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  • 1.
    Andersson, Helena
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Interkulturell kommunikation på ett svenskt sjukhus: Fallstudier av andraspråkstalare i arbetslivet2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates the communication of immigrants employed at a Swedish hospital. The overall aim is to find factors that have a positive effect on their integration into the workplace. The data comprise observations, field notes and approximately 80 hours of audio recordings with five second language speakers made during their everyday activities at work. Since entire workdays have been recorded the data include both professional and social interaction, such as meetings, interaction with patients and small talk between colleagues. In preparation for the case studies a number of interviews were conducted at the hospital and they gave valuable knowledge about the hospital routines and how second language speakers experience their communicative situation.

    The five participants in the case studies are one male cleaner from Tanzania, two female nurses, one from Iran and one from Lebanon, and two female physicians, one from Hungary and one from Lithuania. The number of years spent in Sweden varies from 4 to 18.

    The analyses focus on communication strategies, humor and medical case rounds. The results show that lack of language skills is not a hindrance since the participants make use of different strategies to solve language problems. The dissertation also shows that, despite the difficulties and risks involved in the use of humor, the participants do so as a way of showing collegiality. The analysis of case rounds show that the participants are treated as equal interlocutors and contribute as much to the conversation as the first language speakers do. The results indicate, with a few exceptions, successful integration of the participants.

    Finally, the dissertation argues that a multicultural and multilingual staff is a positive feature since their skills in other languages can be used in ways that both save time and are of economic benefit to the employer. It also argues that Swedish teaching should focus more on interactional skills, for example so that the second language speakers are better prepared to face the communicative challenges they encounter in a workplace.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    ”Kalla mig inte mamsell!”: En jämförelse av tre skandinaviska översättares behandling av kulturspecifika element i fransk- och engelskspråkig skönlitteratur2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study deals with the work and practice of three Scandinavian translators, namely Kjell Olaf Jensen (Norwegian), Marianne Öjerskog (Swedish) and Agnete Dorph Stjernfelt (Danish). The main question of the thesis is what strategies the translators use when translating culture-specific elements from French and English. Theoretically the thesis positions itself within the framework of Descriptive Translation Studies and draws upon system theories as well as Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology of culture. The method consists of a source text – target text analysis, using a somewhat modified version of Pedersen’s (2007) method identifying seven translation strategies, namely (1) retention, (2) specification, (3) direct translation, (4) generalization, (5) substitution, (6) omission and (7) official equivalent. In this thesis the three former and the official equivalent are categorized as “adequate”, whereas generalization, substitution and omission are categorized as “acceptable” using Toury’s (2012) terminology. Six different types of culture-specific elements are investigated, namely (1) titles, address and professional titles, (2) currencies, (3) weights and measures, (4) literature and music, (5) education, and (6) names. In addition to this analysis, interviews with the three translators were carried out. Results show that there are both similarities and dissimilarities in the translators’ choices of translation strategies. It also turns out that the strategies used to a great extent depend on the culture-specific element in question and hardly ever on the source language. Results also suggest that the higher the translators’ amount of accumulated total capital, the more likely it is that they adopt a heterodoxic translation strategy. Jensen and Stjernfelt are more often positioned at one of the two extremes of the adequacy–acceptability axis than is the case for Öjerskog. Moreover, results from the interviews and the text analyses show that there are a number of norms that govern the translators’ practices. The translatorial practice is to manoeuver in a field governed by norms in order to produce the best possible target texts – target texts that are true to the original and conform to domestic literary standards.

  • 3.
    Bellander, Theres
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Minskade skillnader i unga kvinnors och unga mäns kommunikation via datorbaserade medier2007In: Språk och kön i nutida och historiskt perspektiv: Studier presenterade vid Den sjätte nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Uppsala 6-7 oktober 2006, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2007, p. 301-310Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Av tradition har datorteknik förknippats med en manlig domän. Att denna tradition är på väg att förändras tyder till exempel Statistiska centralbyråns mätningar från 2005. Inga större skillnader mellan kvinnors och mäns tillgång till och användning av datorbaserade medier har där kunnat skönjas. Den åldersgrupp där skillnaderna mellan könen är minst är ungdomar 16–24 år. Unga kvinnor använder således, så väl som unga män, de datorbaserade medierna.

    Liksom datortekniken har förknippats med en manlig sfär har kommunikation via datorbaserade medier i tidigare forskning främst visat sig tilltala unga kvinnor. Resultaten av mitt avhandlingsarbete som dels baseras på en enkät, genomförd bland 300 svenska ungdomar, dels på djupstudier av tre pojkar och tre flickor, visar att såväl pojkar som flickor dagligen använder datorbaserade medier i kommunikativt syfte. För ungdomar tycks kommunikation i form av gästboksinlägg på nätmötesplatser eller chatt inte ha särskilt mycket med teknikintresse att göra. Att hålla kontakten via Lunarstorm eller MSN är istället en kompletterande umgängesform där kommunikation främst sker mellan vänner som även umgås i verkliga livet.

    I mitt anförande vid konferensen kommer jag att ge en beskrivning av pojkars och flickors datormedierade kommunikation. Frågor som kommer att behandlas är hur pojkar och flickor använder tekniken, varför de använder den samt vilka de kommunicerar med.

  • 4.
    Bellander, Theres
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Ungdomars dagliga interaktion: En språkvetenskaplig studie av sex gymnasieungdomars bruk av tal, skrift och interaktionsmedier2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores young people's interaction with different individuals through a variety of media. Three girls and three boys aged 16–18, from an urban school, a rural school and a suburban school, were each observed for a week, at school, at home and during leisure activities. The data analysed consist of field notes, video and audio recordings, and texts written by the participants.

    The aim of the study is to investigate how young people’s use of language varies in relation to different contexts. Questions are asked about what activities they participate in, what media they use and how they use them, and how they express themselves orally and in writing in different contexts and through different media. The study is based in sociolinguistic theory and activity type theory. Data were collected using ethnographical methods, and analytical tools were drawn from a broadly defined field of discourse analysis.

    The investigation sheds light on the relationship between what young people are doing socially in any given situation and how they interact. Variation in linguistic styles is made visible by a study of the same individuals involved in different communicative activities. Young people are shown to be a heterogeneous group who engage in different sets of activities. The study questions prevailing definitions and categorisations of adolescents’ linguistic styles and use of electronic media. The outcome is a complex description of everyday interaction, which is found to be shaped by the frames for communicative activities, the technical characteristics of the media employed, and individual factors. In conversational turns, Internet chat messages and text messages, young people select resources from their individual linguistic repertoires in order to achieve specific goals or construct particular roles through their interaction.

  • 5.
    Bergman-Claeson, Görel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Pigan som tystnade: Könsaspekter på episka strukturer i svensk dramatik 1725-19002007In: Språk och kön i nutida och historiskt perspektiv: studier presenterade vid Den sjätte nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Uppsala 6-7 oktober 2006, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2007, p. 145-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The maid who fell silent. Epic structures and gender in Swedish drama 1725-1900

    Epic structures such as soliloquies and asides are frequently used in drama. The narrative function served by these dramatic conventions enables characters to provide a running commentary to the plot, and this in turn makes the characters using them a driving force in the drama.

    In this paper I discuss gender and social class of the dramatic figures using epic structures in Swedish drama from 1725 to 1900. The material studied consists of 25 plays.

    The main characters af interest are the servant figures. The driving force of 18th-century comedy is the cunning maid and, to a lesser extent, her male counterpart. Around 1850 these servants are replaced by other figures, such as the scheming villain, a characteristic male figure in melodrama.

