cultivation.

    The fourth theme discusses the settlement development based on settlement sites and grave fields. Chronologically, the settlement sites thus constitute a complement to the grave-fields. The investigations indicate a high density of settlements at the end of the Early Iron Age in the central agricultural areas. During the Late Iron Age, no such expansion can be seen in these areas, to the extent of a faint decrease in some instances. Thus, both in a synchronic and diachronic perspective the population must have been decisively larger than what was previously thought. Consequently, the visible graves on the grave-fields must have been constructed for a small part of the population, and variations in the grave frequency must also be considered.

  • 8.
    Hagström Yamamoto, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    I gränslandet mellan svenskt och samiskt: Identitetsdiskurser och förhistorien i Norrland från 1870-tal till 2000-tal2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis studies the representation of prehistory as a part of the making and remaking of ethnic identities in Northern Sweden from the end of the 19th Century until today, thus dealing with archaeology and prehistory in relation to issues such as identity, memory and politics.

    The thesis takes as its point of departure the constitution of a Swedish national identity and memory in the late 19th Century and subsequent decades, followed by studies of, mainly later, representations of Sámi, Kvenish (“Kvänsk”) and North Bothnian (“Norrbottnisk”) collective identities. The study material consists of texts, primarily analyzed through discourse and narrative analysis.

    The thesis demonstrates how the constitution of a Swedish national identity in Northern Sweden constructed a dichotomy between an imagined civilized “Swedishness”, belonging to the future, and an imagined primitive Sámi Other, belonging to the past. It is argued that this discursive boundary work has not just situated some persons and their everyday life in a marginal position as a visible Sámi Other, but has also situated a substantial number of the inhabitants of Northern Sweden more or less in liminality and marginality in relation to the national identity structure. This has created a need for people to officially represent a more satisfactory collective identity, which includes a rewriting of the prehistory of the area.

    The last chapter relates the results to studies of similar cases in colonial and postcolonial contexts outside Europe. The essentialist view of identity and history present in several of the studied representations is also discussed. The thesis emphasizes the importance of a more nuanced view of relationships of ethnicity, domination and subordination, and the associated formation of collective memories, in Northern Sweden. Discourses of ethnicity and domination often function through simplifying dichotomies, but dichotomies alone cannot explain real conditions and consequences of these matters.

  • 9.
    Hegardt, Johan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Fyrtio minuter: En essä om arkeologins berättelser2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Den skandinaviska arkeologin har en lång egen historia. Ämnet skapades under 1800-talets första hälft. Arkeologin, eller fornkunskap som ämnet då kallades, spelade en framträdande roll i nationalstatsbyggandet under hela 1800-talet. Arkeologin var meningsfull för den tidens samhällsbyggare och bildad allmänhet. Så har det också förblivit. Arkeologin spelar alltså en viktig roll för människorna eftersom ämnet berättar historier om hur det var förr. Under 1800-talet och långt in på 1900-talet var detta knappast ett problem. Berättelsen om den västerländska människans och det västerländska samhällets utveckling från ett primitivt ursprung till civilisation och välstånd blev en självklarhet. Denna självklarhet har blivit ett existentiellt signum för många idag och dagens arkeologi fortätter på den inslagna vägen. Andra människor och andra samhällsformer, både idag och i forntiden, utgör den fond mot vilken den västerländska människan kan spegla sig själv. Människor och samhällen primitiviseras och exotiseras, de uppfattas som en sorts bärare av ett förflutet, ett barbariskt ursprung som vi i västvärlden har utvecklats bort ifrån.

    I denna essä problematiseras detta perspektiv inom ramen för en berättelsen om författaren själv, om dennes liv och historia. Arkeologin blir en fond, eller en verksamhet, som granskas i relation till författarens triviala och prosaiska tillvaro. Tanken är att lyfta undan en del av arkeologins vetenskapliga filter, som ligger liksom en slöja över dess verkliga ämne, det vill säga dess förmåga att berätta historier som på både gott och ont har betydelse för oss idag levande människor.

  • 10.
    Hegardt, Johan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Relativ betydelse: Individualitet och totalitet i arkeologisk kulturteori : [individuality and totality in archaeological cultural theory]1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with the epistemological aspects of cultural theory in archaeology. It is argued that the discourse of modem archaeology was formed during the first decades of the 19th century. This discourse has shaped a picture of man which was first questioned by postprocessual archaeologists. A different theory of culture and man is formulated in this dissertation, which also presents a platform for cultural studies built on different epistemological principles. This has helped to establish a critique against the structures, of cultural science and archaeology, making the point that archaeological studies and prehistory are shaped through ideological and social strategies. There is always a risk that the discourse of archaeology is ordered and structured by totalistic principles. This was the case with modem archaeology. In this dissertation an alternative framework is suggested, arguing that an ethical perspective on man and science can help to create a pluralistic archaeology.

  • 11.
    Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Ackulturation och kulturkonflikt: fyra essäer om järnåldersmentalitet2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study consists of four chapters. The first is a source critical analysis of the fragmented poem Rigsþula arguing that the poem, as we know it today, is an excerpt meant to support the editor behind the manuscript Codex Wormianus in his work listing words for male and female peasants that could be used as poetic metaphors in the 14th century on Iceland. The second study seek to demonstrated the parallels between on the one hand the Rigsþula fragment and the poem Fór Skínis and on the other the first four songs of the Hêliand poem, i.e. Song II-V. These essays therefore deal with the upper classes and the way they adjusted to Christianity and Paganism. The two last essays deal with nonsensical runes. The first centres on a group of Viking Age syllabic texts from Uppland. It is argued that they served as a form of galdr or rigmarole. The second deals with the early Iron-Age runes on weapons. They are considered to relate to what Taci-tus termed Barditus, the singing used by the Germans to judge the outcome of a battle. The Viking Age texts are considered to belong to a subculture, and against the background of the older texts they are seen as an example of a lower strata in society trying (in vain) to accommodate both old-fashioned invocations and modern, i.e. strophe-like compositions.

