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  • 1.
    Alvarsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Why Go Back to the Old Ways?: Bilingual Education and Ethnoregenesis among the ’Weenhayek of the Bolivian Gran Chaco2012In: The Past Ahead: Language, Culture and Identity in the Neotropics / [ed] Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2012, 1, p. 59-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In southern Bolivia, the ‘Weenhayek people, traditional foragers, have returned to their old ways, at least symbolically. During a cultural festival in 2004 this was openly and publicly manifested with traditional outfit, old songs, and signs in the ‘Weenhayek language. For around half a century their music and language had been muted. Their traditional clothing had been gone even longer. The reason for this switch in attitude towards their own heritage raises questions about the formation of ethnic identity - ethnogenesis as well as ethnoregenesis - in general.

  • 2.
    Barjasteh Delforooz, Behrooz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    The Role of Natural Phenomena in the Rise and Fall of Urban Areas in the Sistan Basin on the Iranian Plateau (Southern Delta)2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul J.J Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend & Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Uppsala University , 2010, p. 221-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In ancient times, and even today, water resources, especially rivers, were the main reasons for the existence of human settlements and the formation of the idea of urbanity in the people's minds. This phenomenon can be seen in all places where ancient civilizations were established, e.g. in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Transoxiana and Sind due to the rivers Nile, Tigries and Euphrates, Amu Darya and Syr Darya and Sind, respectively. The Helmand civilization, therefore, was not an exception. Furthermore, after passing a long distance through a desert, the Helmand River reaches the Sistan basin which is a closed inland delta surronded by terribly dry deserts from every side. This special situation makes the Sistan basin and interesting area for attracting human settlements.

    The abundance of water in the southern delta of the Helmand River, the oldest one of the two deltas, created a suitable environmental situation for the people during the fourth millennium BC to settle and establish the only large urban centre, i.e. Shahr-i Sokhta, in the eastern part of the Iranian plateau in Sistan. Natural phenomena such as climate change at the end of the third millennium BC, long droughts, change of the river bed because of tectonic phenomena at the level of the continental platform and violent dust storms caused people to abandon the area after a thousand year of flourishing. Some settlements were established in different parts of the southern delta in intervals after the collapse of Shahr-i Sokhta up to the 18th century. However, considering the small amount of water this delta received, an urban settlement like Shahr-i Sokhta was never established again. Even in the southern delta, where the inhabitants of Shahr-i Sokhta might have moved, no such large prehistoric urban settlement was found, perhaps due to constant floods, droughts and the famous Wind of One Hundred and Twenty Days which buried buman settlements and blocked the irrigation canals.

  • 3.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ljungkvist, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Innovative Memory and Resilient Cities: Echoes from Ancient Constantinople2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul J.J. Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend and Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University , 2010, p. 391-405Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter uses insights from resilience thinking in analysing a two-thousand-year period of ancient and modern Constantinople, addressing one of the great challenges of the Urban Anthropocene: how to nurture an ecologically sound urbanisation. One of the lessons is that Constantinople maintained a diversity of insurance strategies to a greater degree than  many historical and contemporary urban centres. It invested heavily not only in military infrastructure but also in systems for supplying, storing, and producing food and water. From major granaries and at least four harbours the citizens could receive seaborne goods, but during sieges the trade networks broke down. At those times, when supplies ran dry, there were possibilities to cultivate food within the defensive walls and to catch fish in the Golden Horn. Repeated sieges, which occurred on average every fifty years, generated a diversity of social-ecological memories – the means by which the knowledge, experience, and practice of how to manage a local ecosystem were stored and transmitted in a community. These memories existed in multiple groups of society, partly as a response to the collapse of long-distance, seaborne, grain transports from Egypt. Food production and transports were decentralized into a plethora of smaller subsistence communities (oikoi), which also sold the surplus to the markets of the city. In this way Constantinople became more self-reliant on regional ecosystems. An additional result was that the defensive walls were moved, not in order to construct more buildings but to increase the proportion of gardens and agricultural land. In a comparison with Cairo, it can be seen that these innovations related to enhanced self-reliance in food production made it possible for Constantinople to bounce back from extreme hardships, such as extended sieges, without collapsing into chaos or moral decay. Transformed urban morphology of the city would simply remind residents, through the visual presence of a living garden culture, of the importance of the latter for food security. Without the gardens the long intervals between sieges would probably have been enough to dissolve living memoryHence, the urban  resilience of Constantinople was enhanced, promoting well-established old regimes and traditions of importance for producing ecosystem services to society while at the same time testing and refining new and successful regimes, or in other words through the interplay of memory and innovation. Currently, and even more so in decades to come, the mindsets of urban people hold power in a global arena. Questions related to how the loss of green space in metropolitan landscapes will affect worldviews are worrisome since it is the desires and demands of urban people that will affect future decisions and essentially determine the fate of the planet. People throughout the world, and not least in Western societies, need to be constantly reminded of our dependence on a living planet and stay motivated to support it. Social-ecological memories related to local food production have to be nurtured in urban landscapes as well, and an urban morphology is needed that strengthens ecological awareness across urban populations rather than the opposite.

  • 4.
    Blundell, Geoffrey
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Nqabayo’s Nomansland: San Rock Art and the Somatic Past2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The most significant challenge facing modern southern African rock art research is the integration of rock paint­ings into the construction of San history. This challenge is made all the more difficult because of poor chronologi­cal control over the images. In the absence of reliable dating techniques, the challenge to interdigitate image and history becomes a profoundly theoretical one. Drawing on theoretical studies of body and embodiment, this work takes up the challenge of incorporating rock paintings into the production of the past.

    Primarily concerned with a small area, previously known as Nomansland, in the south-eastern mountains of South Africa, the work uses embodiment as a tool for extending present interpretations of the art before moving on to arguing that a focus on body allows us to detect change in certain images in Nomansland. Finally, embodiment is used to re-evaluate present understandings of the social consumption of the paintings.

