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  • 1.
    Andersson, Helen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Mellan människa och icke-människa: Livet med och utan pass2010In: Etiska undersökningar: Om samhällsmoral, etisk teori och teologi / [ed] Elena Namli, Per Sundman m.fl., Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010, p. 87-105Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Ethics and Philosophy of Religion.
    Människan, naturen och Gud: En studie av miljöetiken i nutida kristen teologi2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has three aims. The first aim is to analyse and clarify three models of theological environmental ethics. A second aim is to critically examine and compare the environmental ethical models of the three theologians. The third aim is to present a reasonable model of a theological environmental ethic. The overall problem of the study is how an acceptable theological environmental ethic can be constructed.

    The method used in the study is a content analysis of ideas, allowing the author to reconstruct a model of theological environmental ethics and clarify some important problems which a reasonable theological ethics must relate to. It is argued that a view of life perspective in environmental ethics gives an important complement to philosophical environmental ethics when analysing and constructing environmental ethical models.

    The theologians analysed in this study represent three different models of theological environmental ethics. Larry Rasmussen provides a communitarian virtue ethical and biocentric model with community, love and justice as central values. Leonardo Boff provides an ecocentric model characterised by his liberation theological standpoint combined with ecology. Boff’s model holds justice as a central value and argues for a responsibility for creating fair relations between humans and between humans and nature. Rosemary Radford Ruether’s model is characterised by ecofeminist theory and feminist theology. Ruether’s model is ecocentric and based on the idea that distorted gender relations are primary causes of the ecological crisis. All theologians in the study use the Bible and the Christian tradition as well as resources from natural and social science when constructing their models.

    The author of the study proposes her own biocentric model of theological environmental ethics grounded in an awareness of the existential vulnerability of human beings, a principle of ecological justice, a critique of hierarchical relations and the Christian idea of loving your neighbour.

  • 3.
    Boris, Kapustin
    Yale University.
    Evil and freedom: Reflections regarding Kant’s ”Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason”2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The book aspires to show the inherent paradoxes of the “pure idea” of freedom and its foreignness, and possible contrariety, revealed in and by some specific historical-political contexts, to freedom as practice of human liberation. This theme is looked at mainly through the prism of Kant’s moral and political philosophy, which—by way of critical engagement with it—offers a particularly propitious vantage point for its exploration and elaboration. Kant’s Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, with its dramatic juxtaposition and conjoining of freedom with evil, along with its emphasis on “radical evil” and, at the same time, its dismissal of “diabolic evil” (as something applicable to and practicable by humans) is particularly seminal in this respect. The book furnishes a political-philosophical reading of the paradoxes of Kant’s account of freedom and culminates in showing what they reveal and allow us to come to grips with politics in “real life”, in particular the politics of great revolutions.

  • 4.
    Bråkenhielm, Carl Reinhold
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Kärnavfall: en fråga om moralisk rättvisa2010In: Etiska undersökningar: Om samhällsmoral, etisk teori och teologi / [ed] Elena Namli, Per Sundman & Susanne Wigorts Yngvesson, Uppsala: Uppsala University Library , 2010, 1, p. 207-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bóasdóttir, Sólveig Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Violence, power, and justice: A feminist contribution to Christian sexual ethics1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses how male battering of women can be understood through due attention to contemporary psychological and sociological interpretations and concludes that a critical feminist perspective offers the most adequate explanation of the problem. Feminist theories on the function of male violence in patriarchal societies coupled with theories on power and the social construction of sexuality as well as feminist theories about the institution of heterosexual marriage are then discussed; the result is a serious critique of marriage as an institution which is not safe with regard to women, reproducing and reaffirming as it does the patriarchal power relations of the sexes. Based on this analysis the author formulates four criteria to measure what constitutes an adequate Christian sexual ethics for intimate relationships.

    Holding Christian sexual ethics to fair account, the study then goes on to examine theories of Christian sexual ethics in intimate relationships as represented in the thinking of theologians Helmut Thielicke, Bernard Häring and James Nelson. The evaluation of these works in light of the criteria of experience, equality, tradition and integration concludes that some of them have serious inadequacies. An important shift in emphasis and direction for Christian sexual ethics is then proposed. The author suggests that Christian sexual ethics must approach intimate relationships from a justice perspective. It must start with the realities of injustice in current intimate relationships and from there criticize male power, the social construction of sexuality as well as male battering. Such an approach is necessary if Christian sexual ethics is to be able to offer a moral protection for women.

  • 6.
    Callewaert, Teresa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Theologies Speak of Justice: A Study of Islamic and Christian Social Ethics2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how religious ethics, while retaining its identity, can contribute to political debate and to the understanding of justice. The inquiry addresses these issues by focusing on theological perspectives which challenge the solutions offered to these questions by the liberal paradigm. Three kinds of challenges are studied, each of which is represented by one thinker from the Islamic tradition and one from the Christian tradition, in order to enable a comparative perspective on the contributions of religious traditions. The thinkers studied are: 1) modified liberalism, represented by Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im and Duncan B. Forrester; 2) liberationism, represented by Ali Shariati and Gustavo Gutierrez; and 3) radical traditionalism, as developed by Tariq Ramadan and John Milbank.

    The study is organized around three main questions. First, how can innovative interpretations of religious tradition be plausibly justified? Second, what role should religious arguments and reasons play in the political sphere? Third, what can religious ethics and theological thought contribute to the understanding of social justice? The questions are engaged by means of a critical and reconstructive engagement with the six thinkers. The suggested solutions are assessed in terms of the criteria of authenticity, communicability, and potential for transformation. It is argued that a religious ethic can rely on a tradition without accepting conservative understandings of that tradition. Furthermore, it is argued that the coherence of religious ethics can be made available for public discourse but that the hospitability of the public forum to such contributions needs to be realized through a deepened democratic culture and a critique of power structures which condition perceptions of rationality. While religious ethics do not articulate complete alternative understandings of justice, they articulate contributions by relating justice to human sociality and to transcendence. 

  • 7.
    Chachine, Isaias Ezekiel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies.
    Community, Justice, and Freedom: Liberalism, Communitarianism, and African Contributions to Political Ethics2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with theories of community, justice, and freedom within liberalism, communitarianism, African philosophy and theology. The study maintains that there are different latitudes on how to formulate and articulate theories of community, justice and freedom informed by particualr moral experiences with bearing on different views of human. People differ and their claims on moral matters are influenced by contexts in which they find themselves, which means that cultural diversity has bearing on different interpretations of what it means to be a human being. Given the importance of this diversity, of particular significance in this study is the relationship between various theories of justice and freedom and different understandings of the relationship between the individual and the community. The study endorses that any contemporary discourse on community, justice, and freedom to be adequate should take notice on the political, economic, and cultural aspirations of the people it seeks to address itself. It argues that there might be alternative theories of community, justice, and freedom which may give a fuller appreciation to the fact that there are different understandings of what community implies as well as what justice and freedom means. One such alternative is the African view of human, that of "ubuntu", which maintains that "to be" is "to belong". In this view a person is because of others, and by inference one's humanity, including one's sense of personhood, is affirmed by affirming the humanity and personhood of others. The first aim of the study is to examine how we should understand different theories of justice and freedom within Western political philosophy, and African political theory and theology. The second aim is to analyse how different theories of justice and freedom are related to different conceptions of the relationship between the individual and the community. The third and final aim is to propose an adequate theory of community, justice, and freedom from an African perspective.

  • 8.
    Collste, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Makten, moralen och människan: en analys av värdekonflikter i debatten om medbestämmande och löntagarstyre1984Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ehnberg, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Globalization, Justice, and Communication: A Critical Study of Global Ethics2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to seek to an answer to the question of what constitutes a tenable model for global ethics. This is done in part by a critical engagement with four different models of global ethics; two proposals from political philosophy and two contributions from theological ethics. The models analyzed in the study are: (1) the capabilities approach as developed by Martha Nussbaum, (2) Seyla Benhabib’s discourse ethics and model of cosmopolitan federalism, (3) David Hollenbach’s model of the common good and human rights, and (4) the model for responsibility ethics and theological humanism as developed by William Schweiker. These models contain different understandings of global justice, human rights, and sustainable development.

    The study works with six primary problems: (1) Which are the main moral problems associated with different processes of globalization? (2) What should be the response to these problems, in the form of a normative ethical model? (3) What is the relation between global ethics and universalism? (4) What kind of institutional vision for the international arena does a tenable global ethic promote? (5) Given the human diversity and global pluralism, what would be a reasonable view of the human being included in a global ethic? (6) What kind of ethical theory is sustainable for global ethical reflection? These questions also form the basis for the analysis of the models.

    The study uses a set of criteria in order to assess the answers that the models offer for these questions. These criteria also constitute the framework within which the author’s contribution to the discussion of global ethics is phrased. The criteria are founded on an idea of what characterizes global ethical reflection. The contention is that a tenable global ethic should be relevant, and it should also be related to a reasonable view of human beings and a plausible ethical theory. Together these support the criterion of communicability, which argues that a global ethic should above all be communicable, i.e. capable of enabling cross-cultural communication. A central argument which this study makes is that a kind of ethical contextualism is more reasonable than an epistemological universalism.

  • 10.
    Friberg von Sydow, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Att ta skriken på allvar: Etiska perspektiv på självdestruktivt beteende2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has multiple goals. First to analyze self-destructive behavior and its relations to ethics. Secondly to evaluate four different ethical perspectives regarding self-destructiveness from a certain position of human nature. The third goal is to construct a position that deals with self-destructive behavior in a way that is improved and well-managed compared to the four ethical perspectives analyzed earlier. The first goal is met by comparing and evaluating different theories concerning self-destructive behavior and discussing the ethical implications surrounding them. Self-destructive behavior is seen as a way of communicating, which puts a moral pressure on both the self-destructive person and the society around her. The four ethical perspectives represented by Robert Nozick and Thomas Szasz, two neoliberals, James B Nelson, a body theologian inspired by Paul Tillich, Gail Weiss, a body feminist and Mary Timothy Prokes, a catholic body theologian, are hence met by the problem of self-destruct, analyzed and critically evaluated. In the final chapter the author constructs an improved ethical perspective concerned with self-destructiveness, based on altruism, responsibility and broad-mindedness.

  • 11.
    Grenholm, Carl-Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Arbetets mening: en analys av sex teorier om arbetets syfte och värde1988Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Grenholm, Carl-Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Arbetets mening: En analys av sex teorier om arbetets syfte och värde1994 (ed. 2. tr.)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is (1) to analyse the contents of six thories on the meaning of work, and (2) to clarify the differences and similarities between these theories. These are a Platonic theory of work, a Lutheran doctrine of vocation, a Marxist theory of work, a Tayloristic theory of work, the thory of work of the human-relations school, and a socio-technical theory of work.