  • 12.
    Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Mellan tal och skrift: Essäer om runinskrifter2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book in Swedish was produced within the Swedish Research Council project Den yngre järnålderns mentalitetshistoria i Sydskandinavien – Late Iron Age South Scandinavia—a Historical Anthropology. It centres on a discussion of three runic inscriptions. The one on the slab from Eggja in Sogndal, Norway, the one on the oath ring from Forsa in Hälsingland and the one on the bridge stone from Eggeby in Uppland (Inscription U69 in Sveriges runinskrifter). The metrical qualities of these, primarily oral, expressions are a reoccurring aspect of the discussion.

  • 13.
    Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Pafnutius and Skírnir's Journey: A discussion of two medieval plays2018Book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    The Early Iron Age in South Scandinavia: Social Order in Settlement and Landscape2009Book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hillerdal, Charlotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    People in Between: Ethncity and Material Identity, a New Approach to Deconstructed Concepts2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In questions concerning ethnicity and cultural identity in prehistory, there is a great divide between the conclusions maintained on a theoretical level of discussion and the interpretations given to material remains, when these theories are practiced on the archaeological material. Inherited scientific and political structures, usage and ideas contribute to our understanding of ethnicity and the everyday use of the concept, and influence archaeological interpretations. By illuminating these inherited preconceptions, they can be deconstructed, and a workable definition of the concepts found. A categorical approach to material culture needs to be abandoned, along with the hope of identifying ethnic groups in an archaeological material. Analyses should instead concentrate on the concept of ethnicity, as a relational, situational social identity created in the prehistoric present.

    The discussion is here approached through case studies set in different contextual situations, displaying great chronological, geographical and political variation, but also revealing some obvious points of contact. Scientific, materialistic, colonial and national perceptions of ethnic groups and ethnicity are penetrated in the case studies of the Varangians in 8th to 10th century Russia, the history of the Métis in Canada from the 18th century till today, and the Swedish speaking population on the island of Ruhnu outside Estonia at the turn of the 20th century. The Varangians are part of the Russian national myth of origin, and have been understood as a Scandinavian people, especially by Scandinavian researchers. Archaeological material of Scandinavian character dating to between the 8th and 11th centuries confirms intense interaction between Russia and Scandinavia in this time period. The Métis trace their roots back to the fur trade era and the encounter between Indian and European traders. Since 1982, they have been recognised as an indigenous people of Canada. The population of Runö was documented as Swedish speaking in the Middle Ages. They were discovered by Swedish ethnography in the 19th century, and interpreted as archaic Swedish. As a consequence of this narrative, the population was evacuated to Sweden in almost its entirety during the Second World War.

    In these cases, scientific, political and ideological aspects of social practice interface with the everyday practices in communities and influence the outward perception of that group’s identity, as well as the self-perception within the community. It can be concluded that the ideological setting is equally important to a historical development as are economic or geographical circumstances. The final chapter introduces an alternative interpretation to the early Scandinavian towns as a disappearing phenomenon towards the end of the 10th century, deduced from the conclusions made in the previous case studies.

  • 16.
    Kaliff, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Bronze Age Håga and the Viking King Björn: A History of Interpretation and Documentation from AD 818 to 20182018Book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Kaliff, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Artursson, MagnusStatens Historiska Museum.Larsson, FredrikStatens Historiska Museum.
    Rasbobygden i ett långtidsperspektiv 1100 BC till 1100 AD - kontinuitet och förändring2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Kaliff, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Østigård, Terje
    Kremation och kosmologi: en komparativ arkeologisk introduktion2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cremation and Cosmology – A Comparative Archaeological Introduction aims to synthesise in an easily accessible style the current state of cremation research and some of the recent interpretations providing new understandings of the past. Since cremation is a highly complicated technological and cosmological process and ritual, part 1 emphasises what has shaped and restricted most of the Western perceptions of cremation. The Christian hell and its torturing fires, Hindu cremations along holy rivers in Nepal and India, and the ancient Vedic traditions have all to various degrees constructed images of what a cremation is, including our understanding of cremation in the past. This comparative part is stressed not only because it is important knowledge in itself, but also because it is a good point of departure for approaching the past and exploring new interpretations of funerals in general and cremations in particular, which have no ethnographic parallels. With mainly examples from Scandinavian Bronze- and Iron Age, in part 2 a wide range of cremation contexts are analysed from different perspectives highlighting new approaches to the materiality of death. A central theme throughout the book is that cremation is not one, but many funeral practices. By stressing this unique character of cremation compared to other burial practices, cremation as a ritual opens up a wide range of opportunities within the sphere of death, which can be studied archaeologically. As such, this book is intended to be an introductory and coarse book for archaeological students studying death and cremation, but hopefully it may also have interest and relevance beyond the archaeological circles.

  • 19.
    Karlenby, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Stenbärarna: Kult och rituell praktik i skandinavisk bronsålder2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis sets out to discuss the Bronze Age cosmology in Scandinavia, based on the results from the investigations at Nibble outside Enköping in Uppland. The excavations were carried out in 2007 and revealed extensive remains of a ritual place with burials, cult houses and food preparation areas. In addition, hundreds of cupmarks and two ship rock carvings were found. The cult place was constructed by moving stones around, gathering them into stone settings, stone walls and heaps of fire-cracked stones. The importance of the stones as cosmological entities is established through this special and deliberate treatment. Nature is transformed into culture. The cult place was established in connection with the construction of a large stone setting at the top of a hillock. Cremated and crushed bones of a man had been placed centrally in the construction, and close by, several cult houses had been erected, complemented by a food preparation area, where sacrificial meals were prepared and eaten.

