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  • 1.
    Bai, Minghan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Exploring the Dynamics of Rumors on Social Media in the Chinese Context2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rumors always trigger public panic in China, while the advanced Internet technology has tremendously influenced the daily life of the Chinese. Thus, the dynamics of rumor spreading via the social media in China are worthwhile discussing. In order to fulfill the aim of this research, one of the prevalent Chinese social media sites, the Sina microblog, is introduced and analyzed within the context of the salt-buying frenzy incident that occurred in China in 2011. Various theoretical approaches, from the sociological and media studies perspectives, are introduced to form the framework for analysis. The relevant data and materials were collected via questionnaires with Chinese Internet users, while previous academic research and publications provide supportive materials. From the analysis of this social media site and contemporary Chinese circumstances, it was seen that the Guanxi network extended and enlarged the influence of online rumors to offline Chinese. In other words, the Guanxi network, expanded by social media, can be considered as the most important part of the dynamic process of rumor spreading in China. However, the openness and freedom of the Internet atmosphere were found to be the main factors in eliminating online rumors.

  • 2.
    Ekström, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    "We are like Chameleons": Changing Mediascapes, Cultural Identities and City Sisters in Dar es Salaam2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The consequences of expanding mediascapes and processes of cultural globalisation during the early 21st century is the focus of this thesis. The author has conducted extensive field studies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. She explores the construction of cultural and gendered identities at the intersection of notions of the local and the global, the rural and the urban, traditional and modern, female and male, and investigates the production of selves at the intersection of mediated and lived experience.

    The media often gets the blame for threatening authentic, indigenous cultures, and for influ-encing young people to give up ‘traditional’ ways of living and behaving. But as this study will emphasise, Tanzanian culture has always been charac-terised by multiculturalism and cultural processes of hybridity.

    This study analyses how media and popular culture produce cultural identities and gendered selves. The main characters are a group of young women from different places in Tanzania, with various backgrounds, who have in common that they for two years were secondary school students at a girls’ school in Dar es Salaam. Like for young people in most parts of the contem-porary world, particularly in urban areas, media and popular culture play a central role in these girls’ everyday lives, in a variety of ways, both positive and negative. The process of ‘becoming a woman’ turns out to be surrounded by conflicting ideas, expectations and ideals. Participation in the commercial youth culture, growing literally just outside the doors of the young women’s boarding school, may be as distant as the dream of a life in a remote country. But the imaginations and fantasies it gives rise to feed into their experiences and subjectivities as young women in early 21st century Tanzania.

  • 3.
    Firer-Blaess, Sylvain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    The Collective Identity of Anonymous: Web of Meanings in a Digitally Enabled Movement2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation explores the collective identity of the Anonymous movement. This movement is characterised by the heterogeneity of its activities, from meme-crafting to pranks to activist actions, with a wide range of goals and tactics. Such heterogeneity raises the question as to why such a diverse group of people makes the decision to act under the same name. To answer this question, the concept of collective identity is applied, which describes how participants collectively construct the definition of their group.

    This dissertation is based on a three-year ethnography. The main findings show that the collective identity of Anonymous rests on five sets of self-defining concepts related to: 1) Anonymous’ counterculture of offense and parrhesia, 2) its personification into two personae (the ‘trickster’ and the ‘hero’) that have differing goals, means, and relationships with the environment, 3) a horizontal organisation and a democratic decision-making process, 4) practices of anonymity and an ethics of self-effacement, and 5) its self-definition as a universal entity, inclusive, and unbounded. The collective identity construction process is marked by tensions due to the incompatibility of some of these concepts, but also due to differences between these collective identity definitions and actual practices. As a consequence, they have to be constantly reaffirmed through social actions and discourses.