    With the emergence of realism and naturalism, the use of epic structures is reduced. Female servant figures in naturalist plays have few lines, and use virtually no soliloquies or asides. They are a necessary part of the bourgeois family, but are no longer the driving force of the drama.

  • 6.
    Bergman-Claeson, Görel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Vi svenskar, vi människor och bomben: En semantisk analys av identifikationsramar och fiendebilder i pressdebatten om svenskt atomvapen 1952-19591994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bianchi, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Håkansson, DavidUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.Melander, BjörnUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.Pfister, LindaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.Westman, MariaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.Östman, CarinUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Svenskans beskrivning 36: Förhandlingar vid trettiosjätte sammankomsten. Uppsala 25–27 oktober 20172019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1963 har det vid olika universitet i Sverige och Finland regelbundet anordnats sammankomster för svenskans beskrivning. Vid dessa har forskningsresultat som rör svenska språkets uppbyggnad och användning presenterats och diskuterats.

    Den trettiosjätte sammankomsten ägde rum den 25–27 oktober 2017 i Uppsala. Temat för konferensen, som samlade runt 200 deltagare, var denna gång Varför svenska? Ambitionen var att på olika sätt belysa, problematisera och tydliggöra svenska språkets innebörd, roll och betydelse inom vetenskap, skola och samhälle. Sektionsföredragens ämnesmässiga spännvidd var som vanligt för konferensserien stor och föredragen berörde de flesta områden inom ämnet svenska språket.

    I denna volym publiceras i bearbetad form 27 av de föredrag som hölls vid sammankomsten. Den ger därmed en god överblick över aktuell forskning om svenska språket. Alla som vill följa den senaste utvecklingen på området finner här mycket av intresse.

  • 8.
    Blomqvist, Carl Oliver
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Flerspråkighet eller språkförbistring?: Finska segment i svenska medeltidsbrev 1350–15262017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines fragmentary Finnish in Late Old Swedish charters (c. 1350–1526) issued in the Finnish part of the Swedish realm, the diocese of Åbo. Consisting mostly of proper names, albeit occasionally displaying Finnish inflectional and derivational morphology, these fragments have previously not generally been regarded as representing actual written Finnish, but rather as onomastic loans or transcriptions of oral language by more or less monolingual Swedish scribes. This thesis attempts a description and analysis of the Swedish–Finnish language mixture, to see to what extent the embedding of Finnish segments in these Swedish-language charters can be said to reflect scribal proficiency in Finnish or a lack thereof.

    The thesis relies on theoretical and empirical findings in the fields of code-switching and historical sociolinguistics. To provide a socio-historical context for the linguistic analysis, sociolinguistic conditions in medieval Finland and the textual genre of medieval charters are outlined. The bilingual segments in the data are then described and compared with models of code-switching from modern studies, to see whether their form corresponds to patterns that could be expected of more or less balanced bilinguals. The choice between Swedish and Finnish linguistic variants is also considered in the light of textual and sociolinguistic factors, and a study is made of Finnish grammatical transfer in the scribal Swedish of medieval Finland.

    Although the scarcity of the medieval data does not allow definite conclusions, the tentative results reveal a language mixture that is mainly well formed, though limited in scope and with some instances of scribal errors that could be due to a lack of proficiency in Finnish. On the other hand, the insertion of Finnish segments shows a stylistic patterning that suggests a linguistic awareness on the part of the scribes, and the choice of Swedish prepositions in certain constructions differs quantitatively from the norm in non-Finnish parts of medieval Sweden, in a way that can partly be attributed to the influence of Finnish locative case semantics. While it is apparent that proficiency levels in Finnish must have varied somewhat among medieval scribes in Finland, the results point to a more or less bilingual proficiency, or at least extensive passive knowledge of Finnish.

  • 9.
    Blückert, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Juridiska – ett nytt språk?: En studie av juridikstudenters språkliga inskolning2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation considers the language socialization of law students. One message that the law students encounter is that legal Swedish is an entirely new language. The main aim is to investigate what linguistic norms are conveyed to the students through the teachers’ comments on the students’ texts and through various forms of writing instructions. The material consists of student texts with teacher comments and documentation on various phases of instruction with a focus on writing.

    Teacher comments on texts written during the first year of the law programme are analyzed and categorized. The analysis stems from two models. The first model is based on different text levels, like formal conventions of writing, sentence construction, text structure, word choice and style, and content. The second model distinguishes different linguistic norms based on three layers: The first layer consists of written language norms in general language practice, the second of academic language norms and the third of norms that are specific to the use of legal language.

    The results show that word choice and style is the most common category for the teachers’ comments in the first term of the law programme and content is the most common in the second term (with word choice and style the second most common). Formal conventions of writing, sentence structure and different types of grammatical constructions are some of the things the teachers criticize. Surprisingly few of the teachers’ comments concern more overarching aspects such as text structure or the aim and genre of the text. Comments are made on local features in the text, but rarely on more global features.

    The teaching practice that the writing of law students belongs to entails, among other things, that the students’ texts are assessed anonymously for the sake of fairness. This means that there is not much opportunity for a student to discuss the text with the teacher who commented on and assessed it. The construction of the teachers’ text comments is particularly important when dialogue between student and teacher on the text draft and final version is not an integral part of instruction. The teachers’ written comments are usually brief and do not allow much space for a consideration of linguistic norms and text patterns, which reduces the opportunities for the teachers and the law programme to contribute to a deeper linguistic awareness in the law students.

  • 10.
    Bockgård, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Syntax som social resurs: En studie av samkonstruktionssekvensers form och funktion i svenska samtal2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One prerequisite in order for conversation to take place is cooperation between the participants. In other words, each person must adjust his or her behavior according to the actions of the other participants. One method that the speakers use in interaction is the co-construction of syntactic units. A speaker can complete or add on to a unit begun by another person.

    The subject of this dissertation is conversational sequences containing co-constructed units. The methods employed are drawn from the field known as interactional linguistics, which can be viewed as a subdiscipline of conversation analysis (CA) with influences from linguistics. The focus of interactional linguistics is the investigation of how linguistic forms interact with various social norms and structures and with the actions carried out during interaction.

    As a starting point for the analysis, a distinction between different categories of co-constructions is made. The various categories have quite different prototypical functions when they occur in an interactive situation. However, there are also certain functional qualities that cross the boundaries between categories. A very prominent pattern in the material is that speakers do not continue another person’s utterance in order to interrupt them or manipulate their words. Instead, the producer of the syntactic continuation strengthens solidarity between herself and the other speaker by helping, showing sympathy, indicating understanding, or agreeing with that person. “Sponging off” another speaker’s syntactic unit constitutes an excellent resource for initiating and maintaining various cooperative projects.

  • 11.
    Börestam, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Skandinaver samtalar: Språkliga och interaktionellastrategier i samtal mellan danskar, norrmän och svenskar1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Dahl, Alva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    I skriftens gränstrakter: Interpunktionens funktioner i tre samtida svenska romaner2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Punctuation is an indispensable element in formal and literary texts as well as everyday writing. Studying punctuation is therefore necessary in order to understand written language. Still, it does not fit easily into descriptions of language as an abstract, given system, composed of lexicon and grammar. Within the framework of Bakhtinian dialogism, however, linguists have started to study languaging as an interactive, situated process, meaningful in concrete, embodied utterances. While many such studies have focused on spoken language, this PhD dissertation is an attempt to study written language from a dialogical perspective. The aim of the study is to explore the functions of punctuation and to integrate the analysis of punctuation into a broader theoretical under­standing of written language. This is achieved through qualitative analyses of three contemporary Swedish novels: DIVA by Monika Fagerholm (1998), Förvandling by Eva Adolfsson (2005) and Fadevår, tack för ljuset! by Fredrik Ekelund (2010). In order to discover the rich meaning of specific instances, linguistic details are studied in relation to different aspects of context: the local co-text of the sentence, paragraph, chapter and novel as a whole, relevant intertextual contexts, and, to some extent, contemporary literary movements and technological developments, etc.