     

    In many cases, stone settings and heaps of fire-cracked stones are used in similar manners. At a settlement site close to the cult place, there was a heap of fire-cracked stones that contained the cremated bones of a young woman. It had been specially constructed for her burial and contained layers of coal and fire-cracked stones from several cremation pyres. The border between what is a burial and what is not is hard to define. The burnt bones of the dead were handled in much the same way as the burnt stone. They were burnt and crushed, ground to a powder, and restored to the earth. The use of stones in connection with fire and water (and smoke) suggests the existence of a system built on the four elements: stone (earth), fire, water and air. In addition, the existence of a tripartite universe is suggested. Stone settings (and some of the heaps of fire-cracked stones) were constructed as portals to the underground, and the smoke from the funeral pyres was the means of transport to the heaven above.  During the Early Bronze Age, the functions of the warrior and the shaman were often carried out by the same individual. During the Late Bronze Age, however, the functions of the warrior and the shaman seem to have been separated.

     

    The separation of the ritual functions show that a change in ritual practice and cosmology occurred some time in the middle of the Bronze Age. A complete cosmological change was probably not involved, and many older rituals were still carried out in the Late Bronze Age. The relationship between the four elements remained the same, and the treatment of stone in particular remained unchanged. The connection between stone and bone still prevailed, as did the crushing and grinding.

  • 20.
    Lager, Linn
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Den synliga tron: Runstenskors som en spegling av kristnandet i Sverige2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the aims of this dissertation is to classify the crosses that can be found on the Late Viking Age runestones of Scandinavia. The cross-incised runestones are analysed in relation to the overall runestone production of Scandinavia during the Late Viking Age, with a focus on Sweden. The raising of these runestones shows considerable geographical and chronological variation both within Scandinavia and within present day Sweden.

    Another aim is to analyse the raising of runestones in relation to the conversion of Sweden. Since the crosses on the runestones are signs of the Christian faith, and Christianity came to Scandinavia from Europe, the similarities between the shapes of the more complex runestone crosses and the crosses that can be found in the European material are analysed in order to trace Christian influences during the conversion. Most of the similarities are found between the runestone crosses and crosses from the British Isles, which suggests a British presence in Scandinavia and Sweden during the conversion. These conclusions are combined with the information from the analyses of the raising of Scandinavian runestones, and supplemented with information obtained from philological and historical analyses, to present an overall picture of the conversion with a focus on Sweden.

    A third aim is to analyse the ornamentation on the Late Viking Age runestones as a reflection of the cultural and religious changes that took place during the conversion. The ornamentation on the runestones is analysed in relation to contemporary European expressions of Christian faith. This demonstrates that the Late Viking Age runestones are unique as expressions of Christian faith in a European context. The considerable Scandinavian ornamental independence suggests a gradual conversion with a maintained cultural and religious self-confidence. The ornamentation on the runestones is also considered as an iconographic program used actively as a tool in the conversion.

  • 21.
    Landström, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Med Uppsala I centrum: Uppsalaområdet under bronsålder och äldre järnålder in i vendeltid. En arkeologisk förhistoria baserad på områdets miljöförutsättningar och en GIS-utvecklad kartvärld med Mälardalen, Östersjöbäckenet och Europa som bakgrund2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study describes and explains the geographical, economic and power political development in the Uppsalaarea in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age into the Vendel Period. The Uppsalaarea is defined as a rectangular area of 2500 km2 stretching from Vendel in the north to Skokloster in the south, with its central point 10 km north of Uppsala Cathedral.

    The flat terrain in a landscape risen from the sea over the past 6000 years means that the shore displacement and the subsequent landscape development have been important for migration, subsistence, settlement and population development. In the 1990s, 14C datings were used more consistently. This made it possible to clarify the sea levels in the area during the Bronze and Iron Ages. The great differences between north and south and some differences between east and west gradually changed the interactions in the landscape. Based on the reported lowest levels for different parts of theUppsala area, detailed maps were created using GIS technology for 1800, 1400, 1000 and 600 BC, for AD 0 and AD 600. In some analyses, these have been overlaid with layers from the digital soil map or with a rectified soil survey map.

    The area contains tens of thousands of known constructions from the Bronze and Iron Ages catalogued in the Ancient Remains register of the National Heritage Board. Divided into types and sometimes dated, they provide a picture of the area use in different time periods when digitally plotted in their geographical time sequences. The finds of theMälardalenValleyare quite well catalogued and available concerning gold, bronze and weapons and to a certain extent ceramics. Together with increased knowledge of the prehistorical climate, pollen analyses and the external economic and political development, a set of conditions was discerned for theUppsalaarea.

    The key to the area’s development was its strategic position at the edge of the expanding mainland north ofLakeMälaren. The vicinity to earlier cultures, the River Dalälven andÅlandIslandtogether with the possibility of contacts with southern cultures through e.g. the Norrköping area were significant. It was also important that theBaltic Searegion’s population density was highest at the lower deltas of the German/Polish rivers. For thousands of years, that region functioned as a central link towards the Continent and its cultures.