    In using embodiment to investigate issues of meaning, change and the production and consumption of San rock art, it becomes clear that this theoretical concept offers a way of incorporating rock paintings into the writing of San history in Nomansland. This work, then, contributes to the broader field of southern African San historiog­raphy, where the question of San interaction with other peoples is sometimes treated too simply and in a manner that is not consistent with broader postcolonial writing.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Concepts of the city-state in ancient Greece2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul J.J. Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend and Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History , 2010, p. 243-259Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Csató, Éva Ágnes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Johanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Stein, Heidi
    Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
    Römer, Claudia
    University Vienna, Austria.
    Brendemoen, Bernt
    Universitetet i Oslo, Norway.
    The linguistic landscape of Istanbul in the seventeenth century2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul Sinclair & Gullög Nordquist & Frands Herschend & Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: African and Comparative Archaeology Department of Archaeology and Ancient History Uppsala University , 2010, p. 415-439Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter studies the urban linguistic environments of Istanbul after the historicalshift brought about by the Ottoman conquest in 1453. The focus is on the seventeenthcentury, when the population doubled – assumedly because of climate changes inAnatolia – and Turkic-speaking groups became dominant. Nevertheless, the townaccommodated a multitude of interacting linguistic codes, that is, languages and dialects,both social and functional varieties. This multilayered linguistic ecological system wasmapped out on the topography of one of the largest urban centres of the time. Distinctivefeatures ensuring sustainability of the linguistic codes in this prenational urban setting areoutlined. For instance, the absence of normative measures implies that codes were usedin complementary functions and no single code was offered or claimed to be used in alldomains of communication.Urban settings call for encounters between speakers of different codes and therebytrigger cross-linguistic communicative habits, such as code copying, that is, copying ofelements or features of a model code into the speaker’s native variety. As a result ofcopying, new, levelled varieties arose. An urban variety of spoken Turkish emerged andserved as a lingua franca. This linguistic landscape of Istanbul ultimately became thebedrock from which modern standard Turkish evolved.Foreigners in urban settings may act as linguistic mediators. Our knowledge of thelinguistic landscape of seventeenth-century Istanbul is based to a high degree on dataprovided by travellers, interpreters (dragomans), and European Orientalists who wroteso-called transcription texts, texts documenting the spoken codes of Istanbul in non-Arabic scripts, mostly Latin. Some of these mediators and their contributions to thedocumentation of the linguistic landscape are presented in this chapter.

  • 7.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Changing Landscapes: An Environmental History of Chibuene, Southern Mozambique2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the dynamics of environmental change and its embeddedness in the long term interactions of social history and rainfall variability through the building of an environmental history of the Chibuene locality, the coastal plain of southern Mozambique, 5 km south of the town Vilanculos, from 400 AD to present day. Land-use practices over time are discussed on the basis of vegetation and land-use history based pollen analysis, charcoal influx and diatom analysis. It is shown that the savanna vegetation is a long term feature of the Chibuene landscapes and that there have been several expansions of savannas and subsequent retractions of forests through time, linked primarily with rainfall variation. Written sources and archaeological material are drawn upon for a discussion on changing practices of environmental management and it is argued that as the Chibuene landscape is marked by a high degree of environmental insecurity, it is the competent management of resources that has enabled the continuous occupation of Chibuene from c. the 7th century AD, through management of natural resources, flexible farming practices and wide reaching social networks. The last two decades have seen a marked change in land-use patterns, reflected in a decrease in forests of the Chibuene area, the reasons for which are complex and needs to be further studied. Interviews with individual elders in the village community provide alternative ways of understanding environmental degradation as merely the loss of disappearance of forests, or the failure of crops due to droughts, but also as the erosion of local power, wars and social unrest. In a similar way, through a long-term perspective this study stresses that socio-political life, climatic variability and environmental dynamics are interlinked, highlighting the importance of the complimentarity of different forms of knowledge and ways of knowing the Chibuene landscape.

  • 8.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    The Resilience of Heritage: Cultivating a Future of the Past. Essays in Honour of Professor2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout his career, Paul Sinclair has encouraged students to pursue a concerned archaeology that goes beyond establishing cultural chronologies to formulating critical inquiries fundamental to our world and for our future. This book honours his achievements by exploring urbanism, resilience and livelihoods, contacts and trade, and heritage and landscape. In the tradition of Paul Sinclair’s eclectic multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary approach to archaeology and historical ecology, this book expands the scope of archaeology by combining the examination of the material record with climatology, paleoecology, ethnography, sociology and archival sources to address both past and present interactions between people and environment. In doing so, the contributions to this volume highlight the value of knowledge about the past in contemporary society.

  • 9.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    The crocodile on Samos or Africa in the Aegean2018In: The resilience of heritage: Cultivating a future ofthe past. Essays in honour of professor Paul J.J. Sinclair / [ed] A. Ekblom; Ch. Isendahl; K.-J. Lindholm, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2018, p. 61-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Eskhult, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Lost in the City: An Essay on Christian Attitudes towards Urbanism in Late Antiquity2010In: The urban mind: cultural and environmental dynamics / [ed] P. Sinclair, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2010, p. 311-328Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Fischer, Svante
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Lejdegård, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Victor, Helena
    The Fall and Decline of the Roman Urban Mind2011In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herrschend & Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia , 2011, p. 277-294Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hesse, Kristina J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Cultural interaction and cognitive expressions in the formation of ancient Near Eastern societies2010In: The urban mind: cultural and environmental dynamics / [ed] Paul J.J. Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend, Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History , 2010, p. 61-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13. Höghammar, Kerstin
    Long-term resilience. The reconstruction of the ancient Greek polis of Kos after earthquakes c.200 BCE-200 CE2010In: Urban Mind. Cultural and environmental dynamics / [ed] P. Sinclair, Uppsala: Inst. för arkeologi och antik historia , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Common Knowledge : lowland Maya urban farming at Xuch2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the second half of the first millennium AD, several large urban communities developed in the Puuc region of the northwest Yucatán Peninsula. Investigations of architecture and ceramics at Xuch provide a spatio-chronological framework demonstrating the rapid growth of an urban settlement culminating in the Terminal Classic, and its subsequent decline. Archaeological, ecological and geochemical data are used to document the development of the Xuch archaeological landscape. At the time of maximum population, urban community structure comprised complexes of monumental civic and ceremonial architecture, extensive areas of residential settlement and vacant urban spaces. Surface and sub-surface data are used to interpret the long-term dynamic relationships between population density, land use patterns and ecology. The results demonstrate that vacant urban spaces formed part of a subsistence strategy emphasizing settlement agriculture. Cost effective methods of data recovery and analysis developed here can be applied elsewhere to obtain spatio-temporal frameworks of archaeological landscapes and rapid appraisals of socio-environmental interactions.

  • 15.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Greening the ancient city: the agro-urban landscapes of the pre-hispanic Maya2010In: The urban mind: cultural and environmental dynamics / [ed] Paul Sinclair, Frands Herschend, Gullög Nordquist and Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Uppsala University , 2010, p. 527-552Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Introducing the Past Ahead2012In: The Past Ahead: Language, Culture, and Identity in the Neotropics / [ed] Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2012, 1, p. 7-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    The Past Ahead: Language, Culture, and Identity in the Neotropics2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Andean cognition the embodiment of the past is different from many other ways to spatiallyrelate the position of the body to time. This epistemology is for instance expressed in the Quechuaword ñawpa, which signifies that the past is “in front of us;” it is known and can be seen. Seeing andknowing the past in this way reverberates within the historical ecological argument that the presentis contingent with the past and is explicitly reflected within the contributions to this volume. “ThePast Ahead: Language, Culture, and Identity in the Neotropics” forms a collection of reworkedpapers originally presented in shorter format by archaeologists, anthropologists, and linguists atthe research symposium “Archaeology and Society in Bolivia” organized at Uppsala University bythe editor. The volume includes chapters by Jan-Åke Alvarsson, Lisbet Bengtsson, Roger Blench,Sergio Calla, Christian Isendahl, Carla Jaimes, John Janusek, Adriana Muñoz, Heiko Prümers,Walter Sánchez, Per Stenborg, Juan Marcelo Ticona, and Charlotta Widmark examining a series ofdifferent aspects of agriculture, complex societies, identities, landscape, languages, and urbanism inthe highland and lowland Neotropics that all highlight the significance of the past in the present.

  • 18.
    Isendahl, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Ticona, Juan Marcelo
    Calla Maldonado, Sergio
    Cultivating the Yungas: Notes on Current Farming at Rasupampa and Tablas Monte2012In: The Past Ahead: Language, Culture, and Identity in the Neotropics / [ed] Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2012, 1, p. 229-259Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    En la corriente dominante de economía del desarrollo agrícola los términos agricultura“pre-industrial,” “indígena” y “tradicional” a menudo se utilizan como sinónimos intercambiablespara los sistemas agrarios considerados como algo estático. Sin embargo, lacreciente evidencia de la investigación arqueológica a escala global presenta un panoramaradicalmente diferente; éstas descripciones de los sistemas de producción de alimentos enel pasado sugieren una diversidad espacial y una variación temporal. Un ejemplo de elloes el paisaje agro-arqueológico que recientemente ha sido descubierto en Rasupampa,en la región de los Yungas del Departamento de Cochabamba, Bolivia. Inicialmente investigado,descrito y documentado por Walter Sánchez (2008), estos restos incluyen unavariedad con respecto a tenencia de la tierra, control de la erosión de la capa superior delsuelo y soluciones de gestión del agua que no han sido reportados en una configuraciónsimilar en otras partes de los Andes. Las investigaciones en curso exploran diferentesaspectos de este agro-sistema y la ecología histórica de los Yungas. Una parte importantede esta investigación es conocer las actuales prácticas agrícolas y sistemas agronómicos deconocimiento locales. Este trabajo resume las prácticas actuales de agricultores en Rasupampay las regiones circundantes, a partir de una serie de entrevistas con los agricultoresde la población de Tablas Monte.

  • 19.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Is there an "urban mind" in Balochi Literature?2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend, Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University , 2010, p. 457-470Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to compare themes in Balochi written literature with those found in Balochi oral literature in search for an “urban mind”. The Balochi language is spoken in south-western Pakistan and south-eastern Iran, as well as by smaller populations outside Balochistan proper. Various estimates give at hand that there may be between 8 and 10 million speakers of Balochi, or even more.

    Childe presents a number of criteria for urbanism which are used in this chapter to determine whether there is an urban mind in Balochi oral and written literature. The five written texts examined in this study all date from the 1950s and onwards, whereas the five oral texts are undated but assumed to be of a much earlier date than the written texts.

    The study shows that in the oral narratives the urban setting is put forth as an ideal. To become a king or the king’s son-in-law or the foremost merchant in the world is what constitutes true success, and not, for example, to become the richest farmer or cattle owner. This urban mind is only present in a fantasy world, however, and in the written literature there is a totally different and this time realistic setting for the stories. Here the scene is not a world where wishes come true, but the harsh reality of Balochistan. Urbanism as an ideal is absent in these stories, and even though urban phenomena are mentioned they are not crucial in any of the written stories.

  • 20.
    Juma, Abdurahman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Unguja Ukuu on Zanzibar: An archaeological study of early urbanism2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes archaeological excavations carried out at Unguja Ukuu on the main island of Zanzibar, Tanzania. The site has long remained obscure, oral histories do not mention it and no particular group among the living community of the island describes its origin from the site. A stone well at Unguja Ukuu together with several other early monuments of the east African coast that survive on the site have been attributed to the Wadebuli, suspected by early scholars to be people of Arab descent from their colonies in India or elsewhere on the Islands of eastern Indian Ocean.