    Not all individuals who reclaim themselves as Anonymous recognise the totality of these collective identity definitions, but they all accept a number of them that are sufficient to legitimate their own belonging to the movement, and most of the time to be recognised by others as such. The different groups constituting Anonymous are therefore symbolically linked through a web of collective identity definitions rather than an encompassing and unified collective identity. This ‘connective identity’ gives the movement a heterogeneous composition while at the same time permitting it to retain a sense of identity that explains the use of a collective name.

  • 4.
    Grundberg, Irène
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    TV-produktion i Sverige: En studie av TV-producenter inom drama och samhällsprogram2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As television viewers we are used to watching television as a flow of programs with varying content, and usually do not think about how the programs are created. Who decides what should be produced and what the programs should contain? What role do the TV producers play? Who are the producers? Have their working conditions changed due to changes in society?

    The aim of this study was to answer questions about the TV producer’s background and career, and about how ideas for TV productions developed into actual TV programs. The study resulted in more than 90 “cases” or descriptions in drama and journalism. The respondents were asked about the role that different levels of management, economic resources, technical equipment, audience ratings played in the production of television programs. They were also asked how they evaluated professionalism and competition and what changes had occurred during the periods of the study, 1992-1999 and 2006-07.

    The TV producers who were interviewed belonged to different “generations” and had  entered  the television industry on  different occasions, such as at the launch  of  television channels  (the first TV channel, TV2, TV4) or  new ventures like regional television or minority language programs. The drama producers often executed the ideas that had been decided on by higher management, even though some drama authors who participated in this study had great power over the story lines and content. The journalist producer’s independence and power over the content were greater than the drama producer’s, since they wrote their own “scripts” during the production of programs. In light of many “cases” of programs described it can be suggested that journalist producers’ choice of program ideas were  parallel and complementary or alternative institutional processes, that preceded, followed or coexisted with reports, investigations, trials etc.   One of the most obvious changes during the period studied from 1992 to 2007 was the change in overall technology from analog techniques to digital. Internet, intranets, e-mail and cell phones had made “the mobile office” a reality and the analog techniques in cameras and editing in TV production became digital during the period. 

  • 5.
    Hedman Monstad, Therese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Attempts to Bridge the Gaps: Opportunities and Challenges in the Communicative Constitution of Organizations2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and technological advancements continue to challenge contemporary organizations’ aims to balance stability and change. As a response to this challenge, organizations often turn to empowerment and participatory processes. Current research emphasizes the need for enhanced communication in these processes. However, there is a lack of research studying how organizations practically enact this idea that these processes require more communication.

    This dissertation is aligned with the Montreal School’s CCO perspective and departs from communication theory seen as a dialogic of conversation and text, thus directing attention to coorientation and how organizational members coordinate in organizing processes. Based on this theoretical framework, the study aims to contribute to a better understanding – empirically as well as analytically – about the variety of texts that are a part of communicative initiatives aiming at enhancing communication, encouraging participation and empowerment processes.

    The empirical material is based on how two organizations explicitly emphasized communicative initiatives throughout each organization’s empowerment process attempts. One organization mainly used workshops to provide opportunities for communication, while the other organization incorporated an interactive video website for the same purpose.

    This dissertation acknowledges that managers and subordinates are not equally capable of discursively constructing the organization. However, enhanced communication through empowering processes has been shown to facilitate members’ abilities to contribute to the organizing process. Hence, the study combines two theoretical frameworks, the empowerment process model and the Montreal School’s CCO perspective, extending both and thereby accentuating the communication-power relationship.

    To further explore how conversations and text interact in the case organizations, the study enacts a tension-centered approach, arguing that tensions are produced, co- and reproduced and enacted through organizations’ wills to empower their members through communication. The findings indicate a recursive and reflexive relationship between the empowerment process, coorientation, tensions and participation. In practice, this means that organizational members who have the opportunity to engage in conversations about matters of concern while perceiving themselves as taking part in an empowerment process tend to more actively identify and co-produce tensions. Tensions increase participation and lead to new insights. As members realize the value of their input, this further enhances the empowerment process.