    The development of the boat in the centuries around AD 0 expanded the contacts, mainly through recurrent long-distance travel for catching herring or seal. This is supported by place names and finds with origin from the Mälardalen Valey along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast. However, as indicated by denarii, solidi and other forms of gold, the organized trade and the elite trade were limited. Although agriculture provided a basis for subsistence and cultivation markedly increased during the period under study, agriculture had no dominant position in the area. In spite of what is often stated, fishing, hunting and gathering together played an equal role.

    In theUppsalaarea, the ties to the European “bronze machine” had a serious impact on the area’s involvement in the south-Scandinavian Bronze Age culture, although ties to epineolithic cultures also existed. While the Bronze Age cultures collapsed around the Mediterranean, the northern parts of theMälardalenValleyfelt uneasy. In Periods III-IV this led to collaboration and the markings of territories. Cairns, hill forts and large stone settings as well as the great cult house in Håga were constructed. Nevertheless tensions remained. The Håga mound was probably constructed in an attempt to retain the old order, but towards the end of the Bronze Age, the collaboration withered and there were indications of border zones to power political structures. These disappear during the severe climatological periods in the Pre-Roman Iron Age, when the societal systems deteriorated. They are again visible around AD 0, in the areas between the medieval folk lands, although somewhat more to the north-east regarding Fjädrundaland/Tiundaland.

    The limited resources in theMälardalenValleycaused Helgö to develop into a collaborative project, or at least a protected isle for specialized handicraft and trade for luxury goods. This was theMälardalenValley’s chance to tie in to the international trading networks in the Baltic, which most likely had been directed from Himlingøje and subsequently from the Norwegian Vestlandet.

    Helgö’s decline coincided with the domination of power in the MälardalenValleyby Tiundaland’s predecessor c. AD 600. Reasons for this domination are unknown. The MälardalenValleywas germanized.  After the Roman Period, Fjäd-rundaland’s predecessor/ Västmanland  was no longer an autonomous power. In connection with the climate crisis of the 6th century that lasted through the century, extensive fighting occurred between the precursors to Attundaland and Tiundaland. The fighting ceased around 600 AD, and it seems likely that a federation was formed. Gamla Uppsala became the ideological cement and the royal election site at Mora on the border between Tiundaland and Attundaland became – perhaps together with the three royal mounds – the formal insignia for the federation. The federation formed a power political impasse which, together with the economic situation may be the cause of the slow changes that can be seen in theMälardalenValley in the Vendel Period. The unification of the Valley probably took place in the late Vendel Period/Viking Age. Regardless of this development, Gamla Uppsala became a mythological triumph with reverberations into our time.    

  • 22.
    Larsson, Annika
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Klädd Krigare: Skifte i skandinaviskt dräktskick kring år 1000.2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using textiles as clues, it is shown that, like in the rest of Scandinavia, there is a legible societal shift in favour of a new Christian organization as early as around year 1000 even in the central parts of what is now Sweden, including the, according to Adam of Bremen, “pagan” Mälar valley. During a period of at least a hundred and fifty years, the Mälar valley with Birka in the centre had enjoyed eastern trade, which is reflected in the rich finds of oriental textile fragments in the Birka graves. From archaeological material, images, texts, coins and runic inscriptions it is possible to assess the importance of codes expressed in the dress. Interpretations of the original Rigsthula texts suggest that it belong in an early Christian context, and is reflecting dress practices found in, among other sources, the Bayeux tapestery and early Scandinavian coins. The textiles from Birka differ markedly from the textiles from Sigtuna, this since they are traces from two completely different societies. Birka textiles show contacts with a steppe nomadic culture, while the Sigtuna textiles and runic inscriptions are witnesses of contacts with advanced Christian workshop cultures like Byzantium.

  • 23.
    Ljungkvist, John
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    The development and chronology of the Valsgärde cemetery2008In: Valsgärde studies: the Place and its People, Past and Present: , Uppsala, 2008, p. 13-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the 62 cremation burials at Valsgärde, hitherto never discussed as a contextual whole. A chronology over the entire cemetery is constructed, on the basis of which it is possible to map activities on the site and to investigate the structural development of the cemetery in a long-time perspective. The earliest burials date to the Pre-Roman Iron Age; then, after a lacuna of maybe 400 years, there is a more or less unbroken chain of burials from the Late Roman Iron Age until the earliest, Scandinavian Middle Ages. Variations in burial customs suggest that at times, the cemetery was used for occasional, exclusive burials, whilst at other times it appears to have been used by a community of people of varying status.

  • 24.
    Markus, Felicia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Living on Another Shore: Early Scandinavian Settlement on the North-Western Estonian Coast2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior to the Second World War, there was a Swedish-speaking population settled on the north-western Estonian coasts. The early history of this group is largely unknown. No colonisation is mentioned in the written sources. The earliest such sources that mention Swedes originate in the late thirteenth century. The organisation of land use patterns remains obscure until the sixteenth-seventeenth centuries.

    In early research, these Swedes were viewed as a remnant of an old Germanic indigenous population. In more modern research the colonisation is usually linked to the Danish-German conquest of Estonia in the thirteenth century. It has been suggested that Swedes arrived under the protection of the new Christian landlords, to settle in uninhabited coastal regions that were utilised only extensively.

    In this thesis, previous research relating to the early phase of Swedish settlement, based primarily on studies of the few preserved medieval written documents and on linguistic material, is critically reviewed, as is the existing source material.

    Field investigations using modern methodology have for the first time been conducted in order to introduce new material into the discussion. The results from the Nuckö peninsula and Enby village demonstrate a long period of settlement continuity. Settlement was initiated in the early Iron Age. In the late Viking Period and the early Middle Ages a period of expansion can be observed. Questions of ethnicity and continuity are explored, and it is suggested that the colonisation is best understood in the context of long-term contacts maintained across the Baltic Sea. The settlement is viewed as a spontaneous peasant colonisation. In the late Iron Age-early Middle Ages, there is probably a link to the settlement expansion observable in Scandinavia and in other parts of Europe. It is also quite conceivable that coastal populations from the western side of the Baltic Sea had utilised the special ecological niche associated with these coastal regions even earlier.

  • 25.
    Mejsholm, Lotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Gränsland: Konstruktion av tidig barndom och begravningsritual vid tiden för kristnandet i Skandinavien2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the process of Christianisation in Viking and Medieval Scandinavia through the social constructions of infancy and the beginnings of human life, as expressed in the ideals and practices seen in written and archaeological evidence.

    ‘Childhood’ is regarded as a social construction defined by, and therefore also reflecting, contemporary society. Christianisation is seen as a process, heterogeneous in time, space and manifestations. A point of departure has been to approach each piece of evidence as a closed phenomenon comparable only to itself. This approach has been particularly relevant when examining syncretic burial customs.

    The emerging Christian institutions provided alternatives to the pre-Christian perceptions of birth control and initiating passage rites, most strikingly expressed in the criminalising of infanticide and the introduction of infant baptism. In this thesis, the strategies, processes and ideological foundations behind these changes are investigated and understood in terms of agency, ideal and practice. The results demonstrate that the process of social change brought by Christianisation was expressed in conservative, innovative as well as conciliatory fashions.

    It is argued that initiation rituals as well as regulations on child abandonment and burial practices were strategic tools used to modify the central aspects of the Viking-Age perception of infancy. Traces of conflict or conciliation are primarily found in issues relating to children as agents of the family and inheritance lines, which suggest that the ongoing establishment of the Church in some respects challenged the traditional autonomy of the households.

  • 26.
    Menander, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Den goda döden: Arkeologiska studier av gravar och begravningspraxis i S:t Olof konventet i Skänninge2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ”The Good Death,” an archeological study of graves, burial rituals and practices at the Dominican convent St. Olof in Skänninge, is a dissertation arising out of the large grave materials from various archeological investigations of the convent. A total of six investigations have been made of the convent within the framework of the so called Skänninge Project (Skänningeprojektet). In a number of these excavations, graves from the burial ground of the Dominican convent have been more or less in focus. In total, 287 graves have been excavated, generally showing great homogeneity of interment practices. The majority of the graves lacks all kind of grave goods, and most of the deceased have been interred without a coffin.

    The overall focus has been on understanding the graves and the burial customs in a contemporaneous and situational context. The dissertation does not primarily focus on the Dominican order in itself, although it works as a major actor in the framework of the graves. For this purpose, a so-called archeothanatological method is used to analyze the burials. The intention is thus to clarify general features in the funeral tradition in the convent, and their possible connection to the role of the Dominicans as ritual specialists. In this context, the interior design of the Dominician church has also played a significant role, which is important for the choice of burial site as well as for the rituals performed for the deceased. Therefore, it is primarily a dissertation that deals with medieval burials and funeral rituals, but in a special context. The object has been to use the graves as an important archaeological source material, partially studied with new methods, to create new questions. These questions are discussed an analyzed in the light of other archaeological finds, as well as historical and other source materials.

  • 27.
    Meurman, Richard
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Silverberg i Järnbärarland. Bergshanteringens begynnelse i ljuset av Schmidt Testhammardateringar2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation describes the development of a new method for relative datings of mines and quarrries ofpreviously unknown age. The method is known as the Testhammer dating method, and uses an instrument,Schmidt's Testhammer, originally invented in 1948 for measuring the solidity of concrete. Since the 1960s, theTesthammer has been utilised within different archaeological and geological projects around the world.During the 1990s, the method has been used at Umeå University for relative datings together with otherdating methods such as lichenometry. Since 1994 it has been possible to use the Testhammer as acomprehensive dating method due to the invention of the Differential test.

    The main object for testing is the Sala Silvermine together with a large number of small abandoned minesin the Sala mining area. The results of the datings indicate that the mining industry in the Sala area is mucholder than previously thought, starting in the 11 th century AD. As a comparison, a well-known medievalsilvermine, Stollberg (Väster silvberg), in the Dalama province, has been investigated using the samemethod.

  • 28.
    Norr, Svante
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    To rede and to rown: Expressions of early Scandinavian kingship in written sources1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is early Scandinavian kingship, and the analysis is based on a number of written sources and runic inscriptions. A study of early Germanic kingship focuses primarily on the development of Gothic kingship from the fourth to the sixth century. The royal attributes expressed in kennings and heiti in Ynglingatal are analysed, showing that the poem presents the development of kingship as a process in four stages. The dating of this work and its style of composition is also discussed. A study of the chapters in Ynglinga saga which deal with King Ingiald illráði examines the role of counsel, the political structure of the Svear and high kingship as a structural problem. Vita Anskarii is analysed with particular emphasis on the interaction between kings, noblemen and the 'people' in political decision-making. Finally, the associations between kings and runes are discussed, and the inscription of the Sparlösa stone is reinterpreted as a monument over a royal succession.

