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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    In situ-metoder för sanering av klorerade lösningsmedel: utvärdering med avseende på svenska förhållanden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there are 428 areas contaminated with chlorinated solvents in Sweden. These substances have been used in Sweden’s industry as degreasing agents and solvents.Chlorinated solvents are more difficult to investigate and remediate compared to petroleum hydrocarbons, due to their complicated distribution in different media. Hence, it is important to increase the knowledge of remediation of chlorinated solvents. The remediation technology excavation is frequently used in Sweden for contaminated areas. Excavation means that soil is dug up and transported to treatment or landfills sites. Due to its climate impact, the use of more sustainable remediation technologies should be increased.

    This thesis aimed to evaluate in situ remediation technologies for soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents with respect to functionality, sustainability, time and cost aspects. Furthermore, this thesis aimed to investigate which technologies are best suited for Swedish conditions. To evaluate suitability and functionality of remediation technologies,all technologies were described and a case study of five areas in Sweden contaminated with chlorinated solvents was conducted. The contaminant situation and site-specific conditions were described for each area. Thereafter, the evaluation and choice of remediation technology and remediation result were presented. The technologies studied in the case study were two types of chemical reduction, multi-phase extraction, biostimulation and thermal treatment.The five projects were then assessed using the Swedish Geotechnical Institute’s decision support tool for remediation technologies, SAMLA. The technologies were rated in SAMLA according to criteria related to environmental factors, social factors and costs. Furthermore,the remediation technologies were evaluated based on their strengths and limitations with respect to Swedish conditions, such as geology, climate and geochemistry. They were also evaluated based on their strengths and limitations according to implementation areas, cost,remediation time, energy consumption and use in Sweden.The assessment of the five projects in SAMLA produced similar results compared to previously conducted risk evaluations. The technologies that were chosen based on the risk evaluations were also rated highest in SAMLA. The choice of technology for each project was based on conditions for the area, such as geology and existing buildings. Conclusions were drawn indicating that all technologies can be implemented in Sweden with respect to geological conditions. However, site-specific conditions, such as high groundwater flow and heterogeneous soil, limit the implementation of a specific technology. Moreover, other sitespecific conditions than those already discussed have to be considered, for instance buildings or future exploitation. Future development of in situ remediation technologies may focus on implementation of a certain type of geology (highly permeable soils), where chlorinated solvents may be found more frequently.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Kristina
    Institutionen för Energi och Teknik, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Analys av olika metoder för att uppskatta olika livsmedels effekt på kvävecykeln2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of reactive nitrogen in the environment has increased as food production has intensified. A disrupted balance between reactive and non-reactive nitrogen can lead to a destabilisation of the state that the earth system is currently in. In order to create a sustainable agriculture, it is important to inform politicians and consumers about the impact on the nitrogen cycle associated with different food products in order to enable sustainable food choices. The objective of this study was to find an indicator that present the effect on the nitrogen cycle in food production and can be used for consumer guidance. The indicators evaluated in this study were Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), the nitrogen footprint and eutrophication potential. NUE is calculated by dividing Nout by Nin. The nitrogen footprint is defined as the amount of reactive nitrogen released to the environment per product unit and is calculated as (Nin-Nout) per kg product. The indicator eutrophication potential calculates the amount of substances that can lead to eutrophication and is expressed per kg product. The results show that chicken, pig and beef have the highest eutrophication potential as well as nitrogen footprint. The lowest eutrophication potential and nitrogen footprint was found for cucumber, tomato and carrot. The highest NUE was calculated for cucumber with a value of 0,90 and the lowest was found for raspberries (0,05) and strawberries (0,08). The indicator that is recommended for consumer guidance after analysis is the nitrogen footprint because it is easy to understand, and the result can connect to specific problems such as eutrophication. The eutrophication potential is also easy to understand, however the use of nitrogen as a resource is not considered and it could be a problem to find data for products produced in other countries. The result from NUE is a bit more complicated for consumers to understand and the indicator might be more useful for politicians and farmers than for consumer guidance.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Utformning av mjukvarusensorer för avloppsvatten med multivariata analysmetoder2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of real processes are based on measured data. In the past, the amount of available data was very limited. However, with modern technology, the information which is possible to obtain from measurements is more available, which considerably alters the possibility to understand and describe processes. Multivariate analysis is often used when large datasets which contains many variables are evaluated.

    In this thesis, the multivariate analysis methods PCA (principal component analysis) and PLS (partial least squares projection to latent structures) has been applied to wastewater data collected at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk WWTP (wastewater treatment plant).

    Wastewater treatment plants are required to monitor and control their systems in order to reduce their environmental impact. With improved knowledge of the processes involved, the impact can be significantly decreased without affecting the plant efficiency. Several variables are easy to measure directly in the water, while other require extensive laboratory analysis. Some of the parameters from the latter category are the contents of phosphorus and nitrogen in the water, both of which are important for the wastewater treatment results. The concentrations of these substances in the inlet water vary during the day and are difficult to monitor properly.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it is possible, from the more easily measured variables, to obtain information on those which require more extensive analysis. This was done by using multivariate analysis to create models attempting to explain the variation in these variables. The models are commonly referred to as soft sensors, since they don’t actually make use of any physical sensors to measure the relevant variable.

    Data were collected during the period of March 11 to March 15, 2013 in the wastewater at different stages of the treatment process and a number of multivariate models were created. The result shows that it is possible to obtain information about the variables with PLS models based on easy-to-measure variables. The best created model was the one explaining the concentration of nitrogen in the inlet water.

  • 4.
    Agduhr Eronen, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Substansflödesanalys av tungmetaller i avloppssystemet: - Nytt verktyg testat på Sigtuna och Solna kommuner2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tungmetallflödet i den urbana miljön kan leda till resursproblem för att återföring avavloppsslam som växtnäring till brukbar jord kan försvåras av tungmetallhalter. Syftet med examensarbetet var att bidra till Käppalaförbundets uppströmsarbete genom att identifiera tungmetallkällor i avloppssystemet. Detta uppnås genom en substansflödesanalys med avseende på metallerna kadmium, koppar, krom, kvicksilver och zink för kommunerna Sigtuna och Solna vilka tillhör Käppalaförbundets upptagningsområde. Verktyget som därvidlag utvecklas identifierar tungmetallkällor, storleken av utsläppen och ger information om var åtgärdsinsatser är effektivt.

    För verktygsutvecklingen definierades det studerade systemet till fem områden: hushåll, verksamhetsutövare, dagvatten, tillskottsvatten och övrigt. Tungmetallkällor identifierades och grupperades till ett av de fem delområdena. För kvantifiering av flöden från källor sammanställdes en schablonvärdestabell med emissionskoefficienter och formler och antaganden för beräkningar. Fallstudier gjordes för kommunerna Sigtuna och Solna för att testa verktyget och göra en substansflödesanalys för de fem studerade tungmetallerna. En resultatkontroll och en känslighetsanalys gjordes för att skatta rimligheten i resultaten och osäkerheter i verktyget.

    Arbetet resulterade i verktyget SoFi (Source Finder), vilket är uppbyggt i Microsoft Office Excel och beräknar tillförda mängder och källfördelning av tungmetaller till avloppssystemet. SoFi kan också beräkna var det är effektivt med åtgärdsinsatser. Resultaten från fallstudierna visade att den största källan med tillförsel av tungmetaller till avloppssystemet från de två kommunerna var hushållen. Resultatkontrollen visade att beräknade mängder generellt överrensstämde bra med uppskattade mängder från respektive område, men att en underskattning av zink erhölls. Känslighetsanalysen visade att verktyget är känsligt för osäkerheter i emissionskoefficienterna. Vid uppströmsarbete kan SoFi bidra med underlag vid åtgärdsplanering. Exempel på åtgärdsinsatser som rekommenderas mot hushållen är informationskampanjer för att medvetandegöra vilka varor som innehåller och emitterar tungmetaller till avloppssystemet. En intressant möjlig vidareutveckling av SoFi är en utvidgning av hushållsdelen till att identifiera vilka varor och produkter därifrån som bidrar mest med tungmetaller för att möjliggöra riktade informationskampanjer.