    The theories are constructed through an analysis of view on the purpose and value of work expressed in the writings of Plato and Aristotle, Martin Luther, Karl Marx, FW Taylor, Elton Mayo and JAC Brown, Fred E Emery, Einar Thorsrud, Robert Blauner, Bertil Gardell and Paul Blumberg.

  • 13.
    Grenholm, Carl-Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Arbetets mål och värde: en analys av ideologiska uppfattningar hos LO, TCO och SAF i 1970-talets debatt om arbetsorganisation och datorisering =1987Book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Grenholm, Carl-Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Christian social ethics in a revolutionary age: an analysis of the social ethics of John C. Bennett, Heinz-Dietrich Wendland and Richard Shaull1973Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Grenholm, Carl-Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Protestant work ethics: a study of work ethical theories in contempory protestant theology1992Book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Grenholm, Carl-Henric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Kamergrauzis, NormundsUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Feminist Ethics: Perspectives, Problems and Possibilities2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One purpose of this book is to analyse and reflect critically upon various feminist contributions to ethics. Another purpose is to give a critical evaluation of these contributions of feminist ethics to ethical theory, normative reflection, and applied ethics.

    This means that three questions are adressed in the book. What are the main contributions of feminist theory to moral philosophy and theological ethics? What are the problems within feminist ethics of different kinds? What are the possibilities for feminist research in ethics for the future?

    The book includes descriptions of different sorts of feminist ethics in current theology and philosophy. Different ethical theories as well as contributions to applied ethics within feminist ethics are analysed. the book also engages with a critical evaluationof these different kinds of feminist ethics.

  • 17.
    Grenholm, Carl-Henric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Kamergrauzis, NormundsUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Sustainable Development and Global Ethics2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book three basic problems concerning sustainable development and global ethics are discussed. The first is how we should understand the meaning of sustainable development. There are different dimensions of sustainability, and of particular interest is how we should understand the interrelationships between good environment, economic justice, political democracy and international security.

    The second problem is in what sense sustainable development is a moral ideal within a global ethic. On what values and moral assumptions is the vision of sustainable development based? This vision seemd to presuppose an anthorpocentric ethic which does not ascribe an intrinsic value to nature. The vision of sustainable development presu´pposes a principle of inter-generational justice, according to which we should consider the welfare of future generations. However, it is not clear how we should understand the relationships between sustainable development and different theoies on global justice.

    The third problem treated in this book is that of global ethics. What is the meaning of global ethics, and is a global ethic desirable or possible? Global ethics can be understood as a critical reflection on moral issues concerning environment, development and international relations. It is often combined with an ethical universalism, according to which there are moral assumptions that are common to all human beings. This kind of universalism is controversial, since it does not appear to take seriously cultural diversity and ethical pluralism.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Barbro K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Stenåker och ängsmark: erotiska motiv och homosexuella skildringar i Tove Janssons senare litteratur1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Gölstam, Algot
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Frihet, jämlikhet, demokrati: etik och människosyn inom liberal och socialistisk tradition1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Human dignity and animal well-being: a Kantian contribution to biomedical ethics1991Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Heeger, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Ideologie und Macht: eine Analyse von Antonio Gramscis Quaderni1975Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Herrmann, Eberhard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Philosophy of Religion.
    On how religion relates to morality2010In: Etiska undersökningar: Om samhällsmoral, etisk teori och teologi / [ed] Elena Namli, Per Sundman, Susanne Wigorts Yngvesson, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2010, p. 49-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Holte, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Etik och jämställdhet1978Book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Hvarfner, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Dygd idag?: Erik H Eriksons teori om att mogna som människa1988Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Höglund, Anna T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Krig och kön. Feministisk etik och den moraliska bedömningen av militärt våld2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to develop a critical evaluation of feminist ethics and of ethical theories on military violence. The thesis combines a constructivist view of gender and morality with a narrative and communicative approach to ethics, based in theories developed by Iris Marion Young, Seyla Benhabib, Sharon D. Welch and Eva Lundgren. It analyzes ethical arguments for and against the use of military violence, as well as the construction of gender in these theories. Theories of the so-called "just war tradition", represented by Paul Ramsey and Michael Walzer, as well as pacifist theories, represented by John Howard Yoder, Natanael Beskow and Jacques Ellul, are criticized for being constructed without sufficient relation to human experience. Feminist pacifism, based on theories of motherhood and Carol Gilligan's "different voice" theory, especially as found in the work of Sara Ruddick, is criticized for universalizing women's experiences in one specific context and for constructing gender in a traditional way.

    As an alternative, a moral judgement of military violence based in narratives of rape in war is presented. The conclusion is that an adequate understanding of morality must take into account people's experiences of immorality. Furthermore, it is argued that violence hitherto apprehended as "private" must be related to public violence; that moral judgement should be guided by reason and emotion reflexively; and that moral agency is part of men's and women's gender construction. Through a narrative approach to social ethics, new moral arguments against the justification of military violence are highlighted, in particular, the argument that it violates people's moral agency and their bodily integrity.

  • 26.
    Jarl, Ann-Cathrin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Women and economic justice: Ethics in feminist liberation theology and feminist economics2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focus on women, justice and economics. The work of feminist economists and feminist ethicists is analyzed with regard to economic justice.

