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  • 1.
    Börjesson, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Resources for scholarly documentation in professional service organizations: A study of Swedish development-led archaeology report writing2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This information studies dissertation deals with the problem that results from research outside academia risk to receive little or no attention if communicated through reports, instead of in mainstream academic genres like research journal articles. The case in focus is Swedish development-led (DL) archaeology, i.e. state regulated archaeology preceding land development. Swedish DL archaeology is organized as a semi-regulated market. The organizations competing on the market are professional service organizations selling research services to land developers. Regional government departments, county administrative boards, function as intermediaries setting up procurement-like processes.

    In previous research on archaeological documentation, the problem with non-use of reports has been described as depending on cultural issues of access, possible to solve if individuals make efforts to communicate and use extra-academic results. This dissertation offers an alternative definition of the problem, highlighting a different set of solutions. The aim is to further the understanding of how the distribution of research duties to professional service organizations affects the scholarly documentation in Swedish archaeology. The aim is met through identification, operationalization and analysis of resources available to report writing DL archaeology practitioners, and an analysis of how practitioners draw on these resources. The results further the understanding of how reports are shaped within the DL archaeology institution. In view of these results, efforts to solve issues of access should target the organization of research in the archaeology discipline, and specifically how scholarly documentation is governed on the archaeology market.

    The dissertation draws on science and technology studies, practice theory, and document theory for the design of the study of documentation resources and contexts in extra-academic research. A mixed methods approach is applied to capture regulative, institutional, and infrastructural resources, and practitioners’ use thereof. Dissertation papers I-III contain analyses of concrete instantiations of the resources: information policy, documentation ideals, and information source use. The fourth paper presents an analysis of how practitioners draw on these resources in their everyday report writing. The dissertation concerns archaeology specifically, but serves as grounds to inquire into the premises for scholarly documentation in other areas of extra-academic research and knowledge-making as well.

    List of papers
    1. Information Policy for (Digital) Information in Archