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  • 1.
    Bianchi, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Runor som resurs: Vikingatida skriftkultur i Uppland och Södermanland2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Viking Age rune-carvers and their readers used runes as a semiotic resource to convey and structure the messages on rune-stones. An analysis of the ways in which this resource is used together with other resources gives us a deeper insight into the relationship between writers and readers and into the written culture in which the rune-stones were produced.

    The present study treats runic carvings as multimodal texts in which different semiotic modes produce meaning by visual and verbal means. The roles played by runes in such texts are studied from three different perspectives. The empirical study in chapter 3 investigates how the verbal messages of the inscriptions interrelate with ornamental compositions. The most important convention found is that runic inscriptions usually start in the lower left part of the ornamental band in which they are inscribed. A second result is that there is a certain correlation between the visual and syntactic structure of runic texts. In chapter 4, Södermanlandic inscriptions employing more than one writing system are investigated. These carvings can be tied to a context of high social ambition in which at least two different, socially stratified discourses are expressed by means of the runes as a visual semiotic mode. Chapter 5 is devoted to non-lexical inscriptions, showing that such carvings are indeed runic texts despite their lack of verbal message.

    Different types of readers can use runic resources in different ways. Firstly, runes carry meaning independent of any verbal message, giving them significance even to illiterate readers. Secondly, literate readers can appreciate certain conventions of runic composition and, thirdly, one and the same runic text can be part of different discourses and hence be aimed at different kinds of readers.

  • 2.
    Elmevik, Lennart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Peterson, LenaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Projektet De vikingatida runinskrifternas kronologi: En presentation och några forskningsresultat1989Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Fridell, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Två medeltida kvinnonamn i runinskrifter på sländtrissor2004In: Blandade runstudier 3, Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk vid Uppsala universitet , 2004, p. 9-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Lagman, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    De stungna runorna: Användning och ljudvärde i runsvenska steninskrifter1990Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Yrrunan: Användning och ljudvärde i nordiska runinskrifter2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to study the use of the ýr-rune in Scandinavian runic inscriptions. The rune, in the shapes m (older) and z (younger), originally denoted /R/, i.e. palatal r, which eventually merged with /r/. The time of the merger and the relationship between /R/ och /r/ has traditionally been regarded as uncertain, and how /R/ was phonetically realized has been a matter of debate. Based on the available information, it is suggested that /R/ could be described as a palatal fricative. The main difference between /R/ och /r/ could, therefore, have been that the former was realized as a fricative, the latter as a trill/approximant.

    The use of the ýr-rune is unproblematic in the inscriptions carved in the older runic alphabet: it is, with one uncertain exception, consistently used for etymological /R/. During the Viking Age, a significant change takes place, manifested by the gradual and eventually complete dominance of the reið-rune, r. We are not, however, dealing with an irregular alternation between the two runes, since r used for original /R/ is rather common, whereas z used for original /r/ is most uncommon.

    The transition /R/ > /r/ first occurs in position after dental and alveolar consonants, then after other consonants and finally after vowels. A regional difference is also clear: the use of the ýr-rune to denote /R/ dies out much earlier in Western Scandinavia than in Eastern Scandinavia.

    The ýr-rune was also used to denote a number of vowels, in Western Scandinavia /y/, in Eastern Scandinavia several different vowels, probably all unrounded: /e(:)/, /i(:)/ and /æ(:)/. The use of the ýr-rune for /y/ in Eastern Scandinavia is first recorded in the mediaeval inscriptions.

    The denotation of older /R/ in Viking Age inscriptions shows considerable intra- and extralinguistic variation, aspects which receive attention in the present work. The ýr-rune continues to denote older /R/ during the early Middle Ages, primarily in Gotland, occasionally also in Denmark, Småland, Södermanland, Västergötland and Öland; the conclusion drawn is that /R/ still existed at least into the 13th century.

  • 6.
    Larsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Williams, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Förord2004In: Blandade runstudier 3 / [ed] Lennart Elmevik och Lena Peterson, 2004, p. 7-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Pereswetoff-Morath, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Vikingatida runbleck: Läsningar: Korpuskatalog till doktorsavhandling2019Other (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Peterson, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Svenskt runordsregister2006 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume comprises a word index to the Swedish Viking Age runic inscriptions, excluding proper names. The index is based on the runic text material stored on computer at the Department of Scandinavian Languages, Uppsala University. This material consists of all known inscriptions on stone from the period c. 800 – c. 1100 within the medieval boundaries of Sweden. Besides inscriptions published in Sveriges runinskrifter (Stockholm 1900–), inscriptions published elsewhere are included, as well as unpublished inscriptions (recorded at the Antikvarisk-topografiska arkivet, Stockholm).

  • 9.
    Snædal, Thorgunn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Medan världen vakar: Studier i de gotländska runinskrifternas språk och kronologi2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation investigates the language of the runic inscriptions of Gotland and its development during the extended period of runic writing on the island. The oldest inscriptions are from the migration period (200–500 AD), the youngest from the beginning of the 17th century.

    The ca. 250 inscriptions are presented in chronological order and the changes in the sound- and declension-system of the language are described.

    In Old Gutnish the nine short and long vowels of common Nordic are reduced to six of each. While a-mutation (Umlaut) and u-mutation occur less frequently than in other Scandinavian areas, i-mutation is more common, although the rules of i-mutation in Old Gutnish are somewhat obscure.

    Of the five diphthongs two, ei and ey, are locally restricted variants of ai and oy, respectively. Broken and affricated forms are common and used alongside with unbroken and unaffricated forms: hier/hér, ier/ir, giara/gera etc. Also some consonants vary within certain words during most of the period: yftiR/yptir, húsfroya/húsproya etc. The case declension is regular and does not change much over the centuries.

    The investigation shows that Old Gutnish changed but slowly and the development towards the Gotlandic dialect of today had only just begun when the runes disappear at the beginning of the 17th century.

  • 10.
    Stille, Per
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Runstenar och runristare i det vikingatida Fjädrundaland: En studie i attribuering : eine Studie in Attribuierung1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to attribute all rune-carvings from the late Viking Age in a small area in central Sweden, Fjädrundaland.

    Notation and terminology are discussed exhaustively and a suggestion is proffered regarding how runic texts should be rendered. The 163 carvings that make up the material are presented, and in several cases new readings and interpretations are proposed. The carvings are treated on the basis of criteria from four areas: ornamentation, rune forms, orthography, and formulation. Ornamentation is seen in the perspective of stylistic development, which makes it possible to place the carvings in chronological order. The forms of the runes are described on the basis of a model involving a small number of easily distinguishable variants. The orthographic analysis is founded on a comparison with a normalized form of Rune-Swedish. It is evident that the names of therunes have to a large extent affected the rune-carvers' choice of orthography. Four types of formulas meet in the inscriptions: commemorative formulas, supplemental formulas, prayer formulas, and executor formulas. The study shows that solitary names at the end of texts often refer to those commissioning the stones.

    The relative weight of the various criteria in attributing stones is discussed. The criteria are then applied to the material. The largest proportion of inscriptions in the area can be attributed to 14 different rune-carvers. Four of these, Balli, Eiríkr, Lifsteinn, and Tíðkumi, produced the majority of the carvings in the area. Four carvings, known only through notes recorded by Richard Dybeck, turn out to be probable forgeries. Of the four most prominent carvers in the area, Eiríkr, and Balli are the earliest. Lifsteinn should be seen as a younger associate to Tíðkumi.

  • 11.
    Williams, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    The non-representation of nasals before obstruents - spelling convention or phonetic analysis?1994In: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions, Grindaheim, Norway, 8-12 August 1990 / [ed] James E. Knirk, Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk, Uppsala universitet , 1994, p. 217-222Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Williams, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Till tolkningen av personnamnet kina2004In: Blandade runstudier 3 / [ed] Lennart Elmevik & Lena Peterson, Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk, Uppsala universitet , 2004, p. 77-86Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Towards the interpretation of the personal name kina

    The runic sequences kina in Sö 196, DR 412, N 815, and [kinu] (ack.) in Öl 10 have been interpreted as representing personal names. For the first two inscriptions a putative Old Scandinavian female name Ginna (from Ginnlaug) has been suggested, and for the third Kin(n)a (from Kristina) or a putative male name Ginna. The fourth record was left uninterpreted by the most recent investigator.

    The present author discusses the interpretations of the individual inscriptions and seeks to demonstrate that we are dealing with the same, male, name in all four inscriptions. There are two realistic possibilities, either Ginna (from the verb ginna ‘to dupe, fool one; to decoy, entice’) or Gína (from the verb OWScand gína ‘to gape, yawn’). In either case we are dealing with a name of the so-called Sturla type. The alternative Gína conforms better to known types of (original) bynames, cf. especially the semantically and derivationally identical byname Glufsa ‘he who scuffs, guzzles (down), gobbles (down)’. The male personal name Gína would then mean ‘he who gapes, scuffs’ or ‘he who gobbles or is ravenous’.

  • 13.
    Williams, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Åsrunan. Användning och ljudvärde i runsvenska steninskrifter1990Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The runic alphabet in the Viking Age (ca. 800-1100) only consisted of 16 characters. These did not cover the Rune-Swedish phoneme system. One of the runes, the so-called os-rune, was used for at least 8 different phonemes. By tradition it has been used to date Viking Age runic inscriptions in the Scandinavian countries. The present work investigates the phonetic and phonemic value of the os-rune in Rune-Swedish inscriptions on stone, altogether 1,745 instances in 961 inscriptions. On the basis of the analysis, the accepted view of the chronological value of the os-rune is assessed, and is found to be non-valid. The regional variations in the use of the os-rune are also studied, particularly in the context of individual rune-carvers, but also to see if any dialectal variation is discernable. It is found that there is a marked consistency in the use of the os-rune for either rounded or unrounded vowels. Inscriptions, where both uses occur, are concentrated to one small geographical area. There are also areas, where the use of the os-rune for rounded vowels is the rule.

  • 14.
    Williams, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Larsson, PatrikUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Blandade runstudier 32004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume comprises seven studies on personal names in Scandinavian runic inscriptions. Six of the papers were originally presented at a seminar held on 10 May 2003 under the heading “Runor och namn” (‘Runes and names’) at the Royal Gustavus Adolphus Academy for Swedish Folk Culture in Uppsala; the seventh paper (Fridell’s) fits in with the theme of the seminar. The studies illustrate various aspects of runic research: previously interpreted names turn out to be open to alternative interpretations, characters regarded as runes are revealed not to be runes, a reordering of a runic text yields an interpretation of a hitherto unexplained sequence of runes and also, in one case, turns a common noun into a personal name.

  • 15.
    Åhlén, Marit
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Runristaren Öpir: En monografi1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
1 - 15 of 15
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