    Surface survey and the drilling of more than 200 cores have defined the lateral extent and the stratigraphy of the site. Unguja Ukuu is a large site (c.16–17 ha) and the study reveals that it is a major center of an African iron-using farming community who occupied it from c. 500 AD. Radiocarbon dating and pottery provide the basis for this chronology.

    The study addresses an old controversy whether some of the pre-stone built settlements that developed on the east African coast could be indications of urbanization. Knowledge of the functional specialization of the settlement prior to its abandonment c. 900 AD is based on the evidence on the density of craft activity, community engagement in the regional trade with the mainland African continent, as far away as Roman Egypt, and in the interregional trade connected to the Indian Ocean, as well as redistribution of foreign merchandise to other sites and areas in the region. These as well as the location of the site linking the external trade and the mainland resource base indicate that Unguja Ukuu was a key urban centre built of mud and timber structures. This challenges our previous understanding of 8–9th centuries AD as the onset of early urbanism on the east African coast. The study proposes cycles of urbanism and emphasizes the need to reassess the problem of early urban identity and the use of wide range of criteria to overcome limitations of previous early urban investigations south of the Sahara and beyond.

    The results of the investigation given in this study are relevant to the history and archaeology of Zanzibar and the rest of East Africa and make a contribution particularly to extending the known time depth of the early urban tradition often conceived to occur in the late first millennium ad.

  • 21.
    Karlström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Preserving Impermanence: The Creation of Heritage in Vientiane, Laos2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the heritage in Vientiane. In an attempt to go beyond a more traditional descriptive approach, the study aims at bringing forward a discussion about the definition, or rather the multiplicity of definitions, of the concept of heritage as such. The unavoidabe tension emanating from a modern western frame of thought being applied to the geographical and cultural setting of the study provides an opportunity to develop a criticism of some of the assumptions underlying our current definitions of heritage.

    For this particular study, heritage is defined as to include stories, places and things. It is a heritage that is complex and ambiguous, because the stories are parallel, the definitions and perceptions of place are manifold and contested, and the things and their meaning appear altered, depending on what approach to materiality is used. The objective is not to propose how to identify and manage such a complex heritage. Rather, it is about what causes this complexity and ambiguity and what is in between the stories, places and things. In addition, the study aims to critically deconstruct the contemporary heritage discourse, which privileges material authenticity, form and fabric and the idea that heritage values are universal and should be preserved for the future and preferably forever.

    In Laos, Buddhism dominates as religious practice. In this context, the notion of material impermanence also governs the perception of reality. Approaches to materiality in Buddhism are related to the general ideas that things are important from a contemporary perspective and primarily as containers for spiritual values, that the spiritual values carry the connection to the past, and that heritage is primarily spiritual in nature and has little to do with physical structure and form. By exploring the concepts of restoration, destruction and consumption in such a perspective, we understand that preservation and restoration are active processes of materialisation. We also understand that destruction and consumption are necessary for the appreciation of certain heritage expressions, and that heritage is being constantly created. With this understanding, this book is an argument for challenging contemporary western heritage discourse and question its fundamental ideology of preservationism.

  • 22.
    Källén, Anna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    And Through Flows the River: Archaeology and the Pasts of Lao Pako2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a story about Lao Pako. Lao Pako is located on a small hill on the southern bank of the river Nam Ngum in central Laos. Four seasons of archaeological fieldwork have yielded considerable amounts of pottery, metallurgical remains, glass beads, stone artefacts, spindle whorls as well as other material and structural information that have created a foundation for interpretation. The archaeological interpretation presents Lao Pako as a place where people came to perform rituals c. 1500 years ago. In these rituals, sophisticated combinations of pottery depositions, infant burials and iron production produced a narrative about what it means to be in the world. Things in and on the ground created, and continue to create, non-verbal sentences about life and death, fertility, decay and worldly reproduction.

    The archaeological interpretation is, however, not the only valid story about Lao Pako. This is a place where spirits are; it is also a tourist resort and a national treasure. These other stories all work to create Lao Pako as a place of interest and are used in this thesis to define the archaeological story, and to visualize the aims and agendas inherent in the production of archaeological knowledge.

    Using the conceptual apparatus of postcolonial and other critical theory, the thesis aims to critically deconstruct the archaeology performed by the author and others. It entails an explicit critique of the deterministic temporal unilinearity that is inherent in the archaeological narrative of the evolution of humankind, as well as against essentialist notions of culture and the dissociation of the past as exotic otherness. Thus, the stories about Lao Pako demonstrate the need to critically revise the role of archaeology in a postcolonial world, and create archaeological stories by which we are touched, moved and disturbed, without resorting to imperialist notions of time and progress.

  • 23.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Environing: The Archaeology of ‘Real Life’ Remains2018In: The Resilience of Heritage: Cultivating a Future of the Past. Essays in Honour of Professor Paul Sinclair / [ed] Anneli Ekblom, Christian Isendahl, Karl-Johan Lindholm, Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2018, p. 243-258Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Wells of Experience: A pastoral land-use history of Omaheke, Namibia.2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The conventional view on the Kalahari in southern Africa expresses that the area is unsuitable for livestock herding. For this reason, it is argued that livestock herders avoided the Kalahari in the past and were only able to establish themselves in the later half of the twentieth century, when deep-reaching boreholes were introduced in the area. An effect of this concept was that the archaeological record of pastoralists in the Kalahari either was perceived as non-existent or received little attention from scientific enquiry.

    Based on an archaeological survey in the Kalahari of the northeastern part of Namibia, the purpose of this study is to construct an alternative approach to the archaeology of livestock herding. The aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the areas unrecorded land-use history.

    I depart from the notion that the main ecological constraint for dryland pastoralism is the availability of dry season water and fodder resources. For this reason, the fundamental basis for a pastoral land-use system is places that contain dry season resources. By reviewing recent ecological research, historical and anthropological accounts and previous archaeological research, I establish a link between livestock herders’ procurement of dry season key resources and the practice of digging wells. The link can be motivated from the pastoral ambition of accumulating livestock and high water requirements in the restrained dry season. On this basis, I suggest that artificial wells are useful indicators of pastoral land use in the Kalahari.