  • 6.
    Henric, Insulander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Marknadsföringen av en tv-program: En undersökning om marknadsföringsprocessen av en tv-produktion.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Jimes, Cynthia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science, Media and Communication.
    Communication as structuration: Viewing learning through the lens of communication2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about enlightening the relationship between organizational communication and learning. In doing so, I explore and build upon existing theories that address the relationship from a structuration perspective. Specifically, I turn to discursive communication theory and sociocultural learning theory. Both of these theories place emphasis on the everyday communication of actors in the process of organizational learning and structuring. To offer precision to these conceptualizations, I study two client servicing processes within two distinct organizations. While one of the processes is a decentralized, communication-intense process, the other is a centralized, technology-driven process. For both processes, I analyze the employees’ communicative interactions with colleagues and external actors in the context of their organizational structures. Using a strategy for theoretical development inspired by Charles Sanders Peirce, I offer inferences on how those communicative interactions—for both types of processes—potentially shape their future activities. The result of my study has been the development of two concepts: local conversations and text negotiations. I infer that through local conversations with colleagues and other organizational actors, employees simultaneously draw upon, negotiate and create new structures (texts) that can then be incorporated into further, future organizational activities. In this sense I argue that communication shapes or structures the organization, and the organization learns.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Catrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science.
    Visioner och verkligheter: Kommunikationen om företagets strategi2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for this study is the question of why organizational visions are often interpreted by employees as unintelligible and insignificant. The knowledge gap in this area makes the study of communication about vision and goals both urgent and interesting.

    Accordingly, the purpose is to advance knowledge on communication processes in organizations through description and analysis of communication about strategy, encompassing vision, strategic objectives and common values, in a company.

    A case study design was chosen and a longitudinal qualitative study was conducted in the company, from April 1998 to January 2000. A combination of methods were used, including participant observation, discourse analysis and interviews.

    Communication about the strategy followed a typical top-down model, starting on group level and ending on department level. In this process, Balanced Scorecard was used as a tool to communicate the strategy.

    It was concluded that visions formulated by top managers met different realities constructed by managers at lower levels in the company. Managers’ attitudes, knowledge and interpretations were important individual factors that influenced communication about the strategy. Employees did not have the same detailed knowledge of the strategy as the managers, nor were they given the same opportunities to obtain it.

    The discourse analysis reveals power structures, conflicts, individual attitudes and perspectives. The study thus results in a deep understanding of communication problems in the organization.

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Bäck, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    ”damn this ads so fking good”: En studie av efterspelet som följde Nikes kampanj Dream Crazy.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Lindqvist Nordberg, Nathalie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Johansson, Alice
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    INFLUENCERS - DEN NYA MARKNADSFÖRINGSKANALEN?: En kvalitativ studie om huruvida unga kvinnors intentioner och konsumtionspreferenser påverkas av att influencers rekommenderar produkter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research area of ​​the essay highlights the development of digital media and its importance for consumers today. Furthermore, the communication has been through a change and it is now possible for everyone to spread information and communicate with people in an easy way through social media. Since social media’s grand emergence has thereby a new profession risen, influencers. Moreover, the essay aim to study how young women get influenced by influencers’ recommendations of various products.

    Furthermore, three theories are presented. The first one is the Two-step hypothesis that describe how an opinion leader more easily can reach out to other people. The second theory is Parasocial Interaction, which also highlights opinion leaders and describes how a person can feel a friendly bond to another person they never have met. The third theory is Identity creation and consumption which describes how an individual can consume products to get a desired identity. In order to answer our questions, we have used two focus groups in two different age groups, consisting only women. Furthermore, we have done a thematic analysis on these two focus groups discussions to find similarities themes. In addition, we compared these groups to each other in order to reach a conclusion. Our results indicate that influencers has an impact on consumers and their behaviour in some level. The results also showed that age has a significant part of how much an individual is being influenced.

