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  • 1.
    Amelin, Olov
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Medaljens baksida: Instrumentmakaren Daniel Ekström och hans efterföljare i 1700-talets Sverige1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with scientific instrument-making in Sweden in the 18th century with an overview of the craft in the second half of the 17th century. The main character in this book, Daniel Ekström is introduced in chapter two. His position within the Swedish scientific community is described and the attempts by the Land Survey Board and the Academy of Sciences to institutionalise his business is discussed. Ekström travelled to England and France and the transfer of technology that followed from this journey is discussed. His followers, Johan Ahl and Johan Zacharias Steinholtz and their work are described. In 1762, Ahl moved to Denmark where the geographical circle, invented by Ekström, became an important technical condition for an ambitious mapping project. In Sweden on the other hand, J. Z. Steinholtz' business ended in bankruptcy. The optical instrument-makers are also described, the most prominent being Carl Lehnberg, who, just like Ekström, became a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences. In the final chapter a few comments on experimental physics and it's influence on Swedish instru-ment-making are given. Though most importantly, the failure of the attempt to establish scientific instrument-making is related to a more general change in how the sciences were regarded in Sweden around 1760.

    In appendix one, a comparison is made between a reflecting telescope by Ekström and a telescope by James Short. In appendix two, a list is given over Swedish instrument-makers and preserved Swedish scientific instruments.

    In appendix three, the workshops in Stockholm are displayed on a map.

  • 2.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Mutual Favours: The social and scientific practice of eighteenth-century Swedish chemistry2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation is a study of the creation of chemistry as a science in eighteenth-century Sweden. It is argued that the chemists in the study participated in a network for exchange of scientific facts and all kinds of favours, in which science was both conducted, negotiated and created. A number of relationships between chemists are analyzed with regards to two central eighteenth-century institutions: the patron-client relationship and the egalitarian ideal of reciprocity articulated in the eighteenth-century Republic of Letters.

    In the first half the background to the success of Swedish chemistry is sketched out. It is discussed which groups supported chemistry and for what reasons. There is a discussion of the theoretical and methodological changes that were initiated by Torbern Bergman when he took over the chair of chemistry in Uppsala. Bergman's attempts to marginalize his two major opponents, Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, the previous holder of the Uppsala chair and Gustav von Engeström, the head of the Board of Mines laboratory in Stockholm, are also analyzed.

    In the second half the focus shifts to the interaction of university chemistry with industry. It is shown how industrial processes gradually came to be redefined as a kind of “coarse chemistry”, a process which benefited both engineers employed at industrial installations and university chemists. The many themes explored in the study are brought together in an analysis of Carl Wilhelm Scheele’s adoption into the network of Swedish chemists. The dissertation concludes with a survey of the more general conclusions.

  • 3.
    Grandin, Karl
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Ett slags modernism i vetenskapen: Teoretisk fysik i Sverige under 1920-talet1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation considers the development of theoretical physics in Sweden in the 1920s. During this decade, the emphasis of the research in the theoretical physics departments of the Swedish universities changed from hydrodynamics to theoretical atomic physics. Research in hydrodynamics continued, but henceforth it was mainly conducted at the Technical College in Stockholm which, during this time, was fully occupied with developing its own research programme. This development took place through discussion, debate and strategic judgement.

    This development is investigated in terms of theoretical and experimental physics cultures, as well as through the study of 'theoretical technologies' and theoretical techniques. By applying these concepts it is easier to understand the developments and to formulate pertinent questions. Hydrodynamics constituted a theoretical technology where the education, the theoretical tools and the traditions for posing and dealing with problemsprovided the framework for the theoretical work.

    Four case studies have been made, each of the first three are centred on one main character, whilst the fourth study includes them all. C. W. Oseen is investigated first. His research was devoted almost exclusively to hydrodynamics, although he was well inclined towards, though critical of, the new physics. From the central position he occupied within Swedish physics, he was also to judge the new physics, partly as an expert atprofessorial appointments and partly through the evaluation work within the Nobel physics committee. Oskar Klein and Ivar Waller both belong to the first generation of Swedish theoretical physicists to concentrate their work on the new theoretical physics, but they followed different directions. In the last case study there are examples of how a decision was finally made in favour of the new physics, in connection with the appointment of a professor in Stockholm, and in connection with the Nobel Prize evaluations. In this way the focus of theoretical physics came to be changed.