    The most crucial task for the study is to address the archaeological visibility of pastoral well sites. By a research approach integrating the theoretical understanding of pastoralism and a methodology including ecology, archaeology, history and the knowledge of the people who keep livestock in the region today, the archaeological survey revealed 40 well sites, including nearly 200 well structures that have all been used for watering livestock.

    However, it would be unfortunate if a study of pastoral wells would solely address the ecological foundation and the archaeological visibility of pastoralism. I suggest that the wells signify the labour of peoples with common or separate histories, with or without own herds, but probably talked about in relation to herds. I will also argue that the wells can be used for tracking and reconstructing a pastoral land-use system that predated the colonial era. Furthermore, the wells can be used to identify changes of the land-use that took place during the twentieth century, which involved that livestock herding was more or less abandoned in large parts of northwestern Kalahari.

    The study surmises that the critical historical perspective is valuable for development projects and conservationist interventions active in the region, especially in the light of the recent trends in the dryland ecology, which shows a larger appreciation for the indigenous understanding of the management of dryland ecosystems. With modifications, the developed approach can be applicable for land-use historical research elsewhere in southern Africa.

  • 25.
    Ljungkvist, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm resilience centre.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    The Urban Anthropocene: Lessons for Sustainability from the Environmental History of Constantinople2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul J.J. Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend and Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University , 2010, p. 367-390Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Constantinople is a city whose origin can be traced back to the establishment of Greek cities and colonies in early antiquity. Eventually it became the capital of the East Roman Empire, and since then its major role in the region has not diminished, whether under the rule of Byzantine emperors or Ottoman sultans. For more than 2000 years the city and its inhabitants have endured numerous changes and crises. Plague, war and economic regression have at times reduced its population to only a fraction of the previous size. The city has been subject to numerous sieges, the longest lasting eight years! Conquered only once prior to the major transformation in 1453, the city flourished again after each crisis and today it is still an important centre in this part of the world, on the border between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. 

    How could Constantinople maintain its leading position for such a long time, after suffering so many crises? In this chapter, the authors emphasize that the ability of a city to survive under stress has its fundamental origins in how the city was organized and maintained. Special focus is put on the organizational and ecosystem services aspects of urban agriculture in the city. The authors explore how the inhabitants of the ancient city of Constantinople managed to maintain a resilient food supply system. Constantinople differs in many ways from our modern cities, which are dependent on resources from a global hinterland that are transported using fossil fuels, and thus it can serve as an educational example for our time. At its first peak during the 6th century it was dependent on a complex grain transport system with ships travelling all the way to North Africa. This system collapsed in conjunction with the Arab expansion in the 7th century, and the collapse became a major part of a long recession that profoundly affected the city. That the city nonetheless survived cannot be explained by any single factor. The answer must be sought through a holistic perspective in which the variety of resource assets is seen as playing a major role. A particularly interesting aspect, related to today’s global transport system, is the urban agriculture system within and just outside the city walls. The walls did not constitute the limits for a densely populated area. They rather delimited an area with dispersed “sub-communities” and numerous acres of, for example, orchards and vineyards. These areas could apparently sustain the population with a considerable amount of food and probably were important for the city’s ability to withstand sieges and periods of food shortage. This system was continuous and was maintained by the inhabitants’ living memory as well as by important institutions. In our society, where the supply of food is considered as something obvious, one can question whether we lack memory as well as preparations for similar crises despite the fact that the food supply crisis of the Second World War is only 65 years behind us.

  • 26.
    Löwenborg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Archaeological 3D GIS in Practice: Mapping Sitescapes with UAS and Photogrammetry2018In: The Resilience of Heritage: Cultivating a Future of the Past.: Essays in Honour of Professor Paul Sinclair / [ed] Anneli Ekblom, Christian Isendahl, Karl-Johan Lindholm, Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2018, p. 411-426Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Macamo, Solange
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Privileged Places in South Central Mozambique: The archaeology of Manyikeni, Niamara, Songo and Degue-Mufa2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the 20th century, archaeologists in southern Africa have focused upon visible architectural features of stone built Madzimbabwe settlements as indicators of prestige and power. Manyikeni a stone built settlement in Inhambane province, S. Mozambique dated between 13th and 18th centuries AD is seen in this thesis as an example of the transformation of a landscape by human intervention. A concept of “privileged place” based on a wide range of archaeological and environmental evidence, oral and documentary historical sources is proposed. This concept includes strategic location e.g. in relation to water, soils for agriculture, pasture, resource areas for mining and trade opportunities. The 17th c. site of Degue-Mufa in the Zambezi valley is taken as an example with its privileged position indicated by finds such as local and Indian Ocean trade goods, and the 18th c. stone enclosure of Songo, a trading post with direct contact to the hinterland. Excavated materials and documentary sources illustrate how the meaning of privileged places changed over time. From the 16th c. the agricultural and pastoral places were gradually converted into market places (ferias).The prazo system of land tenure developed in the Zambezi Valley is discussed as a process of Africanization. A discussion of the significance of places for the slave trade is also provided.

    Privileged places are examined in a gender perspective. Hilltop vs. valleys site locations are considered in relation to Male vs. Female divisions. Power of men over women has been associated with the possession of cattle while women have been given a role as reproductive labor, even though women played a significant role in production through agricultural activities. These issues are discussed in relation to the 15th c. hill-top settlement of Niamara and the valley settlement of Magure in the highlands of Manica. Other privileged places with specific ceremonial significance are exemplified by M’Bire Nhantekwe, a Mutapa state capital in the Zumbo district of Tete province, Central Mozambique.

    The definition of privileged places aims to assist heritage managers and decision makers by furnishing adequate criteria for evaluating and developing archaeological sites, and the appropriate recommendations are provided.