    In all of the three novels, punctuation is an integrated element of style and characterization, and important thematic aspects of each novel are visible at the level of punctuation. General patterns are also to be seen, the most important of which concern, firstly, how punctuation divides the units of written language, and regulates the relationship between these units, and secondly, how shifts in voice and tone are constructed in the novels with the help of punctuation. Furthermore, punctuation can create visually iconic references. The results have many implications for further research. Punctuation is a necessary and integrated part of written meaning-making and should not be overlooked in text analyses. Moreover, punctuation plays a crucial role in the construction of aspects like viewpoint and discourse presentation, which can no longer be ignored. On the spatial surface of text, writers and readers create complex interplays of voices.

  • 13.
    Eklund Heinonen, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Processbarhet på prov: Bedömning av muntlig språkfärdighet hos vuxna andraspråksinlärare2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation concerns oral language tests from a grammatical perspective. Tests today are usually assessed based on a communicative approach to language, so it is interesting to see how great a significance the level of grammatical development of test takers has for their communicative competence in general.

    The data in the investigation consist of recorded test conversations from a Swedish national language proficiency test, Tisus (test in Swedish for university and university college studies). The general aim of the study is to investigate whether there is a difference between the test takers who passed and those who failed in terms of their level of grammatical development. This is investigated in one main study and two smaller follow-up studies.

    The theoretical basis for this work is comprised of theories on second language learning and theories on language testing. For the grammatical analysis, Pienemann’s processability theory (PT) is applied. This theory posits that learners acquire certain morpho-syntactic structures in a particular order, something that produces a hierarchy consisting of five levels.

    In the main study, a quantitative analysis is made of the test takers’ level of grammatical development relative to their TISUS results. The results show a clear correlation between grammatical level and test results. There also seems to be a kind of watershed at level 4, given that most of the test takers who passed have command of this level in the PT hierarchy, whereas those who failed, as a rule, only make it to level 3.

    The first follow-up study is more qualitative in nature and is focused on the test takers who deviate from the general pattern of results in the main study: those who failed despite their high grammatical level and those who passed despite their low grammatical level. One result of this follow-up study is that, in these cases, it appears communicative competence was critical. Being able to orient oneself to the special conversational situation represented by the test conversation is considered to be particularly important. In a second follow-up study, the problems of applying PT to morphology and syntax are examined.

    The results of the dissertation suggest that there is a correlation between grammatical competence and communicative competence in general. This means that the grammatical levels in the PT hierarchy may constitute a useful basis of analysis in oral assessments, as a complement to other assessment tools.

  • 14.
    Entzenberg, Sonja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Professor Nanna Svartz eller Fru Nanna Malmberg?: Släktnamnsbruk hos gifta kvinnor 1920-19822007In: Språk och kön i nutida och historiskt perspektiv.: Studier presenterade vid Den sjätte nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Uppsala 6-7 oktober 2006 / [ed] Britt-Louise Gunnarsson, Sonja Entzenberg & Maria Ohlsson, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2007, p. 198-207Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Falk, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Verbala förolämpningar i 1630-talets Uppsala: En historisk talaktsanalys2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates verbal insults recorded in judicial protocols in the Swedish university townUppsaladuring the 1630s. The aim of the study is to analyze insults as linguistic formulations and social acts in Early Modern Swedish society. The methodology of the study is guided by speech act theory and ethnography of communication in order to examine the lexical realizations of insults and verbal action in different speech communities.

    From a total of 652 protocols in two series of records from the city court and the university council inUppsalain the 1630s, sections of text were excerpted that registered insults. The material under investigation comprises 179 cases that contained 276 insults. The descriptive meta-linguistic expressions for insults are rich as well as varied, and the performed insults are reported with or without invectives and as direct or indirect speech.

    Clear patterns emerged in the investigation by performing various semantic-, pragmatic-, and discourse-level analyses of the judicial records. Insults among city people were commonly interpreted as truth-conditional representative speech acts and thereby were viewed as false accusations of various kinds. In the academic world, however, the truth value of the insult was of minor importance. The speech act was regarded mainly as an expressive utterance of anger and frustration.

    Through a comparison of the city and university judicial records, it is shown that the patterns of insults reveal a general semantic process in which primarily concrete, objective meanings come to fulfill increasingly interpersonal and pragmatic speech functions.

  • 16.
    Hagberg-Persson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Barns mångfaldiga språkresurser i mötet med skolan2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates language proficiency in children aged 6–8 in their contact with school – both from an oral and written language perspective. The study is predicated on the current situation in Sweden, where school classes today have a more heterogeneous composition than ever before. This means that the focus of this study is not just on the age and sex of the children but also on their different language backgrounds.

    The aim of the dissertation is to map out the development of the oral and written proficiency of both monolingual and bilingual children at the beginning of school, individually and in groups. This study belongs in essence to the field of research known as qualitative school ethnography. Material for the study was gathered during a single school year in a school located in a mid-sized Swedish town. To examine the children’s language proficiency, three different analytical instruments were combined to produce more reliable results.

    The results show that the children’s Swedish proficiency varies in a similar way across the group of informants regardless of language background. With respect to the bilingual children’s proficiency in their mother tongue/first language, the results show that only one child had command in a language other than Swedish that was sufficient for his age. The study confirms that a monolingual norm prevails in the school that the study was carried out in, which means that it is no different than other Swedish schools for which previous studies mapped out language relations.

    The results also show that the children’s different language backgrounds do not affect the interaction pattern during small group activities; however, the age and sex of the children do. The results further show that the choice of small group activities and the formation of heterogeneous small groups allow the children the opportunity to solve tasks in which they can support each other and benefit from each other’s different competencies.

  • 17.
    Hagren Idevall, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Språk och rasism: Privilegiering och diskriminering i offentlig, medierad interaktion2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis concerns language and racism. The aim is to explore how racism is reproduced in interaction in public debates on immigration, integration and refugee policy. From a constructivist pragmatic perspective, language is considered as a practice that composes and makes sense of our social world and all the phenomena and individuals that we perceive in it. Racist discourses discriminate against and privilege people by categorising them according to notions of cultural, ethnical, racial, religious and national differences.

    The thesis has two main themes: 1) the linguistic reproduction of, and response to, racist discrimination and privileging in interaction, and 2) the role of language in various public arenas, and the norms and conditions for participation in these arenas. The thesis comprises five studies. Study I examines racist discourses and conditions for participation in an online newspaper comments section. Study II examines how the phrase “politically correct” is used and negotiated in the same comments section, and how its usage leads to the reproduction and normalisation of racism. Another comments section is the focus of Study III, in which discriminating and privileging categorisations of Muslims, Islam, Swedes and Sweden are analysed. Study IV examines an anti-racist forum on the social networking site Instagram. In the study, the reproduction of norms of whiteness is analysed, as well as power relations that are evoked, sustained and transformed in interaction. Finally, Study V is an analysis of linguistic, visual and material reproductions of political positions and racist discourses in a debate among party leaders on Swedish television.