  • 4.
    Josefsson, Urban
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    "Det romantiska tidehvarfvet": De svenska romantikernas medeltidsuppfattning2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation deals with the view of the Middle Ages in the Swedish Romantic Movement in the first half of the 19th century. A presentation is given of the treatment of the Middle Ages in the historical and fictional works of the Romantics, and it is shown how this treatment was influenced by both their philosophical outlook and their view of contemporary morality and politics. Special attention is paid to the writings of Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom (1790—1855) and Erik Gustaf Geijer (1783—1847), two of the most prominent exponents of Swedish Romanticism.

    According to the Romantics, the Enlightenment and the French Revolution had caused a total breakdown of the established order and left society in a state of chaos. In their ideological struggle to lay the foundations of a new and better order, the Romantics looked to the Middle Ages for inspiration. In important respects, they found medieval culture to be an ideal to be emulated. They claimed that medieval man — contrary to the contemporaries of the Romantics — had ordered his life according to noble values and that he had striven to realise idealistic purposes. They were convinced that a revival of the medieval spirit — termed ’the Romantic Spirit’ — could form the basis of a future civilisation that would outshine the preceding ones.

  • 5.
    Josephson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Den akademiska frihetens gränser: Max Weber, Humboldtmodellen och den värdefria vetenskapen2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to an understanding of why Weber advocated a value-free science. In en essay from 1917, Weber writes that the question of whether or not one ought to make value judgments in the lecture hall is basically a question of practical university policy. Weber's statement warrants a study of previously relatively unexamined source material. Between 1908 and 1911 Weber wrote a number of articles dealing with university policy. Using these texts as a basis for my research, I discern four reasons why he calls for a value-free science. The first reason is that he wants to provide students with protection against political indoctrination. The second reason is that he wants to counteract the ideological fragmentation that threatens to arise within universities if teachers with fundamentally irreconcilable views assume the right to preach politics from the lectern. The third reason is that he wants to avoid giving the government an excuse to intervene in academic appointments in order to make sure that the faculties do not grant chairs to individuals who question the current form of government. The fourth reason, paradoxically, is that he wants to lay the foundation for an alternative political education of students. Such a political education would not force upon students certain previously determined norms and rules of action, but instead would encourage them to examine themselves and their ethical motives, thus creating autonomous individuals. Previous resarch has argued that Weber defended academic freedom at a time when powerful forces were at work to restrict it. This conclusion is partially anachronic. The right to express political opinions in the lecture hall was as a rule seen as part of academic freedom at the turn of the twentieth century. The problems Weber intends to solve with the doctrine of value-free science, including the discrimination of dissidents, is thus a direct and indirect result of academic freedom.

  • 6.
    Lundgren, Frans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Publika kulturer: Att tilltala allmänheten, 1700–19002000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lundgren, Frans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Publika kulturer: Utgångspunkter för kulturhistoriska analyser av den medierade kommunikationens teknik och pedagogik2000In: Publika kulturer: Att tilltala allmänheten, 1700-1900. En inledning, Uppsala: Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria, Univ. , 2000, p. 5-18Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Matti, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Det intuitiva livet: Hans Larssons vision om enhet i en splittrad tid1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the Swedish philosopher, Hans Larsson (1862-1944), who was also known as a writer, educator and cultural figure. The book concentrates on Larsson's philosophy of intuition, which is of central importance in his thinking as a whole. My aim is to examine the significance of the concept of intuition for Larsson, as well as the intentions behind his formulation of the doctrine of intuition. I show that the faculty of intuition was not merely an instrument of knowledge for Larsson, but symbolized a way of living, being and conducting oneself. It representented a life goal, "the intuitive life", and a utopia, "the intuitive culture". For Larsson, activating and stimulating one's intuitive talents was the route to a more authentic, active and meaningful life. It was through a more developed intuition that human beings could realize their human potential, that is, become truly human. The exercise of this capacity, he thought, brings unity and conciliation not only to the individual, but to relations between individuals.