  • 11.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Enbom, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    40-talister och internetanvändande: En kvalitativ studie om icke-användande av internet bland seniorer födda på 1940-talet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There’s been a rise of internet usage amongst every demographic group in Sweden the last 20 years. To use internet means that you’re a part of the information society and to be a part of the informatin society means that you’re a part of the democratic society. Even though more people use internet there are still those who does not use it. Within the group senior citizens we can also see a steady rise of internet usage. If we split the group senior citizens into a broader group, one can distinguish people born in the 1940’s as one of the most frequent users of internet. However, within the group there are still individuals who choose not to use internet. The purpose of this study is to help understand the concept of digital divides. Our aim was to do this through applying five different forms of capital: economic, cultural, social, technical and symbolic. With this theoretical framework we want to answer the following the following main question as well as try to answer a more descriptive research question without the use of the theoretical framework.

    – How can we understand a non-usage of internet through these five forms of capital? – How does individuals born in the 1940’s reason around their non-usage of internet?

    To answer these questions we did six qualitative interviews with people born in the 1940’s who don’t use internet. The results from the interviews have been analyzed with the previously mentioned capital forms. The result showed that all capital forms have in one way or another helped us understand a non-usage, though some capitals weighed more than others. Overall, the studie gave a greater understanding on how people born in the 1940s reason around their non-usage. 

  • 12.
    Lundqvist, Karolina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Liljeqvist, Lydia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Känslostormar och hårda passningar: En kritisk diskursanalys av journalistisk framställning av manliga respektive kvinnliga svenska partiledare inför riksdagsvalet 20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The 2018 parliamentary election in Sweden has been widely reported in media. News articles regarding politics becomes the public insight into the political sphere and media possesses great impact on people’s opinions. Journalistic representation and linguistic use become central because inaccurate representation and unequal portrayal of male and female politicians contribute to and maintain social constructive stereotypes and gender norms. Therefore we find it important to review and analyze use of words and underlying meanings in Swedish newspapers.

    The purpose of this essay is to study how the Swedish media presented Swedish party leaders before the parliamentary election in 2018, from a gender perspective. The main focus is to examine how the party leaders are differently portrayed depending on whether they are male or female. Our research question is:

    ● How do journalists write about Swedish party leaders from a gender perspective?

    Our theoretical framework of this study is built on theories about gender roles, how they define male and female stereotypes and how they differ. To answer our research question, we used a critical discourse analysis based on 80 articles from the newspapers Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, Expressen and Aftonbladet.

    The main result show that there are differences between how women and men are presented och portrayed. They are both described by stereotypic gender roles but women are more often described in a critical and negative way.

  • 13.
    Lövgren, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Dancing Together Alone: Inconsistencies and Contradictions of Strategic Communication in Swedish Universities2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations increasingly use communication as a strategic function to maneuver in a challenging, complex, and demanding social landscape. Based on assumptions of centralized control and planning, the strategic communication concept aims for coordination and consistency of communication. Implied is a view of actors as intentional, rational, and deliberate decision makers. Such a conventional view on strategic communication, however, cannot satisfactorily explain the underlying characteristics of communication practices in contemporary organizations. Nor does it explain how organizational members in their everyday work interpret and relate to such practices.

    This thesis adopts neo-institutional theory and the translation approach to study how strategic communication operates along an institutionalized recipe for communication that through various translations is reformulated to fit local organizational contexts and preferences of the people occupying these contexts. To illustrate the process of both following and adapting the institutionalized recipe of strategic communication, qualitative and quantitative material on the role of social media in sixteen Swedish universities are examined. The material is generated and gathered through an ethnographically inspired approach and includes: interviews, a six-month observation period, the study of documents, and a content analysis of Vice-Chancellor blogs.