    The thesis demonstrates how normalisation of racism is accomplished in interaction, and how reproduction of hierarchically structured difference and bigoted stereotypes are performed, and challenged, through language. The medium, combined with the user’s speech acts, set up the norms and conditions for participation, and for the discursive processes that reproduce the relations and structures of power.

    List of papers
    1. "Ge mig dina källor på det innan jag tror på det, fram tills dess kommer jag skratta åt det påståendet": En språkvetenskaplig studie av relationer i kommentarsfält online
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Ge mig dina källor på det innan jag tror på det, fram tills dess kommer jag skratta åt det påståendet": En språkvetenskaplig studie av relationer i kommentarsfält online
    2014 (Swedish)In: Vernacular Literacies: Past, Present and Future / [ed] Edlund, Ann-Catrine,Edlund, Lars-Erik, Haugen, Susanne, Umeå: Institutionen för språkstudier, Umeå universitet; Kungl.Skytteanska samfundet , 2014, p. 77-89Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommentarsfält till nyhetsartiklar på internet utgör en av de arenor för offentlig debatt som digitala medier numera erbjuder, och har uppmärksammats på grund av de många rasistiska inlägg som förekommit. I en analys av ett kommentarsfält på Aftonbladets webbplats studeras den internetbaserade interaktionen ur ett aktör-nätverksperspektiv, med fokus på de aktörer och översättningar som konstituerar kommentarsfältet. Kommentarer och skribenter studeras som aktörer som genererar effekter i interaktionen och i det aktör-nätverk som håller på att skapas. Analysen visar att det finns två huvudsakliga syften med kommentarsfältet  och att dessa står i konflikt med varandra samtidigt som de ömsesidigt bidrar till att forma varandra. Konflikten handlar om en oenighet om vad som får och inte får skrivas i kommentarsfältet. De regler för innehållet som Aftonbladet har utformat ifrågasätts av kommentarer som förespråkar total yttrandefrihet. En analys av den interpersonella grammatiken visar hur interkationen, diskurser om hur debatten ska föras och rasistiska diskurser uppförs i relation till de olika syften som aktörerna har. Rasistiska diskurser rättfärdigas genom en diskurs om objektivitet i argumentationen och reproduceras i den för webbplatsen specifika interaktionen.

    Abstract [en]

    Comments sections on news paper websites are part of the new digital public debate, offered by Web 2.0 and defined by the possibilities for interaction on the Internet. In this article, the online interaction is studied from an Actor-Network perspective, describing the actors and the translations that constitute a comments section on an article from the Swedish newspaper Aftonbladet. Comments and writers are studied as actors that generate effects in the interaction and in the constitution of the comments section as an actor-network in process. The analysis shows that there are two competing, but mututally developed, aims of the comments section, with different opinions about what can and cannot be written in the comments. The regulations of the content set up by Aftonbladet are challenged by comments that advocate absolut freedom of speech. An analysis of the interpersonal grammar shows how the interaction and discourses on how to debate and discourses of racism are performed in relation to these aims. Racist discourses are justified through a discourse on objectivity and are reproduced by the kind of interaction that is generated by the online terms.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Umeå: Institutionen för språkstudier, Umeå universitet; Kungl.Skytteanska samfundet, 2014
    Series
    Vardagligt skriftbruk ; 3
    Keywords
    Comments sections, online interaction, digital literacies, Actor-Network-theory, racism, Kommentarsfält, interaktion, internet, aktör-nätverksteori, rasism, diskurs
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Scandinavian Languages
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230632 (URN)9789188466860 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2014-08-27 Created: 2014-08-27 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. "Politiskt korrekt" och normalisering av rasism: En diskursanalys av positioneringar och underliggande perspektiv i ett kommentarsfält
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Politiskt korrekt" och normalisering av rasism: En diskursanalys av positioneringar och underliggande perspektiv i ett kommentarsfält
    2014 (Swedish)In: Språk & Stil, ISSN 1101-1165, no 24, p. 101-132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article shows the linking of the use of the negative expression politically correct (PC) to racist and anti-feminist discourses. I analyze the expression PC in an online newspaper editorial and the comments published in its comments section. The aim is to explore this linkage by determining who and what phenomena that are positioned as PC, what implicit assumptions these positionings are based on, and what power asymmetries are reproduced. Actor-network theory, with punctualization and black box as two key concepts, is used as a discourse analytical framework in order to analyze explicit and implicit relations between positions.

    The study shows that a majority of the commentators position themselves as marginalized “immigration critics” and use the negative expression PC to position a leftish and feminist PC elite as powerful. Immigration is positioned as a general threat supported by this elite. Racist sentiments are positioned as justifiable reactions to these presumed threats. Furthermore, when commentators accused of being PC defend anti-racism and feminism, they position immigrants and women as “others”, in need of help, and thereby divide “us” from “them”. Thus, the positioning of others as PC and the reaction to being positioned as such lead to a polarized debate with sharp divisions between left and right, extreme and democratic, and “us” and “them”, which seem to pave the way for a normalization of both explicit and implicit racist discourses.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: , 2014
    Keywords
    Politically correct, racism, discourse, actor-network theory, comments sections, anti-feminism, punctualization, black boxes, Politiskt korrekt, rasism, diskurs, aktör-nätverksteori, kommentarsfält, antifeminism, punktualiseringar, svarta lådor
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Scandinavian Languages
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247750 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Punktualiseringar av islam, muslimer, svenskar och det svenska samhället: Diskriminering och privilegiering i kommentarsfältsdiskussioner
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Punktualiseringar av islam, muslimer, svenskar och det svenska samhället: Diskriminering och privilegiering i kommentarsfältsdiskussioner
    2015 (Swedish)In: Från social kategorisering till diskriminering: Fyra studier av språk och diskriminering och ett modellförslag / [ed] Mats Landqvist, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2015, p. 41-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur diskriminering och privilegiering re_produceras i skrivna kommentarer på internet där olika framställningar av muslimer, islam, svenskar och det svenska samhället görs. Begreppen svart låda och punktualisering, hämtade från aktör-nätverksteorin, används för att dels studera de processer där motstridiga, instabila, lokala och ibland ifrågasatta framställningar görs, dels studera vilka underliggande antaganden som dessa grundas på och re_producerar. Analysen visar hur stereotypa och diskriminerande framställningar av muslimer och islam görs i kommentarsfältsdiskussionerna, men även hur de möter motstånd och ifrågasätts. Analysen visar också hur privilegierande framställningar av svenskar och det svenska samhället görs med de islamofoba kategoriseringarna som grund. Föreställningar om Sverige vilar på premisserna att islam utgör ett hot, att svenska medier blundar för detta och att muslimer är annorlunda. Föreställningar om Sverige upprätthålls därmed i kommentarsfältet när islamofoba framställningar re_produceras.