  • 29.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Det andra påseendet. [D. 1], En studie av övergångar i den arkeologiska disciplinens historia2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is the transition in the early 19th century Scandinavian view of the past, from a "poetic" or mythological past to the empirical and reified past. In early 19th century, the first antiquarian journals primarly contained poems and the world of imagination and empirical reality were considered of equal merit. Scientifically-oriented archaeology, on the other hand, aims from the very beginning to divide the speculative from the scientific. The historical relationship between romanticism/the power of imagination and science/reason is discussed. The formation of archaeology as a discipline is also discussed and formulated as a "second glance" within a critical confrontation with the romantic abandonment. Different diagnostic classifications and concepts (such as the three-age system and typology) are analysed as created in order to master the past. The honoured empiristic ideals, however, are also backed up by values in which the secrets of authority is enclosed. The commitment to a system of liabilities and responsibilities is discussed as a morality, vital for the development of the discipline. The consequences of this unity between morals and science are then discussed as a historical relation. It is argued that the scientific character itself is a historical burden, where the subjective desires and the institutional demands constitute each other on a negative level. This negative character of archaeology is discussed in relation to the human dimension, archaeology's possibilities to embrace a cultural concept, and in terms of irregularities which in itself could be irrational, since it counteracts the insight in to the consequences of knowledge.

  • 30.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Det andra påseendet. D. 2, Den omvända diskursen2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of two parts. The subject of the first part of the thesis is the transition in the early 19th century Scandinavian view of the past, from a "poetic" or mythological past to the empirical and reified past. In early 19th century, the first antiquarian journals primarly contained poems and the world of imagination and empirical reality were considered of equal merit. Scientifically-oriented archaeology, on the other hand, aims from the very beginning to divide the speculative from the scientific. The historical relationship between romanticism/the power of imagination and science/reason is discussed. The formation of archaeology as a discipline is also discussed and formulated as a "second glance" within a critical confrontation with the romantic abandonment. Different diagnostic classifications and concepts (such as the three-age system and typology) are analysed as created in order to master the past. The honoured empiristic ideals, however, am also backed up by values in which the secrets of authority is enclosed. The commitment to a system of liabilities and responsibilities is discussed as a morality, vital for the development of the discipline. The consequences of this unity between morals and science are then discussed as a historical relation. It is argued that the scientific character itself is a historical burden, where the subjective desire and the institutional demands constitute each other on a negative level. This negative character of archaeology is discussed in relation to the human dimension, archaeology's possibilities to embrace a cultural concept, and in terms of irregularities which in itself could be irrational. since it counteracts the insight in to the consequences of knowledge. In the second part of the thesis the background as well as the method used is elaborated and put in context. The thesis is the result of a reversed discourse that take its departure from the ambiguous character of archaeology. This ambiguity, it is stressed, is scientifically constructed and relates to different views of the role of archaeology as well as views of the past, culture and what it means to be human. The reified theory which has dominated the view of the past is critized as being a-historical and an obstacle preventing other views of the past to emerge. The historical persistency of certain questions, which is analyzed in the first part, is discussed as subordinated humanistic ideals that points at new directions of thought and practice in archaeology. These new ideals and values could and has already opened up new agendas and areas of research true to new concepts of what it means to be scientific and an archaeologist. These different views of archaeology, it is stressed, reflects a new insight into a postmodern non-uniformity in archaeological thinking and practice.

  • 31.
    Ojala, Carl-Gösta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Sámi Prehistories: The Politics of Archaeology and Identity in Northernmost Europe2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the history of archaeology, the Sámi (the indigenous people in northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula in the Russian Federation) have been conceptualized as the “Others” in relation to the national identity and (pre)history of the modern states. It is only in the last decades that a field of Sámi archaeology that studies Sámi (pre)history in its own right has emerged, parallel with an ethnic and cultural revival among Sámi groups.

    This dissertation investigates the notions of Sámi prehistory and archaeology, partly from a research historical perspective and partly from a more contemporary political perspective. It explores how the Sámi and ideas about the Sámi past have been represented in archaeological narratives from the early 19th century until today, as well as the development of an academic field of Sámi archaeology.

    The study consists of four main parts: 1) A critical examination of the conceptualization of ethnicity, nationalism and indigeneity in archaeological research. 2) A historical analysis of the representations and debates on Sámi prehistory, primarily in Sweden but also to some extent in Norway and Finland, focusing on four main themes: the origin of the Sámi people, South Sámi prehistory as a contested field of study, the development of reindeer herding, and Sámi pre-Christian religion. 3) An analysis of the study of the Sámi past in Russia, and a discussion on archaeological research and constructions of ethnicity and indigeneity in the Russian Federation and the Soviet Union. 4) An examination of the claims for greater Sámi self-determination concerning cultural heritage management and the debates on repatriation and reburial in the Nordic countries.

    In the dissertation, it is argued that there is a great need for discussions on the ethics and politics of archaeological research. A relational network approach is suggested as a way of opening up some of the black boxes and bounded, static entities in the representations of people in the past in the North.

  • 32.
    Ojala, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    I bronsålderns gränsland: Uppland och frågan om östliga kontakter2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In archaeological research, the province of Uppland has often been viewed as the northern ‘periphery’ of the Nordic Bronze Age region. At the same time, many researchers have also emphasized the distinctive and ‘independent’ regional character of Uppland and northern Mälardalen. Throughout the twentieth century, Late Bronze Age contacts between Uppland and areas to the east – especially Finland, the Baltic countries and Russia – were much discussed and played an important role in the creation of Mälardalen as a distinctive Bronze Age region.

    This dissertation examines how images of the Late Bronze Age in the Mälardalen region, more specifically Uppland, have been formed from the late nineteenth century until today, and how views on eastern contacts have affected interpretations of Bronze Age Uppland.

    The study consists of three parts: 1) A critical discussion on political dimensions of archaeology and archaeological concepts of contact, interaction, similarity and difference, with a special focus on Bronze Age research. 2) A historical examination of representations of the Late Bronze Age in Mälardalen and Uppland, including a discussion about contacts with northern Sweden and a case study of Broby, a Late Bronze Age site near Uppsala. 3) An analysis of debates on contacts between Mälardalen and areas further to the east, through case studies of bronze axes, so-called Mälar celts and Ananino celts, ceramics and inhumation burials. In the analysis, special focus is placed on the Volga-Kama region in Russia and archaeological research in Russia and the Soviet Union.