    The present situation for poor women in the world is that they have no or few possibilities to provide for their own basic needs through, waged work, access to and control of arable land or opportunities to obtain an education. They are denied equal rights and opportunities. This problem is viewed from the point of market economy. What does neoclassical economic theory and market economic practice contribute to the ethical dilemma of the lack of respect of right to life? This thesis argues that right to life is a universally recognized right supported by international law, feminist ethics and feminist economics. But the basic human needs required to uphold this right is not accessible to 1.5 billion people in the world today and 70% of those are women. The basic human need concept is used as a criterion for where economic theory and practice enter into a justice discourse. The demand is made, that in order for economics to justify a place within a justice discourse, all peoples who are willing and able, should have the option to provide for their basic needs; clean water, food, housing, elemen- tary education, elementary health-care and sanitation in a sustainable manner. Provision of basic needs is not seen through channels of redistribution but in connection to economic theory and practice.

    This thesis contains an analysis of feminist economics as it is developed with regards to ethics by Bina Agarwal, Nancy Folbre, Julie A. Nelson and Gita Sen. Feminist economists focus on women's autonomy, construction of gender and of economics. They criticize issues pertaining to equality, flawed objectivity, view of human nature and women's rights in economic theory.

    The treatment of justice by two feminist ethicists, Beverly Wildung Harrison and Karen Lebacqz is clarified. Feminist liberation theology ethics focus on how situations of injustice affect women and insists that attention is given to the actual situation of the poor. For justice to improve oppression must cease and right relations be invoked. Justice is pictured as a process that entails a number of criteria that are applied in a feminist hermeneutics of justice for a bottom line of justice in economics.

  • 27.
    Kamergrauzis, Normunds
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The Persistence of Christian Realism: A Study of the Social Ethics of Ronald H. Preston2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The persistence of the tradition of Christian Realism in England is exemplified by the lifelong contribution of Anglican moral theologian Ronald H. Preston. The purpose of this study is (1) to systematise, clarify and analyse Preston’s social ethical theory, with particular reference to Christian engagement with economic and political issues; (2) to undertake critical assessment of the ambiguities in Preston’s approach, in relation to the debate within moral philosophy, Christian ethics and political philosophy; and (3) to suggest a constructive proposal for an approach to social ethics in the public sphere that would be reasonable and authentic from a Christian perspective.

    The study incorporates analysis of one form of Christian ethics and its implications for economic and political issues. Yet, engagement with the public sphere is related to fundamental theological and ethical views. What components make up the sources of Christian ethics, and how do they relate to one another? What are the implications of Christian ethics for normative evaluation of individual and political action? What is the role of economic theory for the interpretation and implementation of ethics? What are the implications of a theological position, of social ethical theory and of the assessment of the role of economic theory for making judgements about economic practice? After clarification and analysis of Preston’s views regarding these different areas of investigation, criteria for an adequate Christian ethical theory are formulated, in order to make a critical assessment of Preston’s approach. The main problems dealt with in this analysis are also of central relevance to the author’s own proposal about the basis for Christian ethics in the public sphere.

    It is argued that Christian ethics has a particular contribution to make to morality, both for the motivation of ethics and for its content. The study shows that different conceptions of the relation-ship between ethics and a Christian system of belief influence both assessment of human moral possibilities and engagement beyond one’s own social context and tradition. If Christian ethics is based on Creation, Christology and Eschatology, it has resources within itself to be sufficient to engage with economic and political issues, in dialogue and solidarity with those who are excluded from participation in the interpretation of justice and the distribution of power.

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Ethics and Philosophy of Religion.
    Weighing Animal Lives: A Critical Assessment of Justification and Prioritization in Animal-Rights Theories2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project underlying this dissertation aims at analyzing three pro-animal-rights theories, evaluating the theories, and outlining an alternative theoretical account of animal rights. The analytical categories are justification and function of animal rights, the definition of the right holder, and the resolution approach to rights conflict. The categories are applied to a naturalist, a theocentric, and a contractarian approach to defend animal rights. The evaluation is substantiated by the assumption that rights are meant to protect less powerful beings against more powerful aggressors. The constructive segment is an investigation into what extent identified disadvantages of the theories can be avoided by outlining a new model for animal rights.

    The analyses and evaluation suggest that all three theories are at risk of contradicting the proper function of rights-based theories. Tom Regan’s naturalist account of animal rights includes a logical possibility to sacrifice less capable beings for the sake of more capable beings. Andrew Linzey’s theocentric case for animal rights may sometimes mean that vulnerable human persons should be sacrificed for more powerful non-human beings. Mark Rowlands’ outlined contractarian model, further reconstructed in this work, fails to provide a way to resolve rights conflicts, making the function of rights inapplicable to conflicts.

    In conclusion, it is suggested that defining the right holder as a self-preservative being can be supported by, at least, the contractarian rationale. That would also conform to the proper function of rights-based theories. It is also suggested that this means that rights conflicts should be resolved by a voluntary sacrifice of the most powerful being. Practical circumstances should be created where such voluntarity is both genuine and rationally possible.

  • 29.
    Kronlid, David
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Ecofeminism and Environmental Ethics2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on ecofeminist ethical theory. A first aim is to clarify ecofeminist views on five central issues in the field of environmental ethics. These issues are: (1) Views of nature, (2) social constructivism and nature, (3) values of nature, (4) ethical contextualism, and (5) ethical pluralism. A second aim is to compare ecofeminist standpoints with certain standpoints within nonfeminist environmental ethical theory. A third aim is to critically discuss some of the main standpoints in ecofeminism. The analysis focuses on the works of Karen Warren, Sallie McFague, Chris Cuomo, and Carolyn Merchant. Other important sources are the environmental philosophers and ethicists J. Baird Callicott, Paul Taylor, Irene Klaver, Bryan G. Norton, Christopher Stone, Eugene Hargrove, Holmes Rolston III, Per Ariansen, Don E. Marietta, and Bruno Latour.