  • 5.
    Ahlin, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Modellering av dagvattennät utgående från markhöjder2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to The Swedish Water and Wastewater Association (SWWA), a storm waternetwork must be able to handle a rainfall with a return period of 10 years. In order toevaluate whether a drain system is adequately dimensioned, a storm water model can beestablished. This requires knowledge about the levels at which the conduits are situated,and this information is insufficient in many areas. However, the pipes could largely beassumed to follow the topography and the pipes levels can be estimated from it.Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method for how the level of stormwater conduits could be assessed from the ground level, and the significance thismethod had for storm water modeling. A further aim was also to, according to thismethod; assess the storm water systems of the Lidingö community, which lackedinformation on the pipe levels. Furthermore, for the method to be useful it wasimportant to make it easily applicable even to large storm water networks.The method was developed using parts of the storm water network in Sundbyberg,Stockholm. The levels of the conduits were known beforehand, and an analysis of themresulted in a method where the depth of the manhole, which controls the levels of theconduits, was estimated to 2 m. An exception had to be made when the conduits were inreverse slope, in which cases horizontal slope was assumed.When evaluating the impact from the depth assessment on the runoff, the uncertaintyfrom the imperviousness was taken into account by using three different scenarios;unchanged, 30% lower and 30% higher imperviousness. The risk of flooding for eachone of the manholes was weighted from the results of these three scenarios. Thisresulted in a pressure level for each manhole, either above ground, below ground orinconclusive. This was done for the model with both known levels for the conduits, andwith the assessed levels. In order to evaluate how well the method for applying thedepth worked, the status of each manhole was compared between the two models.The conclusion from this study was that the method developed here, more or less gavethe same results as when the levels of the conduits were previously known.Discrepancies arose mainly in ditches, but also for a few landlocked areas and outlets.For the Lidingö storm water network, 18 % of the wells ended up with a pressure levelabove ground when applied to a rain with a 10 year return period. Another 16 % of thewells were inconclusive.

  • 6.
    Ahlström, Elin
    Institutionen för Energi och Teknik, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Beräkning av miljömässiga och ekonomiska konsekvenser vid källsortering av blandat byggavfall: samt analys av redovisningsmetoder för byggavfallsstatistik2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where mankind is the only creature that generates waste that cannot be naturally decomposed, it is of great importance that we correctly take care of the waste we produce. The EU has therefore developed a list of priority regarding methods of waste treatment. It is called the waste hierarchy and is supposed to form the basis for legislation on waste management. In Sweden the construction sector is called “the 40 percent sector” which refers to the fact that 40 percent of Sweden’s waste is generated by this sector. By 2020, the EU has set up a goal that 70 weight percent of all construction and demolition waste must be recycled or reused. In order to present secure statistics that show the member nations’ progresses toward the goal, the waste statistics must be produced in a better way than today.

    This master thesis aimed to calculate the environmental and economic consequences with source sorting of the mixed construction waste and to determine the best available accounting method to produce construction waste statistics.

    A screening of the content of the mixed waste at a renovation project at Telge Bostäder together with data over the generated waste quantity in a previously conducted renovation project, were used to make the calculations. The existing management, where the waste was sorted as mixed waste, was then compared with a hypothetical scenario where the content encountered during the screening (plastic, wood and cardboard) was sorted out separately instead. Calculations were then made partly in a program (WAMPS) developed by IVL to calculate the emissions from household waste management and partly with own calculations of carbon dioxide emissions. The cost of sorting out the waste was determined using Sortera’s catalog and price list.

    The result of WAMPS was that emissions of 62 tons of carbon dioxide could be avoided from the waste management process by sorting about 71 tons of mixed construction waste at the construction site. The corresponding amount at own calculations was 95 tons. The cost of containers and cost of treatment of the sorted waste was lower than the costs for mixed waste, which meant that the total waste related cost of managing 71 tons of mixed waste would have been reduced by 63 000 Swedish crowns if the waste had been source sorted.

    The analysis over accounting methods indicated that in the short term, the most appropriate way to produce construction waste statistics is to use environmental reports from the treating companies as a basis. This method does not require a change in the law to be implemented and utilizes an existing reporting system.

  • 7.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Online-instrumentering på avloppsreningsverk: status idag och effekter av givarfel på reningsprocessen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of automated treatment processes within wastewater treatment plants ultimately depend on the quality of the measurement data that is given from the installed sensors. Sensor faults affect the control of the treatment plants and are often the reason different control strategies fail. Today there is a lack of standardized guidelines for how to organize and work with online sensors at Swedish wastewater treatment plants which limits the opportunities for treatment plants to reach their effluent criteria in a resource efficient manner. Much research has been done on ways to optimize control strategies but the role of sensors in the efficiency of the treatment plants has not been given the same level of attention. The purpose of this thesis has been to examine how instrumentation at wastewater treatment plants can be organized and structured to ensure good quality measurement data and to examine how sensor faults affect the treatment process.

    Within the thesis a literature study was conducted where instrumentation at wastewater treatment plants was examined. The effects of sensor faults were examined by simulating a pre-denitrification process in Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 where off-sets (biases) and drift where added to measurements from different implemented sensors. The simulations showed that positive off-sets (0.10–0.50 mg/l) in an ammonium sensor within a cascaded feedback-loop adds to the energy consumption used for aeration by roughly 4-25%. It could further be shown that all types of faults in a DO sensor in the last aerated basin had significantly larger effect on the treatment process than the same fault in any of the other DO sensors in the preceding basins. If the last aerated basin is designed to have low DO concentrations the DO sensor in that basin is the most important DO sensor to maintain. Positive off-sets (200–1 000 mg TSS/l) in suspended solids sensors used for control of waste activated sludge flow contributed to large increases of ammonia, by 29-464%, in effluent waters. Negative drift in DO sensors showed that significant savings in aeration energy, roughly 4%, was possible to achieve with more frequent maintenance.

    Whether a sensor is affected by a positive or a negative fault, be it off-set or drift, will affect how much and in what way the treatment process will be affected. The study of sensor faults showed that the effect of a positive or a negative fault varied and that the effect on the treatment process was not linear. The effect of a sensor fault on the treatment process will ultimately depend on the implemented control strategy, settings in the controllers and on the controlled process.

  • 8.
    Alessandro, Martini
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Biosensorsystem för övervakning av vattenkvalitet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's drinking water quality is considered to be high partly due to a high quality of the raw water and a well developed sewage infrastructure. Despite this, there is water contamination that could be prevented by installation of a sophisticated early warning system. Some of the major players in the production of drinking water have already invested in different types of early warning systems to ensure drinking water of high quality. There are various forms of early warning systems where automatic monitoring of E. Coli is an interesting alternative. Today's technology allows for this type of measurement, but it is often expensive and sometimes slow.

    This work aims to investigate whether the phenomenon of Extraordinary Optical Transmission (EOT) can be used as the technology of sensors for real-time measurement of indicators of fecal contaminated water. EOT is a transmissions peak which arises due to plasmon resonance. The study was conducted by performing verification measurements by spectrophotometry to detect the EOT. After this biomeasurements where done to show that the surface of the sample can be functionalized to provide the opportunity to choose which analytes should be detected.

    The verifying measurements showed that EOT was detected for one of the five samples where the hole size was 400 nm and the hole spacing was 600 nm. This is due to the high signal strength and to the fact that the phenomenon occurred within the measurement range of the instruments. Samples where designated with the name sPa where s indicates hole size in nm and a hole spacing in nm. The signal strength of the sample 140P600 and 200P600 was too low to determine whether EOT occurred. For samples 400P1000 and 600P1000 calculations showed that EOT occurred outside the measurement range, which meant that EOT could not be measured. Sample 400P600 was chosen to implement bio-measurements wherein the surface was functionalized with biotin Bovine serum albumin (B-BSA) to later bind with fluidMAG Streptavidin. Both B-BSA and streptavidin was bound as shown by the kinetic measurements. 

  • 9.
    Alman, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences.
    Reningseffekt i dämd dagvattentunnel i Märsta, Sigtuna kommun: Pollutant removal in a dammed stormwater tunnel in Märsta, Sigtuna municipality2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater often contains a variety of pollutants such as heavy metals and nutrients that can cause great damage if the water is not treated before it reaches the recipient. A common way to decontaminate this water is through open systems such as ponds and wetlands since they both act as a sedimentation tank and also create a more steady flow.

    In Steningedalen, Märsta, there is a constructed wetland system designed to clean stormwater from a catchment of about 7200 ha. The water is channeled to the ponds via a stormwater tunnel whose primary purpose was to carry water past the center of Märsta village. The tunnel is about 3100 m long, partially in concrete, and has a weir installed in the end of the tunnel. The purpose of the weir is partly to create a sedimentation basin and partly to channel water past the wetland system when high flows occur. In this study, the treatment effect of this stormwater tunnel is investigated. This has been carried out by sampling the water at two points, one about 1 km away from the end of the tunnel, and the other at the end of the tunnel, with subsequent analysis for the heavy metals lead, copper, cadmium, chrome, nickel and zinc as well as the nutrient phosphorus. Also, the concentration of suspended matter and the particle size distribution of the stormwater has been investigated. To supplement the water analysis, heavy metals and phosphorus in the sediments were analysed and thickness of the sediment was also measured.