    The study shows that discussions on contacts and interaction between ‘East’ and ‘West’ have, in many ways, been affected by the changing political situation during the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Knowledge about archaeological research in Russia and the Soviet Union has been very limited among archaeologists in Sweden. In order to further investigate the character and importance of eastern contacts during the Late Bronze Age, more collaboration and exchange between researchers in the different countries is needed. Furthermore, in order to better understand eastern contacts, it is also necessary to investigate in greater depth the relations between Mälardalen and northern Sweden.

  • 33.
    Peyroteo Stjerna, Rita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    On Death in the Mesolithic: Or the Mortuary Practices of the Last Hunter-Gatherers of the South-Western Iberian Peninsula, 7th–6th Millennium BCE2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The history of death is entangled with the history of changing social values, meaning that a shift in attitudes to death will be consistent with changes in a society’s world view.

    Late Mesolithic shell middens in the Tagus and Sado valleys, Portugal, constitute some of the largest and earliest burial grounds known, arranged and maintained by people with a hunting, fishing, and foraging lifestyle, c 6000–5000 cal BCE. These sites have been interpreted in the light of economic and environmental processes as territorial claims to establish control over limited resources. This approach does not explain the significance of the frequent disposal of the dead in neighbouring burial grounds, and how these places were meaningful and socially recognized. The aim of this dissertation is to answer these questions through the detailed analysis of museum collections of human burials from these sites, excavated between the late nineteenth century and the 1960s.

    I examine the burial activity of the last hunter-gatherers of the south-western Iberian Peninsula from an archaeological perspective, and explain the burial phenomenon through the lens of historical and humanist approaches to death and hunter-gatherers, on the basis of theoretical concepts of social memory, place, mortuary ritual practice, and historical processes. Human burials are investigated in terms of time and practice based on the application of three methods: radiocarbon dating and Bayesian analysis to define the chronological framework of the burial activity at each site and valley; stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen aimed at defining the burial populations by the identification of dietary choices; and archaeothanatology to reconstruct and define central practices in the treatment of the dead.

    This dissertation provides new perspectives on the role and relevance of the shell middens in the Tagus and Sado valleys. Hunter-gatherers frequenting these sites were bound by shared social practices, which included the formation and maintenance of burial grounds, as a primary means of history making. Death rituals played a central role in the life of these hunter-gatherers in developing a sense of community, as well as maintaining social ties in both life and death.

  • 34.
    Peyroteo Stjerna, Rita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    von Hackwitz, KimUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Ancient Death Ways: Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices. Uppsala, 16–17 May 20132015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ancient Death Ways – proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices, contains articles of the work in progress presented and discussed at the Ancient Death Ways 2013 meeting, which was organised around three main themes: current research, landscapes of death, and defining death. The diversity of case studies and subjects tackled by the participants reflects the richness of the field of archaeological research concerning death studies. This book does not aim to be a treaty on the archaeology of death in 2013, but rather a straightforward outcome of the sessions. The series of eight articles is introduced and closed by two commentary essays from two of the moderators of the workshop.

  • 35.
    Ros, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Sigtuna: Staden, kyrkorna och den kyrkliga organisationen2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focuses especially on the late Viking period and the early Middle Ages. Special emphasis is laid on the town of Sigtuna and the three provinces of Tiundaland, Attundaland and Fjädrundaland (the territory now known as Uppland). Excavations in Sigtuna, including my own, were the beginning of the study. The dissertation is divided into two parts. Part I deals with urbanisation and with Sigtuna town. A hypothesis as to why Sigtuna was founded is presented. The aspects discussed include the social structure, property rights and Olof Eriksson Skötkonung´s coinage. The results of two major archaeological investigations in the town are summarised.

    Part II deals with the Church´s mission and the ecclesiastical organisation. The mission to Sweden is surveyed. Earlier research on the Sigtuna churches is summarised and new hypotheses are presented. The reason why the episcopal see was moved from Sigtuna to Gamla Uppsala in the 1130s is discussed. The growth of the ecclesiastical organisation and the formation of the rural parishes are also discussed. The study is extended until the 1270s, when the archi-episcopal see was moved from Gamla Uppsala to Östra Aros (Uppsala).

  • 36. Rosberg, Karin
    Husbyggande i Östra Mellansverige 750–1100 e. Kr.: Förändringsprocesser i byggtraditionen2019 (ed. 160)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The book covers the transition from internal load-bearing posts to load-bearing outerwalls with framework and subsequently corner timbering. Non-earthfast framework wascommon in Middle Sweden long before it was common in Southern Scandinavia. Thebook also discusses the connections to corner timbering in Rus' and in Norway.

  • 37.
    Sundkvist, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Hästarnas land: Aristokratisk hästhållning och ridkonst i Svealands yngre järnålder2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the dissertation is to discuss aristocratic horse-keeping and riding in Late Iron Age central Svealand (e. 550-1060 AD).

    Horse keeping is studied against the background of historical sources. Horses have been kept out of doors all year round in many areas, with or without human supervision. This was probably also the case during the Iron Age. The system makes possible to keep a herd of horses as an extra resource. The number and quality of these horses could have contributed to their owners' power, wealth and status.

    Horse-related artefacts from four sites, the boat-grave cemeteries Valsgärde, Vendel, and Tuna in Alsike parish, and the chamber graves from Birka are analysed from a functional viewpoint, focusing on the bits. These are all shown to be snaffle bits.