    The findings show that work with social media is pervaded with inconsistencies and contradictions, but simultaneously relating to a shared recipe for communication. Shared elements for communication at the universities include the purposes for communication, notion of one university and integration. However, in translations people rely on local organizational conditions, personal values, ambitions, and experiences. This produces tensions between: control and independence, centralization and decentralization, and one voice and multiple voices. The findings suggest that translations differ across universities and between communicators on different levels, some being more “true” to the recipe than others. Thus, differences are inevitable, underscoring the issues of managing and controlling communication in the conventional approach of strategic communication. As a result, the empirical and theoretical concept of strategic communication benefits from acknowledging its social embeddedness and local recontextualization.

    Strategic communication is like dancing to music. Everyone hears the music, but the dance varies with each dancer ́s experiences, ambitions, and opportunities.

  • 14.
    Olsson, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science.
    Mycket väsen om ingenting: Hur datorn och internet undgår att formas till medborgarens tekniker2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In what way/ways – if at all – are the computer and the internet tools for individuals’ roles as citizens in the Swedish working class?

    What is new information and communication technology’s significance – if any – for individuals’ identities as citizens within Swedish working class culture?

    The empirical results are discouraging for advocates who have put their trust in new information and communication technology as a potential civic tool. For instance, the study reveals that the computer and the internet can only be considered as marginal phenomena in the everyday lives of the Swedish working class, for these tools are barely used, and further, are perceived as difficult to operate. The study also reveals that new information and communication technology is not viewed as a contributing factor to the working class’ outlooks toward and insights into society. Instead it is concluded that watching TV and listening to the radio – to a far greater extent than the use of the computer and the internet – are activities related to the Swedish working class’ identities as citizens.

    This study is a critical interrogation into the widespread claims about the computer's and the internet's potential to empower democracy. Through interviews with adult family members of fifteen Swedish working class households, the study explores the following two questions:

  • 15.
    Prax, Patrick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Co-creative Game Design as Participatory Alternative Media2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of co-creation exists for all media, but game design has developed a culture that is unusually open to co-creation. This dissertation investigates significant cases of co-creation in mainstream games in order to explore how games can be co-created as alternative or critical media by their players.

    The core argument in the dissertation is that players co-create the design of a game only if certain conditions are met, namely: (1) player creation of a text or communication infrastructure that modifies the properties of the game and from which play emerges; (2) that this is done for a considerable group of players who share a particular practice of play; (3) that this is done not only by playing the game but by changing how others play it in a distinct creative activity, and (4), with the potential to subvert or contest the original design of the game.

    This situation where player creators have influence over the design of the game (but little power to enforce their interests) is problematic from the perspective of alternative or critical media, as alternative, local, production is seen as one reason for why a medium can have an alternative message.

    The industrial production of games as cultural commodities does limit the potential of co-creative game design for subversion because it reduces the level of participation in the creation process, thus keeping player creators relatively disempowered. Player creators do have influence on the design of the game, while at the same time having very little power to enforce their interests and design visions. The influence of player creators comes from the consumer power of millions of players who use co-created assets and who want to them to continue exiting, and this creates a mutually dependent relationship (and even partnership), between co-creators and commercial owners.

    The dissertation concludes that co-creative game design, despite limitations related to the industrial production of games as cultural commodities, is already happening, and shows a potential for turning games into alternative media.