    The result of this study is that there are no main differences between ecofeminism and nonfeminist environmental ethics regarding the main standpoints on the five issues. Rather, the significant differences are found within these main standpoints. In addition, one important characteristic of ecofeminist ethics is its "double nature," that is, the fact that it is rooted in feminism and environmentalism. The double nature of ecofeminism results in a foundation out of which ecofeminism as an environmental philosophy has a unique potential to handle some of the theoretical tensions that environmental ethics creates.

    From the perspective that environmental problems consist of complex clusters of natureculture- discourse and that environmental ethical theory ought to be action guiding, it is argued that ecofeminist ethical theory has an advantage compared to nonfeminist environmental ethics. This standpoint is explained by the fact that ecofeminism holds a variety of views of nature, kinds of social constructivism and contextualism, and conceptions of values and of the self, and from the presumption that this variety reflects the reality of environmental problems. However, in order for ecofeminist ethical theory to fulfill its promise as an acceptable environmental ethical theory, its theoretical standpoints ought to be explicated and further clarified.

  • 30.
    Kurtén, Tage
    Teologiska fakulteten, Åbo Akademi, Finland. .
    Moralisk Öppenhet: Förutsättningar för etik bortom religiöst och sekulärt2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few centuries the way morality is understood has changed radically. In early modernity ethics was defined by Christian thought and Church authorities. Since the religious wars in the 17th century, moral philosophy has been looking for purely human foundations for ethics. Still, moral thinking among ordinary people in Europe became secular only during the latter part of the 20th century. Secular moral thinking has today developed different ethical theories. However, during the last few decades the idea of a common secularity has been questioned. Our multicultural society is now confronting post-secular undercurrents.

    In this book the author discusses how to understand these ongoing changes in the current moral discourse. The book is a collection of articles written by the author during his time as professor at Åbo Akademi University (1998-2015). He discusses how we can understand moral language and what the conditions for a meaningful use of such language are. The book sheds light upon contributions of ethics to urgent societal problems like environmental questions, questions concerning sexuality, the challenges for political life in our current multicultural societies etc. The author underscores the importance of the responsibility of every individual person.

    Eight of the eighteen articles are written in English, the rest in Swedish. The book is divided into four sections: I. Frames for morality in late modernity; II. Political ethics and theology – secular or religious?; III. Current moral challenges; IV. Ethics – a question of values. In a new introductory article, “Conditions for an open morality”, the author presents his intellectual and cultural landscape.

  • 31.
    Kvassman, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Samtal med den värdefulla naturen: Ett studium av miljöetiken hos Knud Lõgstrup, Holmes Rolston III och Hans Jonas1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has three aims. One aim is to explain and analyse the environmental ethics of Rolston, Jonas and Lögstrup. A second aim is to compare and criticize their environmental ethics. A third aim is to put forward a personal proposal for an acceptable formulation of a weakly biocentrical environmental ethic.

    The main question in the thesis is how one can formulate an environmental ethic that strives for a tenable approach vis-á-vis nature and at the same time does not dethrone human dignity. In order to obtain a tenable environmental ethic four conditions have been propounded. The first is a prioritizing condition, which means that a tenable environmental ethic should be able to prioritize among nature's values and differentiate what is important and unimportant in nature. The second condition is a consistency condition, which means that one must recognize the scientific results within one's own area. A third condition is an experience condition, which means that in addition to scientific experiences one must be able to include the experiences of nature's values that a science-based perception of reality is not capable of describing. Lastly there is a human dignity condition, which means that nature's values may not be gained at the expense of human dignity.

    In the thesis it is argued that a weakly biocentric environmental ethic best fulfils the four conditions. This means that, besides man, nature and other living beings can have intrinsic value, but that man alone has an absolute value. This means that the value is independent of a person's qualities and abilities. In the thesis it is argued that an environmental ethic in its perception of reality can contain scientific facts at the same time as it can contain everyday more direct experiences. With support from Lögstrup it is argued that we can find a way to understanding ingenious and senserich nature pertaining to the senses. It is argued that we have experience that nature meets us not only as an environmental problem but also as a delightful grace of creation.

    It is further argued in the thesis that there are objective values in nature that it is possible to gain knowledge about and that this is best expressed in the form of a deontological action ethic. The environmental ethic that is argued for has its prerequisite in the dialogue that nature through the immediate sensory impressions and the laws that apply in nature calls us to.

  • 32.
    Kwon, Soon-Gu
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Christ as example: The imitatio Christi motive in biblical and Christian ethics1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is (1) to investigate what the imitation of Christ means in Biblical andChristian ethics, (2) to make a critical analysis of some interpretations of the imitation of Christ inChristian tradition, (3) to propose an alternative interpretation of the imitation of Christ, and (4) todiscuss the role of the Bible in Christian ethics. This demands discussion of several problems.What does it mean to follow or imitate Jesus? How can Christians be like Jesus? How can the Biblebe used in Christian ethics? What Christology do the chosen theologians have? What ethical theoryis proper to the imitation of Christ?

    In chapter 1 the author discusses the role of the Bible in Christian ethics. In chapter 2 he dealswith how two New Testament scholars interpret Pauline texts concerning the imitation of Christ.These two chapters help him to analyse how contemporary theologians relate Christian ethics to aBiblical one.

