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  • 1.
    Nyman, Eva
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Nordiska ortnamn på -und2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, an investigation and classification of Scandinavian place-names in -und is undertaken. The thesis comprises two main sections: Part 1, containing a review of earlier research and discussions of broader issues, and Part 2, consisting of studies of, individual names, arranged inalphabetical order. The name studies provide the material on which the discussions in Part 1 are based.

    It has long been recognized that -und names do not constitute a uniform group, but can be broken down into three main formational types. Two of these consist of derivative forms, created by the addition of -und to nouns (denominative) or verbs (deverbative). The third group consists of compound names, with OSw. *-unde, *-under m. `lake' as their final element.

    It turns out that the majority of names in -und are derivatives, with the denominative group by far the larger of the two. In the denominative derivatives, the suffix -und generally indicates that the place is characterized by whatever is expressed by the derivative base, as for example in the island name ONorw. Eikund f. 'the one characterized by oaks'. In the derivatives formed from verbs, -und is an old present participle suffix, as in the river, fiord and island name ONorw.*JQsund f. 'the seething, foaming one'. The -und suffix of both the denominative and the deverbative names appears to go back to the form-nt- of the Indo-European suffix -nt-.

    Derivative names in -und can be found scattered across the old Germanic-speaking parts of Scandinavia, i.e. the whole of Denmark and all but the far north of Norway and Sweden, but are absent from areas not colonized until Viking times.

    These derived place-names appear to be very old. Various dating criteria suggest that they have their roots in a pre-Germanic, Indo-European period, but can generally be dated to the Germanic era.

    The compound -und names represent an entirely separate category. They consist of (original)lake names, occurring within a limited area of southern Sweden. For several reasons, this groupappears to be younger than the derivative place-names: among other things, derived -und namesseem to have served as models for compound forms.

  • 2.
    Vikstrand, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages, Scandinavian Onomastics.
    Gudarnas platser: Förkristna sakrala ortnamn i Mälarlandskapen2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is the employment of a material-based investigation to create a platform for further research into sacral place-names in Scandinavia. The objective has been to delimit and evaluate a corpus of potential sacral place-names within an area selected for study, i.e. the provinces of Södermanland, Uppland and Västmanland in central Sweden.

    The main problem concerns the delimitation of the material, and for this purpose a number of criteria for identifying pre-Christian sacral place-names are established. They should: (1) contain elements with sacral lexical meaning, (2) appear in a pre-historic name setting, (3) be formed according to recognised semantic patterns for sacral place-names and (4) contain elements with known connections to prehistoric Scandinavian religion.

    The thesis comprises a discussion of about 25 sacral elements that occur in place-names, including several names of gods such as Tor, Oden and Frö (Frey). In this discussion an emphasis is put upon questions of demarcation, that is the problems of how to linguistically discern these name-elements from others, and—due to the occurrence of polysemy—to establish when a certain element has a sacral meaning and when it has not. Emphasis is also put upon what is labelled as the local context of the names, that is the complex of other place-names, geographical positions, archaeological sites and finds, of which the sacral place-names form a part. This latter discussion is summarised in the last chapter, where recurrent tendencies in the material are represented by three typical settings: (1) The normal Iron Age settlement. (2) The centre of the community, where the sacral place-name indicates a place of central ritual significance in an egalitarian community. (3) The aristocratic centre, where the sacral place-name is connected with an aristocratic central place.

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