    List of papers
    1. Co-creative interface development in MMORPGs: the case of World of Warcraft add-ons
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-creative interface development in MMORPGs: the case of World of Warcraft add-ons
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, ISSN 1757-191X, E-ISSN 1757-1928, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the innovation in the interface design of the massively multiplayer online role-playing game World of Warcraft is to a substantial part originating in the user-created interface modifications called add-ons. This is shown in an analysis of the connection of the development in interface design to the creation of interface modification add-ons by players. The analysis is informed by interviews with specialists in the community of add-on programmers and focuses on the content and functionality of the add-ons mapped against the respective standard interface elements including an explanation of the problem they solve for the player and a measure of the similarity between them. The article also gives an outlook on the influence of these interface-modifications on the actual practice of game play as well as on game design and interface design by the game producer.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Intellect Ltd., 2012
    Keywords
    innovation, interface design, game communities, MMORPGs, player-created, immaterial labour
    National Category
    Media Studies
    Research subject
    Media and Communication Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282892 (URN)10.1386/jgvw.4.1.3_1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Assemblage, Adaptation and Apps: Smartphones and Mobile Gaming
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assemblage, Adaptation and Apps: Smartphones and Mobile Gaming
    2012 (English)In: Continuum. Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, ISSN 1030-4312, E-ISSN 1469-3666, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 731-739Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Media Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-197707 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-04-02 Created: 2013-04-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    3. Co-Creativity in Online Games as Alternative Media
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-Creativity in Online Games as Alternative Media
    (English)In: Questions de communication, ISSN 1633-5961, E-ISSN 2259-8901Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Keywords
    Co-creation, Alternative Media, Authorship, Cross-Media, Play. MMORPGs, World of Warcraft
    National Category
    Media Studies
    Research subject
    Media and Communication Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282894 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Game Design and Business Model: an Analysis of Diablo 3
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game Design and Business Model: an Analysis of Diablo 3
    2013 (English)In: DiGRA '13 - Proceedings of the 2013 DiGRA International Conference: DeFragging Game Studies, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a theoretical framework for analyzing if a certain feature of the design of a game has been introduced to increase the financial profit created over a specific revenue stream. The framework is created from existing theory and consists of the points 1. Revenue Generation, 2. Game Design and Business Model Integration, and 3. Problematic Game Design. If all these points are given for a certain design feature than it has been implemented into the game to increase revenue. This framework is the used to analyze the design of the successful PC game Diablo 3. Diablo 3 features an auction house that allows players to trade their virtual items for real money while the owner of the game, Blizzard Entertainment, collects a fee for every transaction. The analysis shows that the economy of Diablo 3 is designed to increase the revenue of the real-money market place.

    National Category
    Media and Communications
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-263273 (URN)
    Conference
    Digital Games Research Association, DiGRA '13, August 26-29, 2013 Atlanta, USA
    Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2016-05-30Bibliographically approved
    5. Democracy has arrived!: A model for ethical decision making of players in MMOs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democracy has arrived!: A model for ethical decision making of players in MMOs
    2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In digital games and virtual worlds, like in other digital media, the structure of the medium, its code, influences the emerging interaction and culture. A deliberate modification of this code to facilitate democratic decision making might thus lead to more meaningful interaction in games. If we see virtual worlds as learning environments this might even help players to understand and question real-world power structures. A way to modify the code of a virtual world is by extending its interface with an add-on that interacts with the application programming interface of the game. In this paper we present the design vision and theoretical framework of a digital tool for ethical decision making that will be implemented in the virtual world World of Warcraft. Its purpose will be to supply players with means to modify the power structure built into the code of this virtual world and to support more ethical and democratic decision making in the game.

    National Category
    Media Studies Human Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-191327 (URN)
    Conference
    Meaningful Play 2012
    Available from: 2012-10-20 Created: 2013-01-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    6. Co-Creative Game Design in MMORPGs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-Creative Game Design in MMORPGs
    2015 (English)In: 2015 DiGRA '15 - Proceedings of the 2015 DiGRA International Conference, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a model for co-creation of games as alternative media. The model uses actual play practices to understand the political and cultural influence co-creation might have in the relationship between the owner of the game and the players. The model requires for player creation of a text or communication infrastructure that changes the properties of the game from which play emerges not only for the player herself but for a considerable group of players who share a particular practice of play. This change has to be accomplished not only by playing the game but through changing how others play it in a distinct creative activity. It needs to have the potential to subvert or contest the original design of the game. This model is useful for understanding different kinds of player co-creation as well as the extend of co-creative game design and can be a tool for political work towards participatory cultural production in games.