    The iconography of Gotlandic picture-stones, runestones from Uppland and picture foils on helmets from Vendel, Valsgärde and Sutton Hoo show proud, well-trained horses on slack reins. This is likely to reflect the ideal of how horses should perform.

    The sagas are used to discuss the 'ideal' horse of the era. Although the pedigree was of some importance, the quality of the horse was more dependent on abilities such as power and speed.

    Birds of prey and sighthounds occur in c. 30 graves in Sweden. These varieties of hunting are closely connected to the use of the horse, and to the aristocracy. The find assemblages of graves with birds of prey place 40 % of these graves on the highest social level. Mounted falconers are depicted on runestones and picture-stones.

    The military use of the horse is discussed in two case studies: a comparative analysis of the 10th century graves with horses/horse tack and weapons in Birka and the boat-grave cemeteries, and a study on the horses, tack and riding depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry. The grave study supports the theory that the southern part of Hemlanden was the cemetery of the hird. On the Bayeux tapestry horses and riders alike are shown to be well trained. The movements terre à terre and carriere, known from the written records of the baroque, was clearly used by these 11th Century riders.

  • 38.
    Svedjemo, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Landscape Dynamics: Spatial analyses of villages and farms on Gotland AD 200-17002014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with the long-term dynamics and fluctuations of settlements on Gotland for the period from AD 200 up until early modern times. The settlement structure on Gotland is most often described as very stable and consisting of solitary farms, established in the Iron Age. A contrasting view is presented by analyses of a vast source material from different periods.

    The source material consists of both physical remains, noted in the Swedish national Archaeological Sites Information System, FMIS and large scale historical maps, as well as other written sources. For the first studied period, the locations of some 2 000 houses are known, since they were constructed with sturdy stone walls and are thus preserved. The source material for the following periods is scarcer, but some hundred Viking Age sites are identified, mainly by the find places of silver hoards. By retrogressive analyses of historical maps, from the decades around the year 1700, and other written sources, later periods are analysed. All available data are gathered in geodatabases, which enables both generalised and detailed spatial and statistical analyses.

    The results of the analyses show a more varied picture, with great fluctuations in the number of farms; the existence of villages is also clearly indicated in a large part of the settlements. The villages are centred on kinship and the lack of strong royal power or landed gentry meant they were not fixed in cadastres, as fiscal units, as villages were on the Swedish mainland.

    Two peaks, followed by major dips, were identified in the number of settlements and thus in the population. The first peak occurred during the late Roman Iron Age/Migration period, which was followed by a reduction in the Vendel period of possibly up to 30-50%. After this, a recovery started in the Viking Age, which culminated during the heydays of Gotland in the High Middle Ages, with population numbers most probably not surpassed until late in history. This upward trend was broken by the diminishing trade of Gotland, the Medieval agrarian crisis, The Danish invasion and later events. All this resulted in a decline, probably as great as after the Migration period.

  • 39.
    Vogel, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Vardagslivets aktiva oförändring: En studie av kultur genom arkeologi och stenåldersboplatser2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the Mesolithic has a long tradition. Two central areas of this tradition are: the spatial organisation of sites as an archaeological category, and hunter-gatherers as a theoretical concept. The thesis addresses tradition, both regarding the history of archaeology itself, and as a way to enable a link between cultural process and space as an archaeological source: Spatial patterns can thus be understood as materialized normative behaviour, where day-to-day action has been repeated because it was carried by historically conditioned institutions. Concepts such as everyday routines, institutions and disciplinary technology form the basis of four case studies where they meet the archaeological record by studying the relationship between autonomous units.

    The first case study uses correspondence analysis to examine whether and how, sites with a normative spatial pattern, differs from other types of sites in the landscape. The second case-study utilizes the concept of disciplinary technology, which implies the power of materiality to create and conserve structures over time. The excavations of Lasse's hut in Vuollerim and the detailed documentation of the parallel Norpan 2, gave the opportunity to explore specific topics about the house as a template for social practice. In the third case, a long-term perspective is applied on the relationship between units. The primal idea is that usually inarticulate norms, in situations of uncertainty, such as shifts between epochs, require reinforcement in order to survive and therefore also leave visible material traces. The topic for the fourth case-study is whether the material remains structured in space is relevant for more specific questions about the relationship between units. With the concept of “value”, the sites in Vuollerim are investigated as arenas for social negotiation, through a study of quartz-scrapers.

  • 40.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. SSEESS KvA.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Landscapes of Mortuary Practices2015In: Ancient Death Ways: Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices, Uppsala, May 2013 / [ed] Kim von Hackwitz & Rita Peyroteo-Stjerna, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015, p. 143-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    LANDSCAPES OF MORTUARY PRACTICES2015In: Ancient Death Ways : Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices. Uppsala, 16–17 May 2013 / [ed] Kim von Hackwitz & Rita Peyroteo Stjerna, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia , 2015, p. 143-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free Fulltext in the main post, Ancient Death Ways

    This paper focuses on the question of how a landscape perspective can contribute to the understanding of mortuary practices. By applying basic GIS methodology, we argue that it is possible to add additional dimensions to an understanding of the management of burials. The starting point is that the selection of locations and spatial relations of burials should be considered an expression of the norms and values that were important for the society that created the burials and organised the landscape. To illustrate this we use two case studies: The Passage Graves of Karleby, Falbygden and the Pitted Ware burials in Eastern Middle Sweden, Lake Hjälmaren.

  • 42.
    Wallin, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Perfect Death: Examples of Pitted Ware Ritualisation of the Dead2015