    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to analyse how discrimination and privileges are re_produced in a comments section online, where various desciptions of muslims, islam, Swedes and the Swedish society are made. The concepts black box and punctualization, originating from actor-network theory, are used to study processes where conflicting, temporal, local and challenging categorizations are made, and to identify the underlying assumptions that reinforce the categorizations. The analysis shows how discriminating stereotypes of muslims and islam appear in the written comments, but also how they are resisted and challenged. Further on the analysis shows how privileged constructions of Swedes and the Swedish society rely on the islamophobic categorizations. Images of Sweden are made from the assumptions that islam is a threat to the society, that Swedish media ignore this and that muslims are fundamentally different from Swedes. The images of Sweden are thus maintained through islamophobic representations re_produced in the comments sections. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2015
    Series
    Text- och samtalsstudier från Södertörns högskola ; 4
    Keywords
    Discrimination, islamophobia, actor-network theory, black box, comments sections, feminism, Diskriminering, islamofobi, aktör-nätverksteori, svarta lådor, kommentarsfält, feminism
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Scandinavian Languages
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261832 (URN)978-91-87843-26-6 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2015-09-04 Created: 2015-09-04 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. I ett antirasistiskt rum: En språkvetenskaplig analys av vithet och maktrelationer på en antirasistisk och feministisk plattform på Instagram
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>I ett antirasistiskt rum: En språkvetenskaplig analys av vithet och maktrelationer på en antirasistisk och feministisk plattform på Instagram
    2015 (Swedish)In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 7-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-racism in contemporary Sweden is often manifested in protests against explicit racist expressions and acts. However, anti-racism also concerns the attention to and questioning of structures, prejudices and norms. This approach to anti-racism is often emphasised by those who are themselves victims of racism. One example is MAKTHAVARNA (“the power holders”), an anti-racist platform on the social networking site Instagram. MAKTHAVARNA targets those who are directly affected by racism. White followers of the account are asked not to post comments or contribute to the discussions.

    From a postcolonial perspective and with linguistic methods, this study examines the interactions on MAKTHAVARNA, where victims of racism share their experiences of white supremacy, and where white people interfere in the discussions despite the separatist rules. The analysis shows how norms of whiteness are translated in speech acts made by white followers who ask questions, make judgments and expect information, which results in the (re)production of asymmetric relationships. The position of those affected by racism is formed by the linguistically (re)produced normative white position. However, the hierarchical relationship between these positions is dislocated when the victims of racism reclaim precedence, by for example citing and interpreting white people’s utterances from their own perspectives. Furthermore, the analysis shows how the terms for participation in platform discussions are set up linguistically and technically in the digital social media. Consequently, through this media, a public space and precedence in defining anti-racism are provided for the target audience of MAKTHAVARNA. White followers, on the contrary, cannot participate actively on the platform – not even with good intentions – without linguistically reproducing hierarchical relationships and norms of whiteness.  

    Abstract [sv]

    Antirasismen i Sverige idag manifesteras ofta i protester mot explicita rasistiska uttryck och handlingar. Antirasism handlar dock också om att uppmärksamma och ifrågasätta strukturer, fördomar och normer, vilket ofta görs av dem som själva har erfarenhet av att utsättas för rasism. Ett exempel så sådan antirasism finns på MAKTHAVARNA, en plattform på den sociala bilddelningsapplikationen Instagram. MAKTHAVARNA riktar sig till dem som är direkt drabbade av rasism. Plattformens vita följare ombeds att inte posta inlägg eller delta skriftligt i diskussionerna. 

    Från ett postkolonialt perspektiv och med språkvetenskapliga metoder undersöker denna studie interaktionen på MAKTHAVARNA, där personer utsatta för rasism delar med sig av sina erfarenheter och där vita personer trots de separatistiska riktlinjerna skriver inlägg och deltar i diskussionerna. Analysen visar hur vithetsnormer översätts i vita skribenterna språkhandlingar, så som frågor, bedömningar och förväntningar på att bli upplysta, vilket resulterar i (re)produktionen av asymmetriska relationer. Positioneringen av den som utsätts för rasism formas i interaktionen av den språkligt (re)producerade normativa vita positioneringen. Den hierarkiska relationen mellan dessa båda positioner förskjuts dock då personer utsatta för rasism återtar tolkningsföreträde, vilket de exempelvis gör genom att citera och tolka vita personers yttranden utifrån sina egna perspektiv. Analysen visar också hur deltagande på plattformen regleras både språkligt och med hjälp av de tekniska funktioner Instagram erbjuder. Därmed skapas genom det sociala mediet en offentlig arena där plattformens målgrupp själva kan definiera antirasism. Vita följare å andra sidan kan inte delta aktivt i diskussionerna utan att (re)producera hierarkiska relationer och vithetsnormer, oavsett om deras syften är goda eller inte.  

    Keywords
    anti-racism, feminism, Instagram, language, separatism, whiteness, antirasism, feminism, Instagram, språk, separatism, vithet
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Scandinavian Languages
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-270971 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-01-05 Created: 2016-01-05 Last updated: 2018-01-10
    5. Polariserade politiska debatter om migration: Positioneringar och attityder i tv-sända valdebatter
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polariserade politiska debatter om migration: Positioneringar och attityder i tv-sända valdebatter
    2016 (Swedish)In: Språk och interaktion, ISSN 2242-2277, E-ISSN 2242-2285, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 65-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågor om rasism och flyktingpolitik är vanligt förekommande i politiska debatter, inte minst sedan Sverigedemokraterna 2010 tog plats i riksdagen och driver begränsad migration till Sverige som sin huvudfråga. Föreliggande studie undersöker hur politiker talar om flyktingpolitik och migration till Sverige i de tv-sända partiledardebatterna inför valet 2014. Syftet är att undersöka hur positioneringar och attityder till migration formas genom interaktionen mellan deltagarna och av debatterna som medieproduktion. Analysunderlaget utgörs av de sekvenser där ämnena flyktingpolitik, migration och integration diskuteras. Sammanlagt handlar det om åtta sekvenser från åtta olika debatter.

    Med aktör-nätverksteori (Latour 2007) som teoretiskt ramverk studerar jag hur partiledarna, tv-kamerorna, programledarna, bildskärmarna i studion och publiken blir till aktörer som i samspel med varandra skapar den bild av debatten som når tittarna. Jag använder verktyg från appraisal (Martin & White 2005) och multimodal diskursanalys (van Leeuwen 2005, 2008) för att studera hur aktörerna översätts och positioneras. Jag tittar bland annat på hur partiledarna citerar, förnekar och motsäger varandras yttranden och hur de formulerar egna åsikter genom att ta avstånd från någon annan.

    Analysen visar hur debatten polariseras då samtliga partiledare tar avstånd från Sverigedemokraternas partiledare Åkesson och han från dem, men också hur Åkesson görs till en central aktör då kameran filmar honom i betydligt större utsträckning än de andra partiledarna. Analysen visar också hur Åkesson gör negativa bedömningar både av migration och av de andra partiernas politik i frågan. Den dominerande attityden bland övriga partiledare är att Sverige är ett demokratiskt och öppet land som bör ta emot flyktingar och immigranter. Denna ”toleransdiskurs” skapar en positiv självbild som upprätthålls av att det finns ”andra” att tolerera och hjälpa (Blommaert & Verschueren 1998). Immigranter och flyktingar bedöms också utifrån ett nyttoperspektiv (jfr Boréus 2006b) där de välkomnas till Sverige med argumentet att de bidrar till Sveriges ekonomi.

    En analys av de bilder som visas på bildskärmarna i en tv-studio ger resultatet att debattämnet illustreras av negativa skildringar av människor som flyr. Individerna på bilderna avbildas med dunkla färger och på distans, vilket bidrar till att konstruera dem som främmande och hotfulla. Detta ligger i linje med den attityd till migration som Sverigedemokraterna ger uttryck för.

    En slutsats är att den polariserade debatten upprätthålls både av partiledarna, av kamerans val av fokus och av programledarna. Attityderna till migration skapas i interaktionen där de också blir ett sätt att positionera sig politiskt och upprätthålla bilden av Sverige – antingen som ett tolerant och godhjärtat land eller som ett land under hot från det som betraktas som icke-svenskt.