    The result of the water and sediment sampling shows that the levels of heavy metals in the water are generally relatively high. Zinc in particular, is found at high concentrations both in water and in sediments and exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency’s limit. Phosphorus levels are also, according to the Environmental Protection Agency's classification of lakes and streams, extremely high at high flow rates and high at low flow rates in the tunnel. The results also show that the concentrations of heavy metals and phosphorus in surface waters do not differ significantly between the sampling points at low flow rates in the tunnel. At high flow rates, however, a reduced level of both heavy metals and phosphorus was detected in the end of the tunnel, which indicates that the level of these pollutants decreases with distance from the inlet due to sedimentation in the tunnel.

    Sediment thickness is greater at the end of the tunnel, which indicates that sedimentation increases towards the outlet of the tunnel which most likely is due to fact that the installed weir slows down the flow rates and creates a sedimentation basin. However, the results of the particle size distribution analysis show that the fraction of particles large enough to settle is very small.

    Thus it is concluded that the later part of the tunnel shows a relatively good separation capability at high flow rates, but the separation effect is reduced at lower flow rates, which can be explained by the small size of the particles in the water.

  • 10.
    Alsadi, Aram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Sektionen för geokemi och hydrologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet..
    Dynamiken hos organiskt kol i Mälarens avrinningsområde: flöden, drivande faktorer och modellering2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, it has been investigated how the amount of organic carbon, TOC, varies in time and space in the basin of Mälaren, and what controls the TOC content in the lake. It is important to understand the dynamics of the TOC in the lake and its catchment because increased TOC in the water affects water quality and causes problems in the preparation of drinking water. Particularly, it can react with chlorine / UV- light and form carcinogenic substances. It can also increase the number of microbes in water distribution systems.

    In addition the work includes analysis of the relation between water chemistry variables, annual fluxes calculations (g/m2/year) of element flows to the lake and a modeling approach to a watershed.

    Annual fluxes calculations (g/m2/year) indicate that the largest supply of TOC to the lake comes from the northeast of the lake. Fyrisån accounts for the largest input of TOC to the lake. The high TOC-flux is due to a small proportion of open water in the catchment.

    Hydrological, chemical and meteorological data have been included in models to estimate the TOC content in the Mälaren. Input data processing, especially precipitation data, has been an important part of the work as it affects the whole model. Temperature, evapotranspiration and precipitation data were used in a hydrological model, HBV model, to simulate the flow from the catchment area. Then a process-based model, INCA-C, operated by the hydrological data and soil moisture, has been used to simulate the temporal patterns in TOC. The input variables to INCA-C- model, soil moisture and HER (Hydrological effective rainfall), have been simulated using the HBV- model.

    Those models were applied in Kolbäcksån, one of the lake's largest catchments. The modeling of Kolbäcksån resulted in a model that captured the dynamics of a few periods of the whole time series. The modeling of Kolbäcksån TOC-concentration resulted in a model that captured the dynamics between 1996 and 2009, but misses it between 2009 and June 2010. R2 and NS values obtained for the model were 0.086 and -0.059, respectively.

  • 11.
    Alsmyr, Michaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Utvärdering av lufthalts- och nedfallsmätningar gjorda vid Korsnäsverken: Samband mellan miljöförbättrande arbete i pappers- och massaindustrin och föroreningar i närområdet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A decline has been seen in Sweden and Europe when it comes to air pollution the last decades. The decline is partly due to reduced emissions from industries, switching from heating using oil and coal boilers to district heating and better fuel quality. This study evaluates deposition and air concentration measurements made in the vicinity of the pulp and paper industry Korsnäs in Gävle. The measurement series starts at the late 1970s and goes up to year-end 2009/2010. Deposition of dust, sulphate, sodium, calcium and air concentrations of sulphur dioxide and soot were studied. Comparisons were made with Korsnäs environmental measures and emissions during the same time period and with other measurements made in Sweden and Gävleborgs County.

    The study showed a decrease in sulphur dioxide concentrations in the air. This fits well with a major reduction of sulphur emissions from the factory area in the early 1990s when installations of treatment plants were made at the largest emission sources of sulphur dioxide. Reducing the sulphur content of fuel oil from Karskär Energi AB, an energy combine owned by Korsnäs in the same factory area, contributed to the decrease during the same time period. Air concentrations of soot showed no downward trend over the years, but were seasonal, with higher average soot concentrations in the winter. This was most likely caused by the burning of fuel oil from both the private sector and Karskär Energi AB. The largest air concentrations did not show higher levels of sulphur dioxide and soot when the mean wind direction was easterly and thus blew from factory area toward the monitoring station but when the wind direction was southwesterly and blew from inland. The total dust and calcium deposition showed no decline but had higher average measured levels in the summer. Sulphate deposition showed high levels during the late 1980s but has thereafter decreased. The sodium deposition decreased a little during the time period. No clear connection was found between deposition/air concentrations and emissions from the factory area when the data series were sorted by wind direction, wind speed and after the summer and winter months. Depositions and air concentrations were not higher except for sulphur dioxide when the comparison was made with other measurements in Sweden and Gävleborg County. All measurements were below the then current national limits.

  • 12.
    Alsterhag, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Förslag till modell av kemikaliespridning i mark anpassad för användning vid räddningsinsats - Kemspill Mark 4.02005Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After emergencies involving chemical spills it is of great importance that correct measures are taken with short notice, both for the security of people and in order to minimize future environmental consequences. The RIB-unit at the Swedish Rescue Services Agency initiated this study, the aim of which is to propose changes to the existing chemical transport calculation tool: Chemical Spill 3.4, included in RIB - Integrated Decision Support for Civil Protection, so that it can be used for decision support as well as in preventive work. A rough estimation of chemical transport in the subsurface is considered being of great importance when making decisions during emergency response operations.

    The proposition presented in this report is a non site specific chemical transport model which is designed to give a rough estimation of NAPL flow in homogenous isotropic soil shortly after an instantaneous release. The model can be used at two levels; both in situations without access to information on subsurface properties, and with more accuracy in situations with knowledge of the included parameters. For that reason the user can choose among predefined alternatives or assign the parameters a numeric value to increase the quality of the model output. The predefined alternatives are represented by default values for different parameters in the model.

    Suggested model output are vertical and horizontal transport of NAPL phase, horizontal transport of dissolved chemical in the aqueous phase, as well as the amounts of spill that are evaporated and entrapped in the soil, all at the time specified by the user. Moreover the maximum transport of the chemical phase and time to groundwater pollution are given. To make the uncertainty of the model clear for the user the results are given as the most likely value together with the smallest and largest values that can be expected.

    Equations presented in this report describe a selection of subsurface processes which occur after a release of chemicals. The selection is made with the aim to reach satisfying result when the model is used within its domain without making the model complicated for the user. Therefore simplifying assumptions have been made in the descriptions of some processes while some other processes are neglected. Simplifications have been based on recognized references or on theoretical arguments, but the overall performance of the model as well as some of the default input parameters need to be further tested and validated before the new version of the model can be included in RIB. However, compared with the existing version Chemical Spill 3.4 several changes have been suggested; including additional processes, development of default values and making model uncertainty clear to the user. These changes are thought to significantly improve the existing model.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Amanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Utvärdering av prediktion och utfall av inläckage i bergtunnel: Fallstudie E4 Förbifart Stockholm2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater inflow to a rock tunnel is inevitable, but nonetheless important to limit. Otherwise both the surroundings and the tunnel itself risk becoming subject to damage. To prevent this, legal limitations are set for the inflow. Measurements are then made to ensure that the inflow does not exceed these limitations. When constructing a tunnel in hard rock, the limit objectives are hopefully met through the filling of rock fractures through grouting. Inflow predictions are made at an early stage of a tunnel project, both in order to establish the legal requirements but also as basis for grouting design. The aim of the work reported is to understand why these predictions in some cases deviate from the measured inflow. To accomplish this, a case study on two road tunnels in one of Sweden's most comprehensive infrastructure projects of all time, the construction of a motorway bypass around the capital Stockholm, is presented and assessed. Several causes of deviations between inflow predictions and observations in these two tunnels are suggested, most of them related to the hydraulic conductivity of the rock. Overall the rock quality seems to be worse than predicted. In one tunnel segment in particular, one cause of major deviations from inflow predictions is due to a fracture zone which has not been accounted for. These identified causes of increased inflow could have been foreseen in an early stage of the project, either through more extensive investigations or different interpretations of existing data. New inflow predictions have been made based on the suggested corrections. The result is consistently higher than the predictions made earlier and mostly less deviant from observations. This indicates that the real inflow is probably higher than initially predicted.