  • 28.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Archaeological Investigations in Independent Samoa - "Tala Eli" of Laupule Mound and Beyond2014In: Monuments and People in the Pacific / [ed] Helene martinsson-Wallin and Timothy Thomas, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History , 2014, 1, p. 245-272-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Monuments and People: an Introduction2014In: Monuments and People in the Pacific / [ed] Helene Martinsson-Wallin and Timothy Thomas, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University , 2014, 1, p. 9-44-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Thomas, TimothyUniversity of Otago.
    Monuments and People in the Pacific2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pacific region consists of a multitude of island communities in avast Ocean. The people and material culture on the various islandsand island groups are not homogenous despite the close relationshipsdemonstrated by archaeological, linguistic and ethno-historical research.Monuments have generally been interpreted to be tied toideology and power and often have an extended biography with useand re-use phases. They could be considered both as part of, andactive in, shaping and re-shaping the natural and ideological landscapeof groups of people. Monuments, especially the ones that havebeen interpreted as ceremonial sites, have often been used in thediscussion of prehistoric migration and interaction of people in thePacific region but they also play an important role in current CulturalHeritage Management (CHM) and issues related to World Heritagenominations and community involvements. This volume presentscase studies from across the Pacific focussing on the relationship ofmonuments and people to chronology, ideology, re-use, biographyand CHM in a local, regional and global perspective.

  • 31.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Wallin, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Spatial Perspectives on Ceremonial Complexes: Testing Traditional Land Divisions on Rapa Nui2014In: Monuments and people in the Pacific / [ed] Helene Martinsson-Wallin and Timothy Thomas, Uppsala: Uppsala University, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History , 2014, 1, p. 317-342Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Matenga, Edward
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    The Soapstone Birds of Great Zimbabwe: Archaeological Heritage, Religion and Politics in Postcolonial Zimbabwe and the Return of Cultural Property2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At least eight soapstone carvings of birds furnished a shrine, Great Zimbabwe, in the 19th century. This large stonewalled settlement, once a political and urban centre, had been much reduced for four centuries, although the shrine continued to operate as local traditions dictated. The Zimbabwe Birds were handed down from a past that has only been partially illuminated by archaeological inquiry and ethnography, as has the site as such. This thesis publishes the first detailed catalogue of the Birds and attempts to reconstruct their provenance at the site based on the earliest written accounts.

    A modern history of the Birds unfolds when the European settlers removed them from the site in dubious transactions, claiming them as rewards of imperial conquest. As the most treasured objects from Great Zimbabwe, the fate of the Birds has been intertwined with that of the site in a matrix of contested meanings and ownership. This thesis explores how the meanings of cultural objects have a tendency to shift and to be ephemeral, demonstrating the ability of those in power to appropriate and determine such meanings. In turn, this has a bearing on ownership claims, and gives rise to an “authorized heritage discourse” syndrome.

      The forced migrations of the Zimbabwe Birds within the African continent and to Europe and their subsequent return to their homeland decades later are characterised by melodramatic episodes of manoeuvring by traders, politicians and theologians, and of the return of stolen property cloaked as an amicable barter deal, or a return extolled as an act of generosity. International doctrines that urge the return of cultural property are influenced by Western hegemonic ideologies. Natural justice is perverted, as stolen property acquires a (superior) significance in its new context, which merits the extinction of the original provenance. This leaves “generosity” and goodwill as the promises of the future, holding the fate of one Zimbabwe Bird still kept in exile in South Africa.   

  • 33.
    Mtetwa, Ezekia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Uppsala University.
    Technology, Ideology and Environment: The Social Dynamics of Iron Metallurgy in Great Zimbabwe, AD 900 to the Present2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides insights into the nature and organization of iron technology associated with past and present communities of Great Zimbabwe in southern Africa. Written accounts, ethnographic enquiries and, results of archaeological field surveys and excavations are combined to provide the first detailed account of Great Zimbabwe’s iron production technologies. The existence of a considerable iron industry in Great Zimbabwe with complex and innovative designs and processes of iron smelting is established. Evidence includes tap slags, natural draft furnaces, one with a unique rectangular morphology, and the exploitation of manganese-rich iron ores or fluxes. Moderate to low levels of iron oxide in slag samples point to large-scale production of good quality iron for an extensive market at some time in the past of Great Zimbabwe. Iron slags, possible bloom pieces and broken tuyeres are examined using standard archaeometallurgical laboratory techniques to establish the decisions and choices underlying technology and pyro-metallurgical processes in and between sites. The results are explained using theoretical concepts of social practice and agency to address the worldviews, social values and beliefs of iron related practices in Great Zimbabwe over time.

    The study provides an alternative angle for approaching the social complexity of Great Zimbabwe (with its peak in the 12th–16th centuries AD), previously understood from the perspective of its spectacular architecture. Evidence of primary and secondary production activities in domestic and specialized settings outside settlements suggests a greater spatiotemporal complexity and ambiguity of the organization of technology than previously thought. Iron production in domestic contexts provided an inclusive space, creating the possibility for transformation of not just materials, but also women and children into social agents of technology, adding an alternative and more socially embedded perspective of technology in Africa.

    List of papers
    1. Iron metallurgy in the Great Zimbabwe hinterland:: New archaeometallurgical field evidence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iron metallurgy in the Great Zimbabwe hinterland:: New archaeometallurgical field evidence
    (English)In: Azania, ISSN 0067-270X, E-ISSN 1945-5534Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst our knowledge of iron production within the dry-stone-built urban centre of the Great Zimbabwe in southern Africa has significantly increased, very little is known about the nature of iron metallurgy in the hinterland and its possible relationship with the centre itself. Within these knowledge gaps, this paper uses results from previous and recent archaeological surveys and excavations to draw for the first time, a detailed account of the varied iron production technologies in areas surrounding the Great Zimbabwe centre. It brings to light a growing corpus of such archaeometallurgical materials as multiple-fused tuyeres, tap slag, large circular furnace bases as well as a previously unknown rectangular furnace design. The paper argues that these important findings, which have the potential to yield alternative insights into the technical and social complexities of Great Zimbabwe’s iron, represent clear evidence of engineering ingenuity in metallurgy over time.