    Keywords
    appraisal, aktör-nätverksteori, multimodalitet, partiledardebatter, positioneringar, rasism, Sverigedemokraterna, tolerans
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Scandinavian Languages
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282871 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Hagren, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Hur märks infinitiven?: Infinitivkonstruktioner i svenska dialekter med fokus på infinitivmärket2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Standard Swedish there are two ways to construct an infinitive phrase, on the one hand with the infinitive marker att, on the other without it. Although there is some variation, the distribution between the two alternatives follows relatively strict rules. In Swedish dialects, however, in addition to the bare infinitive there is the possibility of constructing the infinitive phrase with å (corresponding to Standard Swedish att), till or the combination till å.

    An extensive investigation of examples from Swedish dialect sources shows that variation occurs in most types of construction in all parts of the country. Some regional tendencies can be found, however. Most evident is the very strong predominance of å in South Swedish dialects, where the bare infinitive hardly occurs at all. Furthermore, there is a strong propensity to use till in Gotland and Svea dialects, although it is not equally strong in all types of construction. The propensity to use till å is, overall, weak. In the dialects of Dalecarlia the bare infinitive is very frequent, and it appears in many contexts where att is regarded as obligatory in Standard Swedish. Examples of a bare infinitive deviating from Standard Swedish can be found in other regions as well.

    Different types of construction also show diverging patterns. Especially noticeable is the use of till and till å in constructions where till seems to be a more or less obligatory element, a phenomenon most evident in South Swedish dialects, where these two variants are otherwise generally rare. This applies especially to expressions such as jag kom till tänka på ‘I came to think of’, and hon är duktig till sjunga ‘she is good at singing’. Whether in such cases till is a preposition or belongs to the infinitive phrase cannot be decided with any certainty. The situation possibly differs from one dialect to another.

  • 19.
    Kalm, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Satsekvivalenta infinitivfraser i svenskan: En synkron och diakron undersökning2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates control infinitives and ECM-infinitives in the history of Swedish. Both constructions are non-finite, based on infinitives with or without complements, but share some properties and functions with finite subordinate clauses. Control infinitives (to-infinitives) are headed by the infinitive marker att (which in some cases may be omitted) and have invisible PRO-subjects (“controlled” by, i.e. co-referential with, the subject or object of the matrix), whereas ECM-infinitives are headed by overt subjects, distinguished by their “exceptional case marking” (ECM) from the matrix verb, and never contain the infinitive marker.

    According to the proposed analyses, conducted within the theoretical framework of generative grammar, control infinitives are CPs, taking the infinitive marker as a non-finite complementizer in C, but lack the TP of the I-domain, whereas ECM-infinitives have no C-layer but, nevertheless, a (sort of) TP.

    The historical investigation shows that control infinitives have developed more clause like properties over time. In Old Swedish (1220–1526), they only rarely contained e.g. negations or auxiliaries. It is not until the seventeenth century that these elements have come into use in the same way as in modern Swedish. This is accounted for by assuming that the control infinitive in Old Swedish was a recent innovation that did not initially make any use at all of the I-domain. The ECM-infinitives, on the other hand, are taken to have the same structure and function in Old Swedish as in Modern Swedish, as their use and properties have not changed significantly.

    In addition, the status of the infinitive marker has changed through the history of Swedish. Etymologically a preposition, it is here analysed as a verb phrase element in Early Old Swedish, not as a (non-finite) complementizer as in Modern Swedish. In early Modern Swedish (1526–1732), the preposition till is used in much the same function as att giving rise to two new infinitive markers: till att and till. This development of new infinitive markers is also accounted for in the thesis.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Rehn, Torsten
    Kan våld vara psykiskt? Om ett fall av begreppsproblematik i debatten kring våldet mot kvinnor2007In: Språk och kön i nutida och historiskt perspektiv: Studier presenterade vid Den sjätte nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Uppsala 6-7 oktober 2006 / [ed] Britt-Louise Gunnarsson, Sonja Entzenberg & Maria Ohlsson, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2007, p. 113-120Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Leibring, Katharina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Per Persson eller Lisa Greta Persdotter.: Olika strategier vid namngivning av pojkar respektive flickor ca 1800 till 1850.2006In: Språk och kön i nutida och historiskt perspektiv.: Studier presenterade vid den sjätte nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Uppsala 6-7 oktober 2006 / [ed] Britt-Louise Gunnarsson, Sonja Entzenberg & Maria Ohlsson, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2006, p. 208-215Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lemberger, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Universellt nödvändig?: En undersökning av högpresterande gymnasisters upplevelse av genrepedagogiken samt deras bild av ett litterärt metaspråk2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här arbetet undersöks högpresterande gymnasisters upplevelse av genrepedagogik och cirkel­modellen. I samband med detta studeras även elevernas litterära metaspråk, med fokus på vilken typ av begrepp de själva anser sig behärska och inte.

    Det ena syftet är att se huruvida genrepedagogiken, som ursprungligen utvecklades som ett stöd i andraspråksinlärningen för barn i grundskoleåldern, även stöttar hög­presterande gymnasister och om den i sådant fall behöver anpassas till dem. Det andra syftet är att kartlägga vilken typ av litterära begrepp eleverna anser sig förstå och använda, för att få insikt i vad undervisningen ska rikta in sig på.

    För att genomföra undersökningen har cirkelmodellen implementerats i en elevgrupp, vilket resulterade i en litterär analys. Eleverna har fått besvara två enkäter, den ena undersöker elevernas upplevelse av cirkelmodellens olika delar, den andra undersöker de begrepp eleverna anser sig förstå och använda. Tre elever valdes sedan ut för enskilda samtal där de fick resonera kring den första enkäten.       

    Resultaten visar att högpresterande gymnasister generellt har en positiv upplevelse av genrepedagogik och cirkelmodellen. Steg 2 – studerandet av modelltexter, är det steg som uppskattas bäst. Steg 3 – skrivandet av en gemensam text, är det steg som uppskattas minst. Studien visar att det inte krävs direkta anpassningar av cirkelmodellen för att den ska stimulera eleverna. Det essentiella är istället att hitta en balans så att processen får utvecklingsutrymme utan att den upplevs som en tidstjuv som stjäl utrymme från det som eleverna fokuserar på – framställandet av en slutprodukt.

    Undersökningen visar också att den typ av begrepp som elever anser sig behärska bäst är de som används vid analyserande, vilka också används i flera ämnen och situationer. De begrepp de anser att de behärskar minst är de som används för att beskriva en analytisk text, vilka är de begrepp som genrepedagogiken har infört i undervisningen. 

  • 23.
    Malmbjer, Anna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Skilda världar: En språkvetenskaplig undersökning av gruppsamtal som undervisnings- och lärandeform inom högre utbildning2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the group work and group discussions of students. The general aim is to investigate what opportunities and limitations are presented by group discussion as a form of instruction and learning in higher education. An analysis is made of students’ work with the subject matter and the organization of their discussions as multi-party conversations.

    The material consists of three recorded group discussions between teacher students at the beginning of their studies who carry out identical or nearly identical tasks for the same course. Four different dimensions of the group discussions are analysed: the presuppositions and external conditions of the group discussions; group discussions as a communicative activity type; the content, coherence and topic progressions of the group discussions, and the categorisations and discursive structures in two frequent transepisodic themes.

    The results show that, even though the conditions for the three conversations are almost identical, the students interpret and carry out the tasks in different ways. To structure the multi-party conversations, the groups use communicative strategies and techniques from activity types that are familiar and similar, like informal conversations, interviews, seminars, lectures, and meetings. However, the choice of a more institutional form of interaction does not automatically result in an institutional approach to the subject. The groups usually apply an informal perspective to the subject matter and use informal language that does not seem to be sufficient in the educational context. The students are primarily focussed on reaching a shared understanding. This means that in most cases the students take an uncritical stance with each other, that is, they engage in what is known as cumulative talk.