  • 14.
    Andersson Cada, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Grundvattenpotential i Västerviks kommun: Geostatistiska metoder i en GIS-miljö2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, groundwater resource potential (GRP) for Västervik municipality has been investigated using the methodology developed in the article by Earon et al. (2015). The aim was to test the reliability of the methodology for groundwater mapping, as to further add to the knowledge base of groundwater access. The GRP-methodology is a linear additive multicriteria analysis where geohydrological indicators are scored, classified into groups, then multiplied by weights calculated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The classification and validation were performed against specific capacity [L/(h*m)], which is a well's capacity calculated at drilling, per meter well. GRP was calculated in different sets based on 13 geohydrological variables such as altitude and Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). The results included correlation tests for Kendall's tau (0.06-0.13), Spearmans rho (0.09-0.19) with a total accuracy of 52-55%. Positive but low values ​​for Cohen´s kappa indicated that all calculations performed better than a random generator, but not by margin. Calculations of VIP (Variables importance on PLS projection), based on Partial Least Squares (PLS), identified Altitude, Earth type, Drainage density and TWI as the most influential indicators for the analysis.The conclusions of this study were, among other things, that the GRP methodology had low predictivity due to the weak relationships between the indicators and the specific capacity. The weaknesses could also be due to the fact that specific capacity has weaknesses as a validation variable for groundwater resource potential linked to uncertainties of the capacity measured at wellbore. The study shows that further development of the weighting scheme by integrating PLS would be beneficial, as PLS calculates the variance of the indicators based on the specific capacity, instead of assuming it as a PCA. 

  • 15.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Modellering av avrinning från gröna tak: Avrinningskoefficienter och modellparametrar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Larger and denser cities result in increasing amounts of impervious surfaces in urban areas. This generates an increase in storm water runoff, as the rainwater is prevented from infiltrating in natural soils and instead flows along the paved surfaces. The increased amount of storm water runoff is liable to cause problems in areas where the storm water system has been designed to handle the amounts of runoff previously generated in the area. Upsizing the capacity of the pipelines is usually costly, and it is therefore desirable to instead reduce the load on the existing system. One way of achieving this is to cover the rooftops with vegetation, so called green roofs. Green roofs are growing in popularity and have the potential to reduce the rate and volume of runoff, as well as attenuating the peak discharge. There are however uncertainties regarding how their abilities are affected by for example the antecedent weather conditions and the moisture content of the roof, as well as by various storm events.


    The purpose of this Master’s Thesis was to study the possibility to simulate the runoff from green roofs using an existing function in the modelling software SWMM by US Environmental Protection Agency, and using Mike Urban by the company DHI. An additional objective was to use on of the designed models to evaluate how green roofs can affect the load on an existing storm water system. Measurements of precipitation, runoff and potential evapotranspiration were obtained from Veg Tech AB and AgroTech A/S. The measurements had been carried out at their demonstration site in Taastrup, Denmark, and included runoff from green roofs of three different thicknesses: 4 cm moss-sedum, 7 cm sedum-herb-grass and 11 cm sedum-herb-grass, as well as an impervious roof used as reference. Initial analyses of the data showed that the storage capacity increased with an increased roof thickness. The thicker roofs were able to completely retain the rainfall from larger storm events than what was the case for the thinnest roof. An analysis of the relationship between precipitation depth and runoff volume showed a stronger correlation for rains with 60 and 120 minutes duration than what was the case for shorter durations.


    Comparisons of the two models’ performance showed different strengths and weaknesses, and none of the models were able to simulate runoff in a way that was satisfactory in all aspects. Mike Urban generally gave a higher coefficient of determination but consistently overestimated the discharged volume for extended time periods. SWMM gave a better conformity in observed runoff than Mike Urban during the first months of the simulation period, but generally gave a time lag in the runoff hydrograph. For the 4 cm roof calibration, SWMM also gave a more correct long-time runoff volume, while both models performed similarly for the other roof thicknesses. In an example, one of the models was used to simulate the runoff from the MAX IV laboratory in Lund. The results showed that in order to avoid flooding in the fictitious downstream storm water network, there had to be a four times larger detention pond in the case where conventional roofs where used compared to the scenario using green roofs.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Elin
    Institutionen för energi och teknik, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Reservvattenförsörjning i Stockholms län: en hållbarhetsanalys2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population of Stockholm County will increase by approximately 445 000 people from 2010 until 2030. This makes demands on many societal services, including drinking water supply. Today more than 90 % of the Stockholm County inhabitants receive drinking water from Lake Mälaren. An adaption of the water supply to the population growth is necessary in order to produce enough water and to ensure reliable water supply. In case of problems in the regular water sources, water supply can be ensured by the use of backup water resources. Even today (2014), the backup water supply in the county is insufficient, and needs development in order to meet also the future water demand. The volumes of backup water needed, and their spatial distribution, depend on the scenarios for disruption of the regular supply to be handled. The water resources in the county are unevenly distributed and the need for backup water is greater in some parts of the county than in others. This means that in order to ensure an efficient use of the available water resources, coordination between the county’s different drinking water actors is necessary. Therefore, alternatives for improvements of the backup water supply should be developed and evaluated on a regional level.


    The aim of the master’s thesis was to study scenarios and alternatives for backup water supply in Stockholm County, mainly by the use of sustainability analysis. The alternatives were developed based on results from earlier studies of the water recourses in the county. Four scenarios for disruption of the regular water supply were chosen. In regards to these scenarios and based on an estimation of the water need 2030, two alternatives for backup water supply were identified, systems alternative A and B. The alternatives were assessed by a sustainability analysis, where they were compared based on six main categories: Health and hygiene, Environment, Economy, Socio-culture, Technical robustness and Magnitude of independence. The alternatives were principally different in that systems alternative A included exclusively other water resources than Lake Mälaren, while systems alternative B was fully dependent on Lake Mälaren.


    The result of the sustainability analysis was that systems alternative B is more sustainable than systems alternative A. This is mainly due to the fact that systems alternative B had a better performance in terms of the economic and environmental criteria. However, in the sustainability analysis it was assumed that the backup water systems did not have to be independent of the regular water source (Lake Mälaren). If there would have been a requirement of the backup water supply to be fully independent of the regular water supply, then systems alternative B would not have been qualified. If the sustainability category Magnitude of independence would not have been included in the analysis, then systems alternative B would have been far superior to systems alternative A. From the analysis it is clear that possible requirements of independency of the backup water supply from the regular water supply, need to be discussed in the Stockholm County. It is also interesting to discuss whether the advantages in terms of the other sustainability aspects (besides Magnitude of independence) are large enough for systems alternative B to motivate a disregard of the dependency of Lake Mälaren, which however uses different parts of Lake Mälaren.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Elinor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Starttillståndets inverkan på hydrologisk prognososäkerhet i HYPE-modellen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Hydrological Forecast and Warning Service of The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) use meteorological ensemble forecasts as input in hydrological models. The hydrological ensemble forecasts take the uncertainty of future temperature and precipitation into account and serve as the basis of issued risks and warnings of high flows. Currently not considered is the uncertainty of the initial state, which consists of state variables in the model describing for instance soil water content and snow pack. This study assessed the impact of the initial state on forecasts in the hydrological model HYPE aiming to quantify the uncertainty and eventually enable more accurate forecasts.There were three aims of this study : 1) Evaluate a suggestion about how the initial state can be varied to give a good estimation of forecast uncertainty related to the hydrological initial state. 2) Examine the relationship between the spread of initial states and the hydrological forecast error. 3) Analyze the impact of seasons, catchment area, lake percentage, forest percentage and elevation on forecast uncertainty. A central hypothesis was that a smaller difference between the discharge of the initial state and the observed discharge results in more accurate forecasts. A restriction of the study was that the initial states only could be generated by disturbances of forcing data in before the forecast.Input data to the HYPE model were fifteen temperature and precipitation series, manipulated to generate an ensemble of different initial states. This ensemble was then used to make discharge forecasts with observed temperature and precipitation as forcing data. The study was performed on 76 catchments all over Sweden with data from the time period 1999-2008. Forecasts were made every day and the ensemble spread was evaluated 2, 4 and 10 days into the forecast. Autoregressive forecasts where the modelled discharge is corrected after the observed discharge were executed and evaluated as well. The results indicated a relationship between ensemble spread and forecast error, which implies that the spread can be used as a measure of the uncertainty of the initial state. The forecast error and ensemble spread correlated positively to forest percentage and negatively to catchment area, lake percentage and elevation. The same trend was detected between spread and catchment characteristics. The spread was biggest in winter and spring when normalization was made with mean discharge for the ten-year period and in spring and summer when normalization was done with mean discharge per month. The hypothesis that a smaller difference between the discharge of the initial state and the observed discharge results in more accurate forecasts was confirmed by the results. An implementation of an ensemble of different initial states in operational forecasts at SMHI’s Hydrological Forecast and Warning Service is suggested in order to further quantify the uncertainty of hydrological forecasts, and thereby improve the basis of judgment when issuing risks and warnings.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Kvalitet på avrinningsvatten från extensiva gröna tak2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gröna tak har blivit en alltmer vanlig åtgärd för att hantera ökade dagvattenmängder i städer med stora andelar hårdgjorda ytor. Större delen av forskningen hittills har fokuserat på hur vattenretention och fördröjning av toppflöden ser ut för gröna tak, medan endast ett fåtal studier har undersökt hur kvaliteten på det avrinningsvatten som taken genererar ser ut. Vidare analys av eventuellt föroreningsinnehåll i avrinningen från gröna tak behövs för att fastställa dess miljöpåverkan.   