    In the following chapters the author discusses six interpretations of the imitation of Christ inChristian tradition. They are a monastic, an ascetic, a political, a contextual, a feminist, and anarrative interpretation. The monastic interpretation recognizes the importance of a cloister as aplace for the imitation of Christ. The ascetic interpretation is concerned with the method andprocess for the imitation of Christ. The political interpretation emphasizes social responsibilitythrough work, family life, and political participation in the world. The contextual interpretationholds that a social and cultural context plays a great role in Christian discipleship. The feministinterpretation states that women's experience has a hermeneutical meaning for the imitation ofChrist. The narrative interpretation stresses the story of Jesus in Christian character formation.

    The author presents an alternative relational interpretation of the imitation of Christ. He stressesthat human beings are in the web of various relationships with others and they thereby areresponsible for others. He recommends human beings to live with an agapeic attitude toward oneanother for a better human society.

  • 33.
    Lantz, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Eigentumsrecht - ein Recht oder ein Unrecht?: eine kritische Beurteilung der ethischen Argumente für das Privateigentum bei Aristoteles, Thomas von Aquino, Grotius, Locke, Hegel, Marx und in den modernen katholischen Sozialenzykliken1977Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Larson, Ellen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Etiska argument i den svenska freds- och försvarsdebatten under åren 1957-19701973Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Lundberg, Per-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Människan i själavården: en teologisk analys av människosynen i själavårdslitteratur från 1945 till 19841992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Ethics and Philosophy of Religion.
    Ethics Beyond Finitude: Responsibility towards Future Generations and Nuclear Waste Management2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has three aims: 1. To evaluate several ethical theories about responsibility towards future generations. 2. To construct a theory about responsibility towards future generations. 3. To carry out an ethical evaluation of different nuclear waste management methods.

    Five theories are evaluated with the help of evaluative criteria, primarily: A theory must provide future generations with some independent moral status. A theory should acknowledge moral pluralism. A theory should provide some normative claims about real-world problems.

    Derek Parfit’s theory provides future generations with full moral status. But it is incompatible with moral pluralism, and does not provide reasonable normative claims about real-world problems. Brian Barry’s theory provides such claims and a useful idea about risk management, but it does not provide an argument why future generations ought to exist. Avner de-Shalit’s theory explains why they ought to exist; however, his theory can not easily explain why we ought to care for other people than those in our own community. Emmanuel Agius’ theory gives an ontological explanation for mankind’s unity, but reduces conflicts of interests to a common good. Finally, Hans Jonas’ theory shifts the focus from the situation of future generations to the preconditions of human life generally. However, his theory presupposes a specific ontology, which might be unable to motivate people to act.

    The concluding chapters describe a narrative theory of responsibility. It claims that we should comprehend ourselves as parts of the common story of mankind and that we ought to provide future generations with equal opportunities. This implies that we should avoid transferring risks and focus on reducing the long-term risks associated with the nuclear waste.

  • 37.
    Löfstedt, Malin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Ethics.
    Modell, människa eller människosyn?: En analys av kritiska perspektiv på bilden av människan i neoklassisk ekonomisk teori2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the picture of human being in neoclassical economic theory. Most often this picture is described as an individual agent acting rationally to maximize his own self-interest. Is this a pure model, is it a description of human behavior, or is it even a view of humans built on assumptions of human nature not empirically testable? A first aim of this analysis is to clarify how this picture of human beings should be understood. A second aim is to analyze four critical perspectives of this picture, namely an institutional perspective, a feminist perspective, an African perspective and a communitarian perspective. A third aim is to discuss this picture and the critique of it in relation to the theological concept ‘view of humans’.

    The neoclassical economists primarily understand the model as a model only. But at the same time they also admit that there are some connections between the model and real humans, and that people in general behave as the model. The critics on the other hand primarily discuss the model as if it was a mirror of real persons, built on empirically nontestable assumptions about human nature. They argue the model primarily should be understood as a ‘view of humans’. This means that there is a dissonance between neoclassical economists and their critics in how they interpret the model and its connections to reality. Even though neoclassical economists would not admit that their model implies a ‘view of humans’, it is here argued that there is a specific ‘view of humans’ in the foundations of the model, due to its historical context. This ‘view of humans’ is identical with the liberal view, and explains human beings primarily as rational, selfinterested and atomistic individuals. Since this is in contrast with the view of humans implicit in the critique of the model it is concluded that there is also a dissonance in the ‘view of humans’ between neoclassical economists and their critics.

  • 38.
    Malmsten, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Reflective assent in basic care: A study in nursing ethics1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses nursing ethics in relation to basic care. The practice of basic care andrelated knowledge are often understood as tacit knowledge, a kind of familiarity-knowledgethat often has been neglected by philosophical scrutiny.

    The main aim of the study is to present an alternative approach to principle-based ethicsthat dominate text-books in medical and nursing ethics. It is suggested that nurses' unique experiences of basic care contain cognitive significance. Bodily knowledge and consent­giving plays a central role in this study. It recognises autonomy as a fragile ability of patients in intimate situations, defined by Josalyn Lawler.

    Central concepts in the study are the principle of informed consent and the reconstructedprinciple of reflective assent. The alternative approach to nursing ethics that is presented in this study examines communicative ethics, feminist ethics, and virtue ethics. The evaluation of the discourse ethics of Jürgen Habermas has resulted in a further development from ideal speech-acts to include bodily communication. The feminist contribution is new insights of how oppressive structures work on practices of basic care. A feminine approach to ethics, as presented by Nel Noddings, is rejected as too powerless to advance the autonomous status of nursing ethics. A post-structural approach of Marie Fortune is presented as a better alternative. A neo-Aristotelian approach to virtue ethics is used to explore which character-traits nurses need to develop in practice for being able to empower patients and themselves.