    The results indicate the need for a more assertive participant in the groups in order for the group discussions to function as a learning situation. In order for there to be more critical discussion in group, students must be able to identify a disorienting dilemma that engages them and students must see shared scrutiny and exploration as a means to new knowledge and understanding.

  • 24.
    Malmsten, Solveig
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Dativ i modern färöiska: En fallstudie i grammatisk förändring2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Faroese is known to lie grammatically between Icelandic and the Mainland Scandinavian languages and dialects. One example of this is that, on the one hand, Faroese is like Icelandic in having a basically intact morphological four case system. On the other hand case-marking in Faroese is linked to clause function to a greater degree than in Icelandic – but to a lesser degree than in the Mainland Scandinavian standard languages. In Scandinavian Linguistics, it has long been an axiom that in the longer term the aforementioned four case system will be reduced in all varieties of the Scandinavian languages. The present thesis investigates if, and if so how, this expected development manifests itself in Senior High School graduation essays in Faroese from the period 1940–1999.

    A quantitative study forms the core of the thesis. The choice between the dative and other cases is related to eight syntactic variables whose effect on the choice of case is compared using methods from the variationist framework, among others. The results are partly surprising: the dative did not reduce in frequency from the 1940s to 1990s. There certainly is a tendency, however not a statistically significant one, that the dative is more often replaced by another case in contexts where the norm is to use the dative. On the other hand it also seems to become more common for the dative to be used hypercorrectly. Furthermore, the development is not linear, in that around the middle of the investigation period, the dative is used far more according to norms than otherwise. As expected, clause function is an important variable, but by the end of the period under investigation the placement of the nominal phrase within the clause becomes a surprisingly strong factor. It also becomes more important if the phrase takes the form of a first/second-person pronominal or not.

    The results are theoretically interpreted in the light of, firstly, Generative Grammar, and secondly Construction Grammar. The modification of certain terms is discussed, such as lexical case in Generative Grammar or usage-based model in Construction Grammar. The conclusion is that the linguistic descriptive models of these theories can only partly cover the tendencies to change that are observed. Other parts of the results are best explained using aspects of sociolinguistics. The conclusion is that case studies on a micro-level are valuable in order to evaluate and develop theories of linguistic variation and change at a macro-level.

  • 25.
    Melander Marttala, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Berätta i läkare-patientsamtal2003In: Grammatik och samtal: Studier till minne av Mats Eriksson / [ed] B. Nordberg m.fl., Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk, Uppsala universitet , 2003, p. 231-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Melander Marttala, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Innehåll och perspektiv i samtal mellan läkare och patient: En språklig och samtalsanalytisk undersökning1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Namei, Shidrokh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Iranians in Sweden: A Study of Language Maintenance and Shift2012 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a survey study of language maintenance and shift among first and second generation Iranians in Sweden and is based on existing theoretical frameworks. It examines whether Iranians in Sweden are maintaining their Persian or shifting to Swedish. This is explored by examining factors at both the minority-group and individual levels, which according to many previous studies have a potential impact on the matter. The subjects are 188 Persian–Swedish bilinguals between the ages of 6 and 53. They are divided into two groups: one comprising 100 pupils, and the other 88 adults many of whom are the parents of students in the first group. The elicitation instruments are two questionnaires which explore the subjects’ language background, socioeconomic status, linguistic environment in Sweden, patterns of language use in different domains, extent of exposure to Swedish and Persian, competence in both languages, and attitudes towards their languages and countries. The results confirm many findings of the previous studies. The demographic data reveals that exogamy is increasing, especially among the younger generation. The socioeconomic results show that Iranians in western countries make a strong effort to attain the same living standard they had before migration. They believe that the key to social and economic success is knowledge of the majority language. The language socialization results demonstrate that the second generation is being socialized to a much greater extent in their second language and culture. They are also much more competent in Swedish than in Persian. The first generation not only has full-fledged Persian, but also advanced Swedish, which may be taken as evidence of their intention to integrate. It is also shown that Persian is the main instrument of communication in the families; however some Swedish is also used, especially by the younger children. Furthermore, mothers use Swedish more than fathers, because they are much more involved in their children’s education, a responsibility that demands greater second language skills, and which in turn has a direct effect on their social mobility, not only within the family but also within society as a whole.

  • 28.
    Nelson, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages, Advanced Studies in Modern Swedish.
    Andraspråkstalare i arbete: En språkvetenskaplig studie av kommunikation vid ett svenskt storföretag2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study of the everyday communication of second language speakers in a major Swedish company. On the basis of eighteen interviews with permanently employed industrial and office workers, who came to Sweden as adults from countries outside the Nordic region where non-Germanic languages are spoken, five individuals were chosen for observation.

    The overarching aim of the study is to identify communicative factors with a positive impact on the integration of second language speakers in the workplace and in their immediate work team. Subsidiary aims are to map out the communication of the five participants and to analyse their involvement in communicative activities, both professional and social. The focus is on the interaction between participants and fellow employees, primarily in terms of what participants themselves do to promote mutual understanding and good relations at work.

    Theoretically and methodologically, the study has its basis in discourse analysis, interactional sociolinguistics and the ethnography of communication. By means of fieldwork, a large body of empirical data was collected, comprising detailed field notes, audio and video recordings of naturally occurring talk, and texts read and produced by participants.

    The five participants’ day-to-day communication is shown to be influenced to a large degree by the type of occupation. At the company studied, whose corporate language is English, white-collar employees can manage without a knowledge of Swedish, so long as they know English. Factory workers, meanwhile, regard an inadequate command of English, rather than Swedish, as an obstacle to promotion. All the participants perform communicative acts designed to create and maintain group solidarity. In seeking to foster good relations in the workplace, they make use of jokes, compliments, narratives, swearing and greetings. The participants are shown to be metalinguistically and metaculturally aware, which aids everyday communication and integration. Linguistic and cultural asymmetries seem to be able to mitigate potential threats to face, making the participants a valuable resource in sensitive communicative situations. All co-workers provide linguistic scaffolding, but in interaction with the most career-oriented participant, markers of power can sometimes be observed.

    A high level of awareness and performance of relational communicative acts appear to facilitate and speed integration in the workplace and the immediate work team.

  • 29.
    Nordberg, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    /ö/, /u/ och liknande vokaler2005In: Språk i tid: studier tillägnade Mats Thelander på 60-årsdagen, Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk , 2005, p. 123-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Nyström Höög, Catharina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Det förbjudna modershjärtat: Ett fall av ”rebelliousspeech” i det svenska 1800-talet2007In: Språk och kön i nutida och historiskt perspektiv: Studier presenterade vid Den sjätte nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Uppsala 6-7 oktober 2006 / [ed] Britt-Louise Gunnarsson, Sonja Entzenberg & Maria Ohlsson, Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk , 2007, p. 154-163Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Palm, Tage
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    En ändelses uppgång och fall: Svensk pluralbildning med -er hos neutrala substantiv med final konsonant2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In both Old Swedish and contemporary Swedish, the great majority of neuter nouns with a final consonant have no ending (-Ø) in the indefinite plural. From the sixteenth to the late nineteenth century, however, non-native neuter nouns with final stress and a final consonant (F1 nouns), e.g. instrument and kontrakt, often formed their plural with -er. This usage was established in chancery language around 1530 as part of a wider morphological change, a German-inspired adaptation of Latin loanwords. In the early seventeenth century, the -er plural was the commoner; in the eighteenth and most of the nineteenth century, overwhelmingly so. The -Ø plural lived on, however, chiefly in words with stems in -er. In the 1870s the use of -Ø plurals in written Swedish grew rapidly, while the proportion of -er forms was halved in some 20 years. When they were finally dropped from Svenska Akademiens ordlista in 1950, the -er forms of F1 nouns were decidedly antiquated.