    Syftet med arbetet var att analysera kvalitet på avrinningsvatten från extensiva gröna tak och fastställa huruvida det förekommer tungmetaller i avrinningen eller ett näringsläckage efter tillsats av gödningsmedel. De extensiva tak som undersöktes är utformade av företaget Veg Tech AB och placerade i Taastrup, Danmark. Taken anlades i oktober 2010 och består av referenstak i aluminium och tre systemmodeller av varierande bygghöjd och växtsubstrat. I maj 2014 utfördes en näringstillförsel vilket var det första underhållet sedan taken anlades. Med denna studie undersöktes eventuellt näringsläckage och retention av tungmetaller de efterföljande månaderna.

    Näringsinnehåll och koncentrationen av tungmetaller i avrinningen jämfördes med riktlinjer för dagvatten, schablonvärden för gröna tak i dagvatten- och recipientmodellen StormTac samt med avrinning från andra extensiva tak. Slutsatsen var att vattenkvaliteten från försökstaken är relativt bra jämfört med riktlinjer för dagvattenkvalitet och avrinning från konventionella tak. Det förekom ett visst näringsläckage från de extensiva taken, men höga koncentrationer uppmättes även från referenstaket. Koncentrationen av totalfosfor (Tot-P) och nitratkväve (NO3-N) var i vissa fall lägre i avrinningen från de gröna taken.

    Endast låga halter av tungmetaller förekom i avrinningen, bortsett från koppar (Cu) och zink (Zn) som klassades som höga (20-40 μg/l respektive 70-250 μg/l när de var detekterbara). En viss retentionsförmåga av metaller kunde ses jämfört med koncentrationerna i avrinningsvatten från referenstaket. Halten av suspenderat material (TSS) från de tre systemmodellerna var låg och av liknande koncentrationer som för andra studier. De extensiva taken hade en förmåga att höja pH i avrinningen från ca pH 4 till pH 7 jämfört med referenstaken under hösten. Konduktiviteten var högre i avrinningen från de extensiva taken vilket kan förklaras med ett ökat innehåll av lösta joner när vattnet transporteras genom marksubstratet.

    Vidare studier för att avgöra den totala belastningen på dagvattennätet rekommenderas för att kunna dra mer omfattande slutsatser av takens miljöpåverkan. Med en kontinuerlig vattenanalys under ett avrinningstillfälle, från det att taken börjar generera avrinning tills det upphör, kan vidare slutsatser dras om hur koncentrationen av tungmetaller och näringsämnen varierar under ett nederbördstillfälle. 

  • 19.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Optimering av driftstemperatur vid mesofil rötning av slam: - funktionskontroll vid Uppsalas reningsverk2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficient processes and the use of fossil free fuels play an important role in order to reduce the impact of climate change. Anaerobic digestion is a common way for stabilizing sewage sludge at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). One of the benefits with anaerobic digestion is that it also produces biogas, a fossil free fuel with low greenhouse gas emissions. An operational temperature within the mesophilic range has proven to give a stable process with an unfluctuating production of gas. The mesophilic temperature range between 25-40°C but most processes are operated between 35-40°C. This study investigates the opportunity to lower the temperature within the mesophilic range in order to reduce energy consumption. It is important to maintain the production of biogas with a lower temperature. Therefore, the reduction in VS-content (VS-volatile solids), methane yield and time for degradation was determined by a BMP-experiment (BMP-Biochemical Methane Potential) in three different temperatures (32, 34.5 and 37.5°C). In order to quantify the reduction in heat consumption with lower operational temperatures the change in heat balance for a full-scale WWTP in Uppsala was calculated. A major part of the operational cost is dewatering of sludge and it is therefore important that it does not deteriorate with a lower temperature. The effect on the dewaterability at different temperatures was examined by a filterability test measuring CST (capillary suction time). The results from the study showed no significant difference in methane yield between 37.5°C and 34.5°C. The methane yield at 32°C was 11 % lower compared to 37.5°C but the degradation kinetic was not affected by a temperature change. The reduction in heat consumption was 14 % when the temperature was reduced to 34.5°C and 27 % when it was reduced to 32°C. The filterability test did not show a deterioration with lower temperatures. The study showed that it is possible to reduce the operational temperature for anaerobic digestion at the WWTP in Uppsala in order to reduce the energy consumption. To confirm these results a continuously experiment should be done, but this study shows that it is possible to get a successful degradation in a lower mesophilic temperature. This leads the way for further investigations within the mesophilic range and could lead to optimizing anaerobic digestion and the opportunity to get an energy efficient production of biogas.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Inventering av internationella bullerskyddsåtgärder för höghastighetståg2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development within the railway sector is heading towards faster and more effective transports. The limitations are that new developments must be applied on the trains as well as the tracks. With the infrastructure and train models that we have today, speeds up to 200 km/h is the maximum speed. The needs to raise the capacity and implement high-speed trains in Sweden are under investigation. The speed of the trains must exceed 250 km/h to be labeled as high-speed trains. Banverket as the infrastructure manager has a responsibility for the environment and the noise pollution created by train traffic. As the speed increases so does the noise as well, but it is also new forms of noise that appear with speeds over 300 km/h. The noise that appears around these velocities is called aerodynamic noise and it is coming from the turbulence in the air around the train.

    The aim of the thesis has been to gather knowledge internationally on the issues concerning noise emissions and measures to prevent them. The information has been gathered thorough a literature survey and by interviews with people within the international railway sector. By the inventory of the knowledge a model has been developed with the issues that are judged to be the most important. The idea with the model is to give a picture of the measures to prevent the noise and sources of the noise that are coming from high-speed traffic. It is also made for Banverket to get the competence to deal with a future implementation of high-speed traffic.

    A noise preventive measures that is prioritized internationally is planning the localization of the track. This measure is treated during the land use planning when a new line should be built. In this phase problems can either be created or eliminated and it is here the foundation is built for the future. The development of the trains and technical solutions such as rail dampers, noise screens and optimal track design are also measures that have high priority internationally. It is mainly the development and the technical solutions to minimize the aerodynamic noise that occurs and also the noise that are emitted from the contact between the wheels and the rail.

    The general working process is that the focus is on reducing the noise from the source. After that the priority is to minimize the noise along the propagation path and at last measures at the recipient.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Igensättning av långsamfilter i Östby vattenverk i Kramfors: studie av påverkande faktorer2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Östby waterworks in the community of Kramfors has since 2003 had problems of fast clogging of the slow sand filters. As the clogging appears more often, they must be cleaned more frequently which has made the drinking water preparation difficult. Wintertime it has sometimes been impossible to clean the filters which has led to their closing and this has influenced the water quality negatively.

    The waterworks is a surface waterworks which takes its raw water from the lake Sjöbysjön. The water is flocculated and filtered in a contact filter with the flocculent EKOFLOCK 91. Thereafter it is alkalinized before it reaches the outdoors placed slow sand filters. After the filters the water is alkalinized and disinfected before it reaches the customers.

    This thesis work has looked into which factors influence the clogging and trials have been made in order to optimize the waterworks and thereby reduce the clogging. The raw water has been studied with aspect to biology and chemistry, the filtered water has been studied with aspect to chemistry and also the pressures in the slow sand filters have been studied.

    The colour of the raw water from Sjöbysjön and its catchment area has increased since the beginning of the 90-ies and also the bio volume has increased in the lake.

    The contents of aluminium before the slow sand filters are far higher than the contents after, which leads to the conclusion that aluminium is accumulated in the filters. The differential pressure over the sand bed increases with time after a cleaning. This indicates an accumulation of particles which increases with the load. Observations of the filter surface before cleaning showed that it was covered by a brown, jelly-like film. The internal resistance in the filter beds increases successively after a cleaning and one month after cleaning it is highest in the upper part of the sand bed. All this points to that flocculated aluminium is gathered in the slow sand filters, on the surface, causing clogging.

    While the thesis work has been going on a process of alkalinizing before the contact filters has been reengaged and this has influenced the flocking of organic materials. When raising the pH the dose of flocculent was increased and this combined increased the amount of flocculated material. The contact filters could not bear this increased amount of flock load but showed instead a breakthrough.