    From the philosophical framework set by Charles Taylor, in dialogue with other philosophers as Martin Heidegger, Emmanuel Levinás, Knud Ejler Lögstrup, Alasdair MacIntyre, and Donald Schön, six nursing values are affirmed as irreducibly social values. These are induced from the practice of basic care as being particularly essential in this thesis. Additionally six virtues are connected to these values. Embodiment-Sensuality, Reciprocity-Loyalty, Interdependent Autonomy-Openness, Consolation-Courage, Maintaining Human Dignity-Fairness, and Empowerment-Solidarity.

  • 39.
    Mogård, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Att leva tillsammans: En studie i kristen och feministisk sexualetik2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing change in our society within the fields of sexual relationships. Along with new experiences there is a need for a shifting Christian ethical and theological reflection. The first aim of the dissertation is to analyze four models of Christian sexual ethics, all with an ambition to be reconstructive towards more traditional sexual ethics. The second aim is to criticize the models and make constructive proposals to a Christian and feminist sexual ethics. The theoretical outlook of the study is feminist theology with inspiration from the work of Michel Foucault on sexuality and Anthony Giddens on relationship.

    Lisa Sowle Cahill provides and argues for a sexual ideal from a Catholic tradition. By observing the functions of the body she distinguishes an ideal of heterosexual and fertile sexual relationships in a context of equality. Margaret Farley, representing the second model, is with Cahill arguing for a feminist view. Farley though turns to the norm of justice and puts the questions of just relationship in the center of her sexual ethical reflection. The third model is from the work of the Anglican theologian Adrian Thatcher. He puts the love of Christ and a life for others in focus. Mark Jordan is the last model and is working with the Christian tradition from a queer perspective. The work and life of eros, together with sexual pleasure, is what should govern sexual relations.

    My main objections are the idea of an essence of sexuality and a supposed connection between the same essence of sexuality and norms for relationships. Instead I suggest a strategic understanding of sexuality, where the norm of right relationships should decide how sexuality should be understood. What I propose in the constructive part of the dissertation is that a person should be understood as both having authority and responsibility. What is of importance is to pay attention and criticize social structures that prevent people to act with authority and responsibility in their intimate affairs. From the norms of Margaret Farley, I draw the importance of commitment, making authority as well as responsibility possible within relationships.

  • 40.
    Morberg Jämterud, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Human Dignity: A Study in Medical Ethics2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human dignity is an enunciated ethical principle in many societies, and it has elicited a great deal of interest, not least because it is central in health care. However, it has also been the subject of criticism. Some have argued that it is sufficient to rely on a principle of autonomy, and that dignity is a redundant principle or concept in health care. Other discussions have focused on the precise meaning of dignity, and how a principle of dignity should be interpreted and applied. This dissertation discusses questions on the principle of dignity and the meaning of the concept. In addition to a theoretical analysis of these questions, a qualitative research study has been carried out, based on interviews with physicians in palliative and neonatal care, and hospital chaplains, looking at dignity at the beginning and end of life. This dissertation can be categorised as empirical ethics because of its methodological approach. Based on a narrative analysis of the interviews, the results from the study shed light on the theoretical discussion on dignity. Through the history of ideas, dignity has often been linked to human abilities such as autonomy and rationality. However, autonomy is only one of the aspects which emerged from the qualitative research in this dissertation. Other aspects introduced into the discussion on dignity include human vulnerability, interdependence and the responsibility to face vulnerability in others. Some theoretical perspectives on dignity are criticised in the light of the empirical results. Furthermore, the dissertation includes a theological perspective where a Christological view – connected to Bakhtin’s ethics of responsibility – forms a critique to both the Kantian deontological perspective and dignity acquired by virtue. The dissertation also considers how the results can be applied to medical practice.

  • 41.
    Möller, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Risker och människolivets värde: en etisk analys1986Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Human Rights as Ethics, Politics, and Law2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study offers a critical approach to the connections between the law, politics, and morality as they figure in human rights discourse. It argues that human rights must be understood – ethically, politically, and legally – through the prism of reasonable skepticism towards the legitimacy of contemporary institutions for the protection of human rights. The colonial legacy of human rights, the lack of transparent principles for dealing with conflicting rights, and the counterproductive overemphasis upon the importance of legal instruments are considered as offering serious challenges to the lasting legitimacy of human rights. These challenges are analyzed by means of selected human rights-related cases as well as theoretical discussion.

  • 43.
    Namli, Elena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Sundman, PerUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.Wigorts Yngvesson, SusanneUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Etiska undersökningar: Om samhällsmoral, etisk teori och teologi2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Etik är ett brett och angeläget ämne som engagerar forskare inom teologin, filosofin och samhällsdisciplinerna. Inte minst under Professor Carl-Henric Grenholms tid som ämnesföreträdare har etikforskningen i Uppsala haft en sådan bredd. Som en replik på Carl-Henric Grenholms bestående insatser har ett flertal forskare från Europa och USA bidragit med artiklar till denna hyllningsskrift.

    Tre områden har fått illustrera hans mångåriga engagemang som forskare och lärare: etisk teori, socialetik samt teologi och etik. Här analyseras frågor om religion och moral, människovärde, praktiskt förnuft, tolerans, sexualitet och lagring av kärnavfall. Antologin rymmer ett brett spektrum av artiklar skrivna med varje forskareseget temperament och stil. De bildar tillsammans ett smakprov på de områden som under några decennier präglat Carl-Henric Grenholms forskning.