    Keywords
    Co-creation, Game Design, Authorship, MMORPGs, World of Warcraft
    National Category
    Media and Communications
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-263269 (URN)
    Conference
    DiGRA '15, Diversity of Play, May 14th-17th, Lüneburg, Germany
    Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2016-05-30Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Saller, Nathalie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Uppkopplad eller nedkopplad? -Konflikt mellan förnuft och känsla: En etnografiskt inspirerad studie av fyra studenters vardag online och offline2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this thesis has been to study and obtain greater understanding of the consequences of active social media use. Specifically, in terms of social identity, social life and the sense of belonging. Secondly, the thesis studies the consequences of disconnecting and for a limited amount of time opt out of the social media context.

    Method/material:  The study is based on an explorative, cultural ethnographically-inspired method, in which four respondents were studied: two men and two women, all frequent users of social media. This was done in three steps: initial interviews, followed by social media diaries and finally a focus group. By allowing these methods to complement each other, the goal was to create an overall picture of the importance of social media in their everyday lives.

    The study's focus lies on the week in which the respondents kept social media diaries. This was done with an application designed to continuously provide me updates during the week. The first three days of the week, the respondents used the social media as usual. Every time they were active on social media, the task was to update the diary with the activity, as well as motivation, emotion, simultaneous offline activity and possible reflections. The last four days of the weak, the respondents were prohibited from using social media, and instead they updated the diaries every time they had an impulse to use social media.

    Main results: The study shows that social media plays a big role in shaping the self as well as the social identity. The respondents feel a social requirement to be constantly available, which stresses them and affects offline-activities and how they socialize in real life. The days without social media meant great relief in many ways; they began to read books, socialized more concentrated with friends and family and were able to relax more. Despite these surprising insights, they want to continue using social media since being disconnected was also very stressful since they often had the feeling of being excluded and left out. The conflict between reason and emotion arises. Sense dictates that they should cut down on their social media activity but the feeling tells them the opposite.

  • 17.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science.
    En gökunge i public service-boet?: Publikens roll i digitaliseringen av marksänd television2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Swedish setting an audience orientation is applied to investigate public service TV in the ongoing development of terrestrial digital television. Focus is on institutionalized politics and public service TV companies Sveriges Television (Swedish Television) and Utbildningsradion (Education Radio). In a case study through a multitude of material, emphasizing policy documents and interviews but also including media coverage, it is explored how and why the audience is involved in public service digital TV development. Is it an operation in the public interest, and what does this mean for public service as a media policy principle? The empirical result indicates a complex and problematic audience, which is not constantly prioritized but always present. The audience legacy is threatened in public service TV by a consumer orientation. Concluding implications are on the one hand that feedback from the audience can not only be based in ratings and market analysis. On the other hand there is a need for an attitude towards public service legitimacy as utopian realism.

  • 18.
    Stange, Jessica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Melin, Agnes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Retoriken - ett verktyg för att uppnå legitimitet: En fallstudie om hur UNHCR arbetar med sin externa kommunikation på sociala medier för att skapa samt upprätthålla sin legitimitet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Legitimacy is something all organizations aims for and much research has been done on gaining legitimacy among profit-making companies, but much less research has been done on nonprofit organizations and their legitimacy. Therefore this study will address this gap between charity organizations, which are nonprofit companies, and their legitimacy.

    The purpose of this study is to find the rhetorical strategies that ‘Sverige för UNHCR’ applies when communicating via Instagram to gain or maintain legitimacy. This essay's two research questions are; Firstly, what rhetorical strategies does ‘Sverige för UNHCR’ apply when communicating externally via Instagram? Secondly, what strategies for gaining and maintaining legitimacy can be found in the Instagram posts, and how are they related to the specific rhetorical strategies?

    In order to answer the outline research questions, qualitative methods were used. The empirical material was collected by using a rhetorical analysis of image and text published by ‘Sverige för UNHCR’ on Instagram. These qualitative methods became the base in which this essay gathers and analyses data. The theoretical framework of this study consists of classical rhetoric, visual rhetoric, legitimacy theory and legitimacy strategies. When analysing the empirical material in relation to the theories it proves how rhetoric methods shape the Instagram publications, and in turn shows how the organization works with legitimacy.