    In a few lab scale trials the flocking pH was varied as well as the dose flocculent to the raw water and after this the water was filtrated. A tendency was seen that the separation of aluminium, colour and turbidity increased with increasing pH and dose flocculent. At the pH 6.2 and the chemical dose of 60 g/m3 the content of aluminium, the colour and the turbidity showed the lowest values in the filtrate.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Kartläggning av möjligheten att återanvända takdagvatten för att minska dricksvattenförbrukningen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drinking water is vital for our daily life. With climate change comes increasing temperatures and more extreme weather which can jeopardize our access to drinking water. One way to reduce our drinking water consumption is to collect rainwater and use it for processes which have lower quality demands than drinking water. Swedavia is constantly working on making their airports more environmentally friendly and as a part of this reducing the drinking water consumption. This project examines how water can be collected at Swedavia’s airports. The project results should be of intent to all of Swedavia’s airports even if the project is performed at Stockholm Arlanda Airport.

    In this project the water quality from five different types roofs has been studied. The different kind of roofs were chosen based on previous studies where pollutants in roof-harvested rainwater were studied. Other aspects such as location on the airports were also considered. Samplings were collected at two different occasions where water was collected from the different roofs. One sample of clean rainwater was collected as a reference. Five nutrients, dissolved organic matter, suspended matter and six heavy metals were analyzed.

    Three of the roofs gave water with high values that exceeded the quality limits. The samples from the green roof showed high levels of phosphorus and dissolved organic matter. The steel roof gave high levels of zink which may origin from its zink coating. The roof with PVC plastic also gave high levels of zink, but not as high as the steel roof. The roof with FPO plastic, a more environmentally friendly plastic, and the roof with roof paper gave low values and did not exceed any quality limits. The reference sample of clean rainwater gave high values of suspended matter at the second occasion and high values of lead that exceeded the quality limits.

    The conclusions of this project are that roof-harvested rainwater from green roofs, steel roofs and roofs with PVC plastic may exceed quality limits which makes them less suitable for collecting and re-use. The results are based on the two sampling occasions which means that sampling at more occations needs to be done to make definitive conclusions. The roofs with FPO plastic and roof paper do not exceed any quality limits and can therefore, according to the analyzed parameters, be suitable for collecting rainwater. It is important to note that to be able to reuse the water and guarantee that the quality of the water does not exceed any quality limits more parameters should be analyzed.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Avsättningsalternativ för avloppsslam från Gästrike Vatten: Möjligheter att återföra fosforföreningar i avloppsslam till produktiv mark2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gästrike Vatten is owned by the municipalities of Gävle, Hofors, Ockelbo and Älvkarleby and established in 2008. The company is responsible for handling and treating wastewater in the municipalities. Gästrike Vatten elutes wastewater from approximately 120,000 persons and all in all they handle 11,000 tonnes sewage sludge per year to a total cost of 5,000,000 SEK.

    Because of the Swedish Parliament’s environmental objectives reutilization of 60 % of the phosphorus from sewage sludge to agricultural soils, Gästrike Vatten now want to investigate possible options for reutilization of their sewage sludge.

    Gästrike Vatten has six wastewater treatment plants. Except for Duvbacken sewage treatment plant all of them produce sewage sludge with metal concentrations below the maximum permissible value for spreading sewage sludge on agricultural soils. The sewage sludge from Duvbacken comprises of more than 60 % of the total amount managed at Gästrike Vatten. As a result of this, Gästrike Vatten has difficulties reaching the Swedish Parliament’s environmental objectives for reutilization of phosphorous. Today, all sewage sludge from Gästrike Vatten is composted for later use as covering material for landfills. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possible options for environmental and economic sustainable reutilization of sewage sludge.

    This thesis describes Gästrike Vatten’s treatment plants and possible options for reutilization of sewage sludge. A mass balance study was conducted for Duvbacken as well as a detailed study on cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) content in the sludge. The study showed that the only option for Gästrike Vatten to meet the Swedish Parliament’s environmental objectives on reutilization phosphorous is certifying the sewage sludge according to REVAQ with subsequent reutilization to agricultural soils. Consequently, this study focuses on the possibility to implement REVAQ.

    An increase in concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn in the sewage sludge from Duvbacken during the last years indicates an increase of emissions to the sewerage. The reason may be the abolition of the municipal monopoly on emptying the oil separators. Mapping the sewerage catchment areas and associated industries as well as sampling the effluent, it was found that the major metal contribution to the sewage sludge comes from industrial activities. Industries that can be expected to contribute to excessive release of Cd, Cu and Zn to the sewerage are engineering industries and surface treatment industries. Thus, all the industrial areas containing these industries are of interest in further studies.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Ökad grundvattenbildning genom pumpning av salt grundvatten från berggrunden på Gotland2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Because of an increased shortage and an increased demand of fresh water on Gotland, the possibility to pump saline groundwater and thereby locally lower the saltwater interface and increase recharge was investigated. With the saltwater interface further down in the bedrock, deeper wells could be drilled and extraction of more fresh water would therefore be possible.

    To examine the concept, a groundwater model was created to simulate the idea on a region of the peninsula Sudret on the southern part of the island of Gotland, Sweden. To be able to simulate the idea of pumping groundwater in an aquifer with a mix of saline and fresh groundwater of variable density, a model was built using the groundwater modelling program GMS in combination with the modules/program codes MODFLOW, MT3DMS and SEAWAT. With these modules, the model can handle the complex situation with extraction by pumping from groundwater of variable density and changes of salt concentration over time. A three dimensional geological model over the area produced by SGU was used as a foundation for building the model.

    Since no site specific surveys considering groundwater levels and flow/dispersion parameters have been previously undertaken in the study area, the parameters of the model were chosen according to literature and findings from similar projects conducted in the past. First, a model was developed to simulate a stable saltwater interface without pumps. Parameters were changed until a groundwater level close to the surface of the model was given and the saltwater interface ended up around the transition between limestone and sandstone. When the model generated desirable results, it was further developed to include the extraction of saltwater by pumping. 

    Results from the project showed that the concept of lowering the saltwater interface by pumping works, with an increased recharge corresponding to 55 % of the extracted saltwater volume. Because of a lack of site specific parameters, the results should not be seen as more than an indication that the concept works. 

    Furthermore, geohydrological measures should be made to provide local parameters regarding flow and dispersion for more reliable future models. To gain a greater understanding of how well the concept would work in reality, further development should be undertaken to include fresh groundwater extraction to assess how that would affect the position of the saltwater interface.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Matilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Lakning av fyllnadsjord i miljöriskbedömningar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid riskbedömning av kontaminerade områden i stadsmiljö blir ofta markmiljönbegränsande. Detta beror bland annat på att föroreningarna till stor del är bundna imarken, så risken för utlakning, med skadade grundvatten eller ytvatten som effekt, ärlåg. Risken för skador på markmiljön antas bero på totalhalterna av förorening imarken så för att skydda markmiljön schaktas den förorenade jorden ofta bort ochområdet fylls upp av fyllnadsmaterial. Som fyllnadsmaterial kan diverse restmaterialanvändas om de uppfyller kraven på som ställs på dess lakhalter. Det finns dock ingakrav på kontroll av lakning från naturmaterial varför dessa ofta används somfyllnadsmaterial. Därför har endast ett fåtal undersökningar om lakning från bergkrossgjorts, men dessa visar att metallerna som lakar ut eventuellt skulle kunna påverkamarkmiljön och transporteras till grundvatten eller ytvatten. Därför finns det intresseav att undersöka detta vidare.

    I denna studie har två bergmaterial, två förorenade jordar och en slagg undersökts.Dessa provmaterial har utsatts för skaktest, uppslutning, sekventiell lakning samtXRF- och XRD-analyser. Fyra stycken skaktest utfördes med en konstant L/S-kvot på10 ml/g men med varierande skaktid. Uppslutningarna utfördes genom att materialetefter tillsats av salpetersyra upphettades i mikrovågsugn.

    Resultaten visar på i huvudsak förväntade lakhalter från både de förorenade materialetoch bergkrossen. Det som var något oväntat var att det ena bergmaterialet lakade utrelativt höga halter av arsenik och att båda bergmaterialen efter en halvtimmes skaktidvisade fluoridhalter som överstiger Naturvårdsverkets riktvärde för ringa risk ochgränsvärdet för deponering av inert avfall. För totalhalterna uppvisade bergmaterialetgenerellt inte fullt så höga halter som föroreningarna, men ändock tillräckligt höga föratt nå över riktvärdet för ringa risk.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Avbördningsekvationer för sjöar utan vattenföringsmätningar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stage-discharge equations for lakes without disharge measurements

    Simon Andersson

    In 2015 all lakes, rivers, coastal water and groundwater should be of good ecological statusaccording to the water framework directive from the European Union. In the process ofimproving the quality of Swedish water bodies, knowledge of where problems occur isneeded in order to utilize the resources optimally. The ability of lakes to store water is animportant factor since it controls the flow of water through the country. A stage-dischargeequation is a mathematical relation between discharge from a lake and its water level. Bybetter understanding of stage-discharge equations for lakes, their storage capacity can bedescribed better in hydrological models.