    Abstract [fr]

    Malgré l’avancement de la connaissance sur la production du fer dans le centre urbain construit en pierre sèche du Grand Zimbabwe, au sud de l’Afrique, la connaissance de la métallurgie de ce métal dans le vaste paysage archéologique est encore déficitaire, notamment pour ce qui concerne les éventuels rapports établis avec le centre du Pays. Basé sur des informations issues des prospections et des fouilles récentes et anciennes, cet article présente un premier bilan détaillé sur les technologies de production du fer dans les aires environnantes du centre du Grand Zimbabwe. Un corpus de données de plus en plus croissant de matériaux archéométallurgiques comme des tuyères fusionnées, des scories, des bases de grands fourneaux circulaires, ainsi que le dessin d’un fourneau rectangulaire inconnu jusqu’à présent est mise à jour. Cet article soutient que ces importantes découvertes permettent d’apporter des interprétations alternatives sur les complexités sociales et technologiques du fer au Grand Zimbabwe, en témoignent d’une ingénierie ingénieuse de l’activité métallurgique au fil du temps.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis Group
    National Category
    Archaeology
    Research subject
    Archaeology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334794 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    2. The bloomery iron technologies of Great Zimbabwe from AD 1000:: An archaeometallurgy of social practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The bloomery iron technologies of Great Zimbabwe from AD 1000:: An archaeometallurgy of social practices
    (English)In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    We still know very little about the nature of bloomery iron production technologies of Great Zimbabwe, one of the largest and earliest societies linked to the origins of social complexity, urbanism and statehood around the end of the first millennium AD in southern Africa. This paper deals for the first time, with the detailed microstructural and chemical analyses of selected iron slags from eight sites around the Great Zimbabwe urban centre using metallographic and ICP-AES and ICP-MS techniques. Half of the studied sites have a slag chemistry that is particularly noteworthy, revealing low iron oxide content and remarkably high amounts of manganese relative to the typical range for bloomery slags. Slag samples from yet another site have very high silica and low iron oxide content, indicating the possible addition of silicate flux to smelt a presumably high-grade magnetite ore, producing highly fluid slags. The microstructure of these samples show well-crystallized and very fine-skeletal fayalite grains in a glassy matrix, as well as a white magnetite skin, underpinning the use of slag-tapping techniques at the site. These clear cases of variation and change in technological innovation and skill illuminate the complexity of the iron technologies of Great Zimbabwe, which were integral in the generation of monumental architecture and everyday social life.

    Keywords
    Iron; bloomery technology; innovation; social practices; Great Zimbabwe
    National Category
    Archaeology
    Research subject
    Archaeology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334795 (URN)
    Projects
    Part of PhD Thesis
    Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    3. The archaeometry of tuyeres from the Great Zimbabwe and wider implications for its iron production technologies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The archaeometry of tuyeres from the Great Zimbabwe and wider implications for its iron production technologies
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first detailed chemical, microstructural and thermal analyses of a growing corpus of metallurgical tuyeres from the wider archaeological landscape of Great Zimbabwe in southern Africa. Of note is the fusion of the tuyeres in multiples, suggestive of widespread use of natural draft iron smelting technologies for large-scale production of iron most likely during the zenith period of Great Zimbabwe (ca 12th-16th century AD). Considerable variation in elemental composition between sites attributable to the adaptation of ceramic technology to local clay materials across the landscape is established through XRF analytical techniques. We also pick from petrographic studies, a bias towards self-tempered clays dominated by  silt and fine sand at some sites and the tendency for technicians to crush coarse sand and gravel  a the others. Yet, and despite such variability in ceramic technology approaches, none of the studied sample had started to deform or melt at 1400oC, the maximum temperature of the furnace used for thermal analyses in the laboratory, revealing an unusually high refractoriness. We argue that such novel technologies natural draft furnaces would have built on an equally high degree of knowledge in ceramic technology, skilled prospection and manipulation of the material world. This brings out yet another intimate human-landscape interaction vividly depicted in Great Zimbabwe’s famous drystone architecture Great Zimbabwe