    The study also shows how Larsson's doctrine of intuition offered an alternative to the dominant view of rationality at the time. In his view, intuition manifested the highest form of "logic". He sets this view against the mechanistic rationality emanating from the natural sciences which had begun to encroach upon spheres where it did not belong. Larsson's debut as an author, Intuition (1892), constituted a critique of the age which, in polemics against positivism and naturalism, argued for a rehabilitation of the significance of feeling and intuition in art, science and philosophy. A few years into the twentieth century, however, Larsson played a different role in the cultural debate. The new century brought with it a new cultural climate; anti-intellectual currents in which some sort of "intuition" was a prominent feature were growing stronger every day. Larsson increasingly came to emphasize the logical features of his own theory of intuition to offset what he viewed as a dangerous development.

    The intuition theme is combined with a biographical perspective aimed at bringing into sharper relief possible connections between Larsson's social background, his personality, his private affairs, and his intellectual concerns. The implications of the notion of "home" as a symbol for Larsson and his contemporaries will also be considered.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Kampen om Kvinnan: Professionalisering och konstruktioner av kön i svensk gynekologi 1860-19252003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how gynaecology was established as a medical speciality in Sweden in the 1860s and onwards. Gender, power, professionalisation and the production of scientific knowledge are central themes. While previous research has shown that gynaecology as a discipline depends upon notions of Woman as radically different from Man, I show how this was manifested within Swedish gynaecology, an initially all male environment. Of special interest is institutionalisation, early career-paths and the development of therapy methods and theory. I argue that gynaecology reproduced and contributed to notions of sex-difference and a gender complementary way of thinking.

    While gynaecology was formed as a surgically interventionist speciality with strong manly connotations, an education reform aiming at opening higher education to women was simultaneously discussed and eventually carried out during the 1860s and 70s. The advocates of this reform portrayed women as especially fit for becoming teachers and physicians, particularly treating women and children. Thus, two opposing gendered professional ideals operated. By focusing an elite group of early women physicians, I outline how the gynaecological construction of womanliness related to women physicians and how women physicians engaged with this notion: what strategies they used to enter a profession as manly as gynaecology had become; and how women gynaecologists engaged with their men colleagues’ therapeutic methods and views on patients and women.

  • 10.
    Pettersson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Politisk vetenskap och vetenskaplig politik: Studier i svensk statsvetenskap kring 19002003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with the relationship between politics and social science. It studies the field of political science in Sweden around 1900 by analyzing two political scientists: Pontus Fahlbeck (1850–1923) and Rudolf Kjellén (1864–1922). Fahlbeck was Professor of Political Science 1889–1915 in Lund. Kjellén was Professor of Political science 1901–1922 in Gothenburg and Uppsala. Both were also active conservative politicians. The purpose of the dissertation is to analyze how Fahlbeck and Kjellén attempted to change political science by emphasizing its significance to society, and how they simultaneously attempted to use that science to influence politics and society in various ways. I formulate the concept of conservative modernists, to describe how Fahlbeck and Kjellén utilized modern social sciences to try to preserve a conservative society.

    The thesis consists of four case studies. The first deals with how Fahlbeck and Kjellén described their version of political science, its relation to other disciplines, its utility for society and its position of objectivity. The second and third case studies concern Fahlbecks and Kjelléns attitudes toward the democratization of society. In the fourth case study, I explore the discussions that ensued from a proposed political science exam.

    My study shows that Fahlbeck and Kjellén consciously strove to prepare the way for a sphere of social sciences. Their vision was a - in their eyes - modern political science that could lead and influence politics to minimize the social and ideological conflicts in society.

  • 11.
    Sjöberg, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    The Pottery Frequency Fluctuations in Late Helladic Tombs: A Case Study of Three LH III Sites in the Argolid1990In: Celebrations of Death and Divinity in the Bronze Age Argolid: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium at the Swedish Institute at Athens, 11-13 June, 1988 / [ed] Robin Hägg, Gullög C. Nordquist, Göteborg: Paul Åströms Förlag, 1990, p. 65-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Student, Steve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature.
    Test: studentuppsats att publicera2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En banbrytande uppsats med oöverträffade resultat

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