    This study shows that Sverige för UNHCR uses four main rhetorical strategies. It can be concluded that these rhetorical strategies helps the organization to gain and maintain pragmatic and moral legitimacy through different legitimacy strategies by Suchman (1995).

  • 19.
    Svensson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Mind the Mind: Strategic Communication in the Swedish Green Party2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasingly complex environment and pressure from external publics on organizations to speak consistently challenge contemporary organizations. Strategic communication has been portrayed as offering a method for organizations to handle these complexities and is characterized not only as a rational way to handle problems organization face by centralizing, planning, and controlling, but as inevitable.

    Contrary to the conventional understanding of strategic communication as being a micro-level action, I recognize in this thesis that organizations’ strategic communication making is socially embedded. Thus, taken for granted ways of engaging in strategic communication play a vital role for what activities are conducted and how. Hence strategic communication is viewed to also constitute a macro-level phenomenon (a ‘strategic communication mind’) that reciprocally interacts with how participants engage in strategic communication making at the micro-level.

    Using a practice theory lens and an ethnographic approach, I explore how the strategic communication mind and strategic communication making reciprocally interacted in the Swedish Green Party’s 2014 election campaign making by focusing on how the national organization and a local branch, organized for the election campaign, engaged in planning and controlling.

    In generalized terms, my findings suggest that even though the national organization and the local branch’s campaign making interacted with the strategic communication mind, these interactions were not always reciprocal. Rather, many of their micro-level activities diverged from what both campaign groups’ members expected and desired to do, as well as what the strategic communication mind prescribes. I suggest that it was the organizational and election campaign contexts in which the campaign making transpired that made participants unable to follow the strategic communication mind to the letter. Hence, participants’ invocation of the strategic communication mind in campaign making led to a number of tensions: between centralization and internal democracy, planning and situational coping, strategist control and inclusion, and control and flexibility. Although these tensions challenged the strategic communication mind by hindering a reciprocal interaction, the mind was never deliberately critiqued or challenged by participants of the campaign groups or rank-and-file members, but the tensions kept lingering on.

  • 20.
    Svensson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Att förstå mediekritik: Begreppsliga, empiriska och teoretiska studier av svensk mediekritik 1998-20132015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Media criticism is studied as a concept, as critical expression and as a force for social change. The concept of media criticism is developed in relation to different forms of critical practice, theory about criticism and critique and as a part of theories about media accountability. Media criticism as a force of social change is approached by exploring concepts for the analysis of social and cultural forms of media criticism.

    Four kinds of media texts published in Sweden between 1998 and 2013 were analysed to investigate critical expression: television columns, reflective books on journalism written by journalists, debate articles and letters to the editor. They were studied in terms of how they address actors, content and forms of critique and responsiveness. The methodology used was reflexive interpretation mainly driven by insight, but also with an emancipative intention. Qualitative text analysis was the major method used, combined with quantitative content analysis.

    The concept of media criticism is developed on three levels as normative and institutional, focused on established norms and values, norm shaping and formative, focused on establishing new norms and values and openness and practice, making it possible for many people to contribute to critique. Media criticism can further be specified in three dimensions comprising its intentions, the object of critique and the process of critique. Taken together they establish different forms of criticality in which a communicative intention is seen as essential. 

    The dissertation shows that media criticism should be given a more independent role in relation to the media accountability frame. Critical cultures and practices should be analysed in their relations to accountability cultures and practices. The concepts of institution, formative and formation were used for analysing the social and cultural forms of media criticism, where institutions are understood as the stable forms of media criticism, formatives as the changeable forms and formations as the combination of the two. Criticism and critical practice potentially have an important role to play for change in the media, journalism and society by addressing issues in an open and reflexive way. The approach to media criticism developed in the dissertation is termed critical institutionalism and aims to bridge the gap between critical social science, the sociology of critique and institutional analysis as applied in media studies.

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