    The abolition of -er plurals of F1 words was a matter of standardization, but also a symptom of normative historicism and purism. Neuter -er plurals were viewed as an alien import from German. Such purist arguments carried decisive weight in a romantic-historical and nationally oriented intellectual climate. The elimination of this form was made possible, though, by favourable intralinguistic conditions, chiefly the fact that the -Ø plural was an alternative that was already accepted and to some extent used for F1 words, and the only conceivable one for most other neuters with a final consonant. The change could not have been achieved if the F1 nouns had been everyday words, frequently used in speech. The aversion to neuter -er plurals was seen by several language scholars of the day as irrational, but attempts to turn the tide proved to no avail.

  • 32.
    Palmér, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages. FUMS.
    Att tillhöra klassens minoritet: Unga kvinnor i mansdominerade program och unga män i kvinnodominerade program2007In: Språk och kön i nutida och historiskt perspektiv: Studier presenterade vid Den sjätte nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Uppsala 6-7 oktober 2006 / [ed] Britt-Louise Gunnarsson, Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk , 2007, p. 341-349Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with power relations in vocational upper secondary programs with unequal distribution of sexes. In my coming thesis I study two classes, one dominated by female students and the other by male students. The data consists of a big amount of video and audio recordings, interviews and field notes. With an ethnographic approach, combined with rather detailed conversation analysis, I investigate oral practices in the teaching of these classes. Power relations in a gender perspective are one aspect of these oral practices. The analysis concentrates on students of the minority sex and asks how these students are treated by other students as well as by the teachers. It shows how a female student in male dominated class is treated with respect and understanding when she opposes to getting traditional female roles in role plays. In a structured argumentation about the topic Are girls better drivers than boys?, however, her male fellow students behave as if she were a threat that should be silenced. The analysis also shows how two male students in a female dominated class are much appreciated and even supported by their fellow students. In an extensive team work however, the female students protest against one of the male students, who is relying too much on them. Finally, the male student gets a lower grade for the team work than the female students. The conclusion of the analysis is that traditional power relations between the sexes in the classroom still exist. But female students do contest these power relations which often – but not always – results in a more equal distribution of power.

  • 33.
    Palmér, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Samspel och solostämmor: Om muntlig kommunikation i gymnasieskolan2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation investigates oral communication from a language development perspective. The overall aim is to study the oral communication that is part of the learning process for Swedish as a subject and for vocational courses in the upper secondary schools. The focus is specifically on learning that incorporates reasoning and prepared speech.

    The method used is derived from ethnography and Conversation Analysis. The material consists of fieldnotes, video and audio recordings of lessons from two different classes. The dissertation is theoretically linked to “New Literacy Studies”; the oral prac¬tices and oral cultures involved in the instruction of Swedish are described and viewed as part of school literacy. The concept ‘elaborated topic’ is used to analyse the extent to which students and teachers develop reasoning.

    The results show that instruction in vocational training programmes can provide students with different conditions for oral language development. Students in the nursing programme took part in more varied communication than students in the technically/practically-oriented programme. The different oral cultures in the two classes could be described in terms of patterns for reasoning and prepared speech, knowledge ideology and power relations. The oral cultures of the classes investigated are reflected in the way they performed in the national test. The students’ ability to develop a sufficiently extensive line of reasoning for the test’s prepared speech did not correspond to how well they developed each topic of discus¬sion.

    The dissertation emphasises the importance of dialogically organised instruction with students in every upper secondary programme being encour¬aged in their reasoning and prepared speech. It highlights language and communication in and of itself as important content in the instruction of Swedish. Finally, it argues that each subject is responsible for contributing to the language development of students.

  • 34.
    Persson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Svensk brevkultur på 1800-talet: Språklig och kommunikationsetnografisk analys av en familjebrevväxling2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, I examine the correspondence of an upper middle-class family from the early part of the nineteenth century. My aim is to answer questions about correspondence and letter-writing as an everyday event and as a social activity. My principal theoretical framework has been ethnograpy of communication.

    My main source is the Eurén-Snellman manuscript collection at Uppsala University Library (UUB, G65). The central figure of this collection is Axel Eurén (1803−1879), who was a clergyman in Dalarna and also a member of the Swedish parliament. The material expands over three generations and includes Axel, his mother, his sister, his wife and Axel’s and his wife Sophie’s three children. In each generation the letter-writing is reciprocal in nearly all relations.

    By creating a database of the 2,267 letters that remain from the family correspondence and by extracting meta-commentary about letter-writing I have studied how the family organized their correspondence. From the total collection I have chosen 293 letters during the period 1825−1858. These letters constitute a digitalized corpus that consists of approximately 160,000 words. With this corpus as my principal source, I have examined two different aspects of language use: a structural analysis of each writer’s total sum of letters and a study on address.

    Certain findings confirm that letter-writing was based on routine. Traits of orality appear less often in the latter part of the material, a result that is in line with earlier investigations.The dimension of formal−informal language has been interesting to examine in relation to gender. Whereas the women’s writing at a lexico-grammatical level is more informal and natural in style, their need to portray themselves in a virtuous Christian manner seems at the same time to promote a certain kind of formality in expression. The opposite seems to be true for the men.

  • 35.
    Ridell, Karin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Dansk-svenska samtal i praktiken: Språklig interaktion och ackommodation mellan äldre och vårdpersonal i Öresundsregionen2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with what happens linguistically and interactionally in naturally occurring bilingual talk-in-interaction between Danes and Swedes. In the data – collected within the elderly care in a Danish municipality – three Swedish caregivers interact with Danish pensioners and colleagues. Previous research on inter-Scandinavian interaction has mostly been concerned with talk-in-interaction in arranged situations and/or situations where the participants do not interact regularly with other Scandinavians. The talk-in-interaction in the present data, however, has a clear activity context, and the participants are used to talking to people speaking the neighbour language.

    The aim of this study was to examine how comprehension, understanding and social affiliation were achieved and demonstrated across differences in language, age, nationality and institutional roles. The theoretical and methodological framework includes accommodation theory and conversation analysis.

    The linguistic aspects of the Swedish speakers’ accommodation to Danish were studied both in a detailed analysis of accommodation on five linguistic levels, and quantitatively in a study of five linguistic variables. One result was that the Swedish caregivers had individual ways of accommodating their language to Danish. The linguistic analyses also indicated that one reason for this accommodation was to make communication flow more efficiently.

    A CA-study of other-initiated repair showed that four factors in the interactional situation influenced understanding: context, physical distance and orientation, clearness of speech, and neighbour language and accommodation. It could, however, not be shown that the speakers’ use of different linguistic varieties caused a significant number of problems in understanding, or that the participants frequently oriented to such linguistic differences as part of the problem. Compliment sequences and their role in creating social affiliation were studied in another CA-study. They often played the role of introducing a new topic and leading the talk away from the practical chores at hand, thereby reducing the institutional aspect of the situation. The interactional ways of creating comprehension, understanding and social affiliation are likely to be at least as important as linguistic convergence in achieving these goals.