  • 44.
    Nilsson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology.
    Etik och verklighetstolkning: en jämförande analys av Knud E. Løgstrups, Reinhold Niebuhrs och Keith Wards etiska åskådningar1980Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Ethics.
    Den potentiella människan: En undersökning av teorier om självförverkligande2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “What characterizes an acceptable theory of self-realization?” The thrust of the present dissertation is towards seeking an answer to this central problem, which stems from the fundamental human experience that life involves change, and that in a modern society such change is often expected to be towards a realization of potentials and the good life for the individual.

    The dissertation has a three-fold purpose. The first is to clarify the content of five modern theories of self-realization from three academic fields. The theories are those of the psychologist Abraham H. Maslow, the philosophers Charles Taylor and Alan Gewirth, and the theologians Reinhold Niebuhr and Bernard Lonergan. These are methodologically studied by the help of seven analytical questions. The second purpose is to perform a lengthwise comparatative analysis of the five theories, the results of which lead to the third; namely to critically discuss several elements of the reality of human life which have proven to be missing or supressed in much of the material.

    The theoretical framework for the dissertation runs along two axes: one concerns what is developed as a distinction between internalism and relationalism, and the other is to cast a critical light on the lack of attention paid by the the theories of self-realization to experiences which run counter to optimistic ideas of individual development, such as death, loss and dependence.

    The dissertation concludes with an outline for a constructive position based on the necessity of a theory’s closeness to experience, and on the need for reconcilitation of what may seem to be unabridgeble in human life. A theory of self-realization must do more than formulate positive conditions for change. It must also take into consideration conditions that are not directly related to, and sometimes even run contrary to, realization of the self.

  • 46.
    Nordin, Hans-Erik
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Bibeln i kristen etik: En analys av olika uppfattningar om relationen mellan Bibeln och kristen etik1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first purpose of the present investigation is to analyze five different opinions about thecontribution of the Bible in Christian ethics. The second purpose is to take a critical look at these opinions. The third is to present a constructive proposal as to how the Bible should be used in Christian ethics.

    This analysis is carried out using analytical questions. The main questions are as follows: What is biblical ethics? What is the conception of revelation and tradition and their relation to the Bible? How is the interpretation performed? What is the relation between the Bible and other sources of knowledge? What is Christian ethics? This work results in five different models. The critical and constructive purposes are worked out with the assistance of four different criteria.

    The theologians and ethicists whose ideas are analysed propose five different models. G_ranBexell provides a law- and gospel model with a clear center in biblical and Christian ethics. This center consists of the gospel and the commandment of love. Lisa Cahill provides a feminist model. As one starting point before bible interpretation begins, she sides with women's equal rights. She also contributes to a teleological virtue ethics. Bruce Birch and Larry Rasmussen focus on the role of the Christian community in their multifaceted community model and recommend a multifaceted use of the Bible. In their liberation model Clodovis Boff and George Pixley advocate a preferential option for the poor. Stephen Fowl and Gregory Jones' narrative model propounds the importance of character and develops a virtue ethics.

    The author develops his own contribution as an agape model. It is called agape model bothbecause he pronounces God's love in Christ as a central theme in the Bible and in Christian ethics, and because he understands the dimensions of the moral life, centered in the commandment of love, as reflexes of this central theme.

  • 47.
    Ohlsson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    On the Ethics of External States in Peacebuilding: A Critical Study of Justification2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even the most obvious actions require justification. The need for justification of peacebuilding involvements is always present. This thesis argues that justification is particularly needed when there is a prevalent power asymmetry between an external state and a host community. The dissertation addresses how the attempts of states to justify their engagement in peacebuilding should be evaluated in the light of justification theory. The study’s research questions are addressed by developing a theoretical framework based on justification theory that is combined with empirical case studies. As a result, the starting-point for this dissertation is both descriptive and normative. It builds upon and develops the theory of justification offered by Rainer Forst, by testing Forst’s formal criteria of reciprocity and generality on two case studies, the Republic of South Africa and the Russian Federation.

    The thesis attempts to scrutinize the role played by the justifications made by external states engaged in peacebuilding. The focus on how Russia and South Africa view, act, and try to justify their peacebuilding efforts, serves to further nuance our theoretical understanding of the justification of external states in peacebuilding processes. The study is exploring which justification strategies are being used and how. By combining ethical analysis with empirical research and by building on an analysis of the case studies, the study presents two typologies of the attempts at justification which Russia and South Africa make in their foreign policy discourse. In order to accomplish this, the thesis uses different methods, including case studies, expert interviews, and document analysis.

    This study is written within the critical discipline of social ethics. By making a critical analysis of the official Russian and South African foreign policy discourses on peace engagements, this dissertation aims to contribute to existing literature both empirically and theoretically. The analysis shows that Forst’s formal criteria are useful, but not sufficient, to analyse states’ justificatory attempts. The study aims to contribute both to our understanding of Russian and South African engagements in peacebuilding processes abroad, as well as justification of peacebuilding and the role of ethics and morality in foreign policy generally.

  • 48.
    Onuoha, Chikezie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies.
    Bioethics Across Borders: An African Perspective2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioethics deals with the ethical problems arising from the developments in life sciences and biotechnologies. Western autonomy-based philosophical framework has dominated the approach of mainstream Bioethics. Yet, many of the assumptions implicit in the Western framework that makes cl