    This master thesis aims to evaluate methods for determining stage-discharge equations forlakes where a variable amount of field measurements is available. The methods developed inthe project were evaluated by comparison with measured stage-discharge equations made bySMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). First, relations between lakeproperties and stage-discharge equations were evaluated. In the second part of the project,tests were made to observe if a stage-discharge equation could be developed from data ofwater levels in a lake and modeled inflow to the lake. Finally, possibilities of estimatingstage-discharge equation through Sjölyftet were evaluated. Sjölyftet is a project financed bythe Swedish Public Employment Service in which unemployed people in Sweden makesimple hydrological measurements for SMHI.

    The results showed that the use of the same constant standard parameters for all lakes in thestage-discharge equation gives large errors. The use of catchment areas, lake areas and outletwidths gave better results than applying constant standard parameters in stage-dischargeequations. The best method for estimating stage-discharge equations was obtained whenmeasurements of water level for lakes where used. The measurements from Sjölyftet couldnot be evaluated properly because validation data were missing. Although, the data collectedfrom Sjölyftet might be useful in the future.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Ammoniumåterkoppling på Himmerfjärdsverket – utvärdering genom försök och simuleringar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have the challenging task to treat incoming water in order to meet the discharge limits at the lowest possible cost. Aeration of biological treatment processes is one of the most energy consuming posts at a WWTP. At Himmerfjärden WWTP approximately one fifth of the total electric energy consumption is used for aeration of biological processes.

    With the purpose of making Himmerfjärden WWTP more energy efficient full-scale experiments with different aeration control strategies started in 2010. In one of the aerated tanks a new control system was installed in order to allow zonewise control of the dissolved oxygen (DO).

    The objective of this master thesis was to evaluate ammonium feedback control and DO-profile control at Himmerfjärden WWTP. The evaluation was made with regard to effluent quality and aeration needs.

    With the original control strategy aeration is varied to maintain a constant concentration of dissolved oxygen in the second of six zones in each aerated tank. With this control strategy oxygen peaks occur in the last zones of the aerated tank. Thus, there is potential to save energy if these oxygen peaks can be avoided.

    Simulations were carried out in the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 1 (BSM1) where fast and slow ammonium feedback control and different DO-profiles were evaluated. The model was modified and calibrated to resemble the process at Himmerfjärden WWTP. The simulations showed that the slow ammonium feedback control was the most energy-efficient strategy. The results also showed that it was possible to reduce oxygen peaks by increasing the oxygen set-point along the aerated tank, e.g. an increasing DO-profile.

    The full-scale experiments included ammonium feedback control and DO-profile control. The results show that ammonium feedback control needed less airflow per amount ammonium removed, compared to both the DO-profile and the original control strategy, with a 16 % lower energy consumption compared to the original control strategy.

  • 28.
    André, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Raw Material Consumption - Ett mått på Sveriges materialanvändning i ett mer resurseffektivt samhälle2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to measure the amount of materials used in society, is central in the transition to a resource-efficient and circular economy. Within the EU, Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) is currently used as indicator for material use. It is calculated by adding the materials that a country extracts, plus the materials imported, minus the materials being exported. There is criticism of DMC, as a measure, since it only considers the weight of imported and exported goods when they cross the country border. It does not consider the upstream materials needed to produce a product, which are not represented in the final product (the so-called material backpack). Globalisation has led to a geographical disconnection in production and consumption, and to consider net-importing countries’ total material consumption, it is necessary to include traded product’s material backpack. Raw Material Consumption (RMC) considers the material backpack, but is currently without a standardised calculation method. Both RMC and DMC are used in Agenda 2030 to follow up the UN Sustainability Development Goal 12 "Sustainable Consumption and Production", as well as Goal 8 "Decent Work Conditions and Economic Growth". Only DMC is used today in the EU.


    The aim of this project was to calculate Sweden’s material consumption, using the indicator Raw Material Consumption (RMC), as well as identifying strengths and weaknesses of RMC. For calculating RMC, Eurostat’s RME-tool has been used. According to RMC, Sweden's total material usage increased from 2008 when it amounted to 198 million tonnes of raw material equivalents (RME), to 221 million tonnes RME in 2015. There has also been an increase per capita: 21,4 RME per capita in 2008 to 22,6 RME per capita in 2015. These results have been compared with the results for Sweden's DMC, calculated by SCB. RMC and DMC gave similar results for Sweden's total material consumption. This is believed to be due to the similar size of the material backpack of imports and exports. Another reason is believed to be due to Sweden’s largest material category, non-metallic minerals, is a small part of our trade balance, and therefore is not affected when the material backpack is included. At the material category level, however, the differences between RMC and DMC are greater.


    Results from Eurostat's RME tool, calculated in this study, have been compared with results presented by the OECD and UNEP. They have used a different calculation method for Sweden’s RMC than the RME tool applies. The difference in total RMC for different calculation methods is between 11 % and 22 %. At material category level, the differences are greater, more than 50 % for fossil fuels, for example. Similar results have been presented in a study over Austria's RMC for the year 2007, using different calculation methods.


    Both DMC and RMC can be used as policy-support for resource efficiency, but RMC is theoretically a more suitable indicator for comparison of countries. This is since many countries today have moved a significant share of their production abroad, and DMC therefore risks displaying a false perception of resource efficiency and decoupling, when the material backpack is not included.

  • 29.
    Anna, Sporre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Utvärdering av grumlighet i miljökontrollprogram för ytvatten vid konstruktionsarbeten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been noticed that construction activities close to watercourses often result in turbidity values that exceed guideline values. A detailed analysis of annual reports from the Swedish infrastructure project “BanaVäg i Väst” has shown that recommended values of turbidity often are determined without consideration of natural variations in turbidity. The performance probably depends on the lack of appropriate legislation on acceptable turbidity values and on how turbidity should be monitored during construction activities. The objective of this thesis was therefore to develop a method to determine background values for turbidity as a basis for setting water system adapted reference values. In the thesis a model for turbidity was developed with agricultural area, clay content within the watershed and discharge as input variables. With the dynamic model variations in turbidity could best be explained in watercourses of watersheds less than 100 km2, but even for these watercourses the model performance remained poor. For watercourses draining larger watersheds the model performance became even poorer, most probably due to complex interactions of a variety of driving variables, of which some were not included as input variables. A recommendation is therefore a national initiative where more advanced models can be used, at least for large watercourses that are highly vulnerable, after adaption to Swedish conditions. This study clearly shows that there is an urgent need in Sweden to improve methods to monitor turbidity as well as to improve guideline values by adjusting them according to background turbidity levels.

  • 30.
    Anton, Nygren
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Experimental and theoretical studies of water droplet surfaces in the presence of glycerol2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water aerosols affect the climate because they have an impact on the radiation balance and cloud formation. Water is present in all forms in the atmosphere (water, ice and steam), for example as rain and hail. Water aerosols play an important role in many biological and chemical processes in the atmosphere. The most common form of water in the atmosphere is water droplets or vapor which often come from oceans and lakes and these aerosols often contain organic compounds. It is therefore interesting to study if organic compounds, in this case glycerol, will reside on the surface or inside the water droplets. The investigations were performed by using theoretical studies, molecular dynamic simulations in GROMACS, and experimental investigations; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a liquid jet. The experiments were performed at BESSY II, Berlin. The concentrations of glycerol were varied from 75:1; 8:1 to 4:1 (water: glycerol molecules). The results were that the experiments and simulations indicated that when theconcentration of glycerol increased the glycerol concentration at the surface of the waterdroplet increases until a monolayer of glycerol molecules was formed at the surface. When the monolayer was formed (or close to) less and less glycerol molecules were placed at thewater surface and more and more glycerol molecules were placed in the bulk of the waterdroplet.

  • 31.
    Arnlund, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Utredning av reningsfunktionen hos Kungsängens dagvattendamm: en studie med flödesproportionell provtagning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater is the name for rainwater and snowmelt runoff from impervious surfaces in the urban environment. This water often carries large amounts of pollutants such as heavy metals, nutrients, and oil-related substances, which can cause great damage if they reach the receiving waters. To clean the storm water and thus reduce the pollution load, more and more open storm water systems are being built, such as wetlands and ponds. Studies have shown that these systems have high pollutant removal efficiency and are cost effective. Knowledge of how these systems work and how they best are evaluated is limited.

    “Kungsängsdammen” near Uppsala is a newly constructed stormwater facility that is designed to clean and retard stormwater from the industrial and commercial area Boländerna. This thesis aims to investigate the purification function of the facility. Flow proportional sampling was carried out at the inlet and outlet for 8 weeks. Substances that were analyzed were nutrients P and N, suspended solids, heavy metals As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn and petroleum hydrocarbons. On some occasions, the petroleum-related organic parameters PAHs, octyl and nonylphenols and tributyltin were analyzed. Flow proportional sampling is recommended to determine the efficiency of a stormwater pond, but the problem is that it takes much time and considerable resources. In addition to this method, additional measurements were carried out with sediment traps, and a calculation of pollution load at the inlet with the program StormTac.

    The flow proportional sampling showed that the “Kungsängsdammen” pond-, functions well as a treatment facility for pollutions. Suspended solids, nutrients and heavy metals are separated effectively and the outlet concentrations for these substances were below proposed guideline values. This is observed, despite the fact that zinc, copper, nitrogen and suspended solids had intake concentrations above the guideline values. Flow calculations showed that the bypass flow is important when estimating the pollutant removal efficiency. For organic compounds, tributyltin was measured at concentrations above the Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for surface water both at the inlet and outlet. The inlet concentrations that were calculated in StormTac were consistent with the results of the flow proportional sampling for heavy metals and nutrients. Moreover, the investigation of sediments showed that sedimentation occurs mainly in the ditch before the pond and at the inlet to the pond. The ditch is in need of cleansing, because of the risk of sediment being washed away during high flows.

    The flow proportional sampling showed that the “Kungsängsdammen” pond-, functions wellas a treatment facility for pollutions. Suspended solids, nutrients and heavy metals are separated effectively and the outlet concentrations for these substances were below proposedguideline values. This is observed, despite the fact that zinc, copper, nitrogen and suspended solids had intake concentrations above the guideline values. Flow calculations showed that the bypass flow is important when estimating the pollutant removal efficiency. For organiccompounds, tributyltin was measured at concentrations above the Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for surface water both at the inlet and outlet. The inlet concentrations that were calculated in StormTac were consistent with the results of the flow proportional sampling for heavy metals and nutrients. Moreover, the investigation of sediments showedthat sedimentation occurs mainly in the ditch before the pond and at the inlet to the pond. The ditch is in need of cleansing, because of the risk of sediment being washed away during high flows.

  • 32.
    Arvidsson, Diana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Utredning av avloppsprocessers påverkan på recipientens mikrobiologiska status2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Depending on the efficiency of the processes used in a wastewater treatment plant, the recipient receives watercontaining various concentrations of microorganisms. These microorganisms might infect people using therecipient for recreational purposes. The thesis aims to investigate how some process choices affect the concentrationsof microorganisms in sewage and how the concentration can be monitored with the use of other waterquality measurements. Lastly the microbial degradation after discharge in a lake was investigated. Process choiceswere evaluated through sampling before and after two biological treatment steps, one sand filter facilityand one disc filter facility. The obtained results demonstrate that among the investigated alternatives, a biologicalstep using biofilm is the most efficient for removing microorganisms, followed by sand filtration and leastefficient with high variability was disc filtration. The literature review suggests that the use of ozonation forreducing pharmaceutical residues could be efficient in reducing microorganisms, but the required dosage is notuniformly established in previous research. Statistical analysis on water quality measurements with Kendall’sTau and Partial Least Squares did not appear to be a good substitute to use for monitoring and prediction ofbacterial concentrations. The water quality of the recipient, especially the transparency for UV-light, is moreimportant for maintaining good bathing water quality than the outflow concentration of microorganisms in thesewage. In a small case study, it was shown that an official bathing site is not at risk for acute microbiologicalcontamination even when extreme rainfalls causes overflow in the upstream waste water treatment plant.

  • 33.
    Asplund, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Mark- växtsystem för behandling av lakvatten: utvärdering av reningseffekter vid Häradsuddens deponi2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En av de viktigaste miljöaspekterna när det gäller deponering av avfall är utsläpp till vatten. Tidigare leddes lakvatten från de flesta deponier till kommunala reningsverk, men på senare tid har trenden gått mot allt mer lokala lösningar i mark- växtbaserade system.

    Vid Häradsuddens deponi i Norrköpings kommun har Econova mellan åren 2007 och 2011, i etapper, anlagt ett kombinerat system med lakvattenrecirkulering, luftad damm, intermittent översilning samt våtmark för rening av lakvattnet. Syftet med denna studie var att klarlägga vattenbalans och reningsfunktion för Häradsuddens reningssystem samt ge förslag på eventuella förbättringar.

    Resultaten i undersökningen tyder på en avsevärt högre belastning på våtmarken än de kända flöden som pumpas till lakvattensystemet, vilket tyder på utläckage av lakvatten från deponin. Reningssystemet klarade dock med god marginal reningskraven avseende halt för NH4-N och Ptot. Begränsande för möjligheten att släppa vattnet till recipient är halten TOC. Med anledning av lakvattnets sammansättning samt de förhållandevis höga halterna i tillrinnande vatten kan det bli svårt att komma ner i TOC-halter som säkrar möjlighet till utsläpp av behandlat lakvatten.

    Den areaspecifika reningen varierade beroende på om hänsyn togs till förmodat inläckage. Den areaspecifika reningen avseende NH4-N och Ntot var i princip obefintlig om ingen hänsyn togs till inläckage av lakvatten medan den var 80 respektive 50 g/m2·år om en beräkning av möjligt inläckage räknades med. När det gäller Ptot ökade avskiljningen från 1 till 2 g/m2·år vid hänsyn tagen till inläckage. Avskiljningen var något låg jämfört med etablerade våtmarker, men borde kunna öka med tiden.

    Analysunderlag för den luftade lakvattendammen och översilningen är otillräckligt och osäkert för att det ska kunna gå att dra några långtgående slutsatser avseende reningseffekt för dessa delar. De bedöms dock kunna ha potential för att öka avskiljningen, varför en noggrann utredning av reningseffekt och olika driftstrategier för lakvattendammen och översilningen rekommenderas.

  • 34.
    Axelius, Torun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Hellström, Josefine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Integration of sustainable management in retail: A case study of The Lobby - AMF Fastigheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing environmental problems have today become global and changes are dras-tically needed in all levels of society. Customers’ buying behaviour can play a big partand it is possible to both contribute to a more sustainable world and add economic valueto a business, but new sustainable business models are needed. In this research projectThe Lobby, a new innovative marketplace owned by AMF Fastigheter, has been usedas a case study to find the key areas in retail business where change is most important.Furthermore, a life cycle assessment has been conducted to see where in a T-shirt’s lifecycle the most CO2equivalents are released and what the difference between a T-shirtbought at a physical store and e-commerce is. This research project has found that themost important area to focus on if sustainability is to be integrated successfully in aretail business is the company management. The commitment and attitude the companymanagement mediates to their employees is crucial for success. For The Lobby it is alsoimportant to evaluate which retailers they choose to approve due to the fact that its in-directly affecting their sustainability. The Lobby should also try to be more transparentand informative. By promoting their sustainability actions they can attract both cus-tomers and future retailers. But the research and knowledge in the field of influencingand changing customers’ behaviour is still limited and more research is needed.

  • 35.
    Bachofner Gran, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Grundvattenmodellering inom Loddby före detta Sulfitmassabruk2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Loddby sulphite pulp factory was during its active days located next to Loddbyviken, approximately five kilometers north of Norrköping. Production of sulphite paper pulp was conducted between the years 1899 and 1977 within an area of 18,6 hectares. The former sulphite pulp factory is today considered polluted to the extent that it is entailing a great risk for human health and the environment, but to be able to decide what measures to take, the hydrogeological conditions in the area need to be clarified.

    The objective of this master’s thesis was to map the groundwater flow pattern within Loddby former sulphite pulp factory by developing a site-specific groundwater model with the groundwater flow model MODFLOW in the software Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The master’s thesis also aimed at examining how the groundwater movement in the area is affected by fluctuations in the water level of Loddbyviken. A conceptual model was initially created to describe the hydrological system in a simplified way with regards to the geology, hydrology and climate within the area. The model domain was delimited by topographical water divides and hydrological boundaries, and was thereafter divided into three horizontal layers based on the main materials that have been identified during investigations within the area: filling material, clay and till.

    In GMS, the model domain was divided into a 5x5 meter grid and its borders were assigned appropriate boundary conditions. By interpolating the three model layers from scatter point data of known geology, the conceptual model could be described mathematically within the software. To increase the reliability of the model, the hydraulic conductivities of the materials were then calibrated against observed hydraulic head in several groundwater monitoring wells in the area. After the calibration, the hydraulic conductivities of the filling material, clay and till were 2,1ˑ10-4 m/s, 5,7ˑ10-7 m/s and 3,9ˑ10-5 m/s respectively. A sensitivity analysis was then performed in order to examine how the values of hyd