    Keywords
    GREAT ZIMBABWE, ARCHAEOMETRY, TUYERES, NATURAL DRAFT, IRON TECHNOLOGY
    National Category
    Archaeology
    Research subject
    Archaeology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334796 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    4. Great Zimbabwe's iron:: Its technological materials and social space
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Great Zimbabwe's iron:: Its technological materials and social space
    2018 (English)In: The World of Great Zimbabwe / [ed] Pikirayi, I., New York: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter uses results from varied archaeological surveys and excavations, radiocarbon dating, and ethnographic accounts by early European observers, supplemented by recent ethnographic enquiries around Great Zimbabwe, to illuminate three broad transformations in its iron technology and its organization. Around AD 900, agro-pastoral communities living in the area of Great Zimbabwe were already experimenting with natural draft smelting technology alongside bellows-driven furnaces. Household industry was the dominant organization of iron production among these communities. As Great Zimbabwe evolved into an important political, religious and trade between the 12th and 17th centuries AD, its iron smelting technologies varied and intensified. Specialists based most likely on kinship groups produced iron using sophisticated variations of natural draft technologies without totally replacing the existing forced draft technology. Part-time domestic iron production was most likely also present throughout this period. By the 19th century, iron producers were exploiting locally available woods and iron ores exclusively in bellows-driven furnaces, some with anthropomorphic features. By this time, the social organization of iron production was based on household production under the auspices of smaller kinship groups. The ongoing forging and casting of scrap metals driving rural and urban agriculture not just around Great Zimbabwe, but also in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa are vestiges of a long memory of metallurgical knowledge.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: Routledge, 2018
    National Category
    Archaeology
    Research subject
    Archaeology; Archaeology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334798 (URN)
    Projects
    PhD tHESIS
    Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    5. When the smith is a woman: Innovation, improvisation and ambiguity in the organisation of African iron metallurgy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When the smith is a woman: Innovation, improvisation and ambiguity in the organisation of African iron metallurgy
    2017 (English)In: Archives, Objects, Places and Landscapes: Multidisciplinary approaches to Decolonised Zimbabwean pasts / [ed] Manyanga, M and Chirikure, S., Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG , 2017, p. 295-318Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Archaeologists are accustomed to the idea that metallurgy is the domain of men. Anything outside this framework in the recent and distant past has always been considered an exception. This article exposes such an exception among the Murazvo family where, in defiance of the male norm, the chief smith is a woman who performs several livelihood crafts. Circumstances have made her the focal person entrusted with the task of passing on the smithing and several other categories of technology in the family, bequeathing them to her sons, daughters-in-law, and grandchildren. This case goes against most stereotypes in iron working. It challenges the received thinking in ascribing gender roles to metallurgy, as well as other categories of technology and expertise in the past. The chapter brings forth a discussion of the complexity and ambiguity of social relations in technology, and the tendency for the politics of inclusion and exclusion on gender and age axes to shift and become more tenuous. The aim is to foreground especially the world of women as innovative members of past and contemporary societal structures, whose co-authorship of our human past and present, together with men, is not just in procreation, but is daily enacted in many different spheres of life.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG, 2017
    National Category
    Archaeology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334792 (URN)9956764191 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12
  • 34.
    Nordquist, Gullög
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    What’s in a Name?: Mistra – The Town2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul J.J. Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend & Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History , 2010, p. 409-416Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Pedersén, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Hein, Irmgard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Andersson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Cities and Urban Landscapes in the Ancient Near East and Egypt with Special Focus on the City of Babylon2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul J.J. Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend & Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University , 2010, p. 113-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors give a brief overview of socio-environmental interactions underpinning urbanism in the part of the world with the longest urban development, that is, the Ancient Near East and Egypt 5000–100 BC. Further details are presented for southern Mesopotamia, with a special focus on the city of Babylon during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II in the 6th century BC.

  • 36.
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Archaeological Perspectives on Risk and Community Resilience in the Baringo Lowlands, Kenya2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This historical ecological research provides a detailed insight into the risk avoidance and resilience building strategies in the Lake Baringo basin in Kenya through the lens of archaeology. It explores how changes in subsistence, habitation, and landscape shaped each other and how that affected the available strategies of risk avoidance and resilience building. While the focus is on the history and archaeology of the Ilchamus, a Maa community currently occupying the area, the research additionally investigated the late Holocene of the Baringo lowlands to provide a basis for the discussion on risk and resilience. A combination of remote sensing, foot surveys, excavation, and spatial statistic methods establishes a culture history for the region, showing that the Lake Baringo basin has been part of the pastoralist cultural sphere for the past three millennia and that the Rift Valley bottom possibly acted as a frontier between different archaeological cultures. By the end of the 18th or the beginning of the 19th century the area was occupied by Ilchamus. They established densely aggregated settlements and a vast irrigation system in order to enmesh themselves into the local, regional, and global exchange system. Through the exchange system, they would ensure their ‘social survival’ and build social contracts as part of their resilience building strategies, which continued to be practiced even as the Ilchamus subsistence and habitation practices as well as the political situation changed. However, as archaeological assemblages and ethnoarchaeological and historical data show, throughout their 200-year history community conformity and consolidation were central forces in the formation of an Ilchamus identity and a strong community resilience.

    The environmental degradation of the Lake Baringo area has been the subject of studies for almost a century with the subsistence practices of the local communities seen as a key cause for it. This research moves beyond blame but instead explores the options available and choices taken by the Ilchamus community in specific environmental and political contexts. I hope that this thesis provides some insights into new avenues of exploration of how we can develop and strengthen the resilience of vulnerable communities, such as Ilchamus.

  • 37.
    Schaefer, Christiane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Multilingualism and Language Contact in Urban Centres along the Silk Road during the First Millenium AD2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul J.J. Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend and Christian Isendahl., Uppsala: Uppsala University, African and Comparative Archaeology, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History , 2010, p. 441-455Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are places of ethnic and linguistic diversity, and thus of language contact. This isillustrated by the oasis city-states along the Silk Roads in Central Asia that developed intocosmopolitan centres of an amazing religious, ethnic and linguistic diversity during thefirst millennium AD. The growing trade on the Silk Roads, missionary activities, shiftingpolitical, religious and military domination, and last but not least climatic changes ledto increasing immigration into the cities, creating a multilayered linguistic ecologicalsystem of interacting spoken and written codes. A flourishing written culture developed;and the rich activity of urban cross-cultural exchange is not only reflected in art andarchitecture, but also in a vast variety of texts and manuscripts translated and annotatedin more than twenty different languages and nearly as many different scripts. Traces ofthe cross-cultural contact are also revealed by the individual languages themselves, whichchanged dramatically on many different levels. An ecolinguistic study of Tocharian – oneof the lesser known tongues of the Turfan and Kucha area along the northern route of theSilk Road – taking into account status, internal variation, domains of usage, concurrentcodes and language contact, reveals one aspect of an “urban mind”: namely, the efforts andsuccess of city dwellers to tackle communication in the multilingual settings of the city.In creative processes the speakers in close spatial coexistence changed and adapted theircodes, both the spoken and the written ones, and developed new varieties and registers.Tocharian shows traces of the impact of concurrent codes, not only in the lexicon butalso on the structural, morphological and morphosyntactic level. For reasons yet to beexplored, Tocharian was abandoned as a high-status written code sometime between theeighth and the tenth century AD, and at an unknown point in time it became extinct asa spoken code as well.

  • 38.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Pastoral pasts in the Amboseli landscape: An archaeological exploration of the Amboseli ecosystem from the later Holocene to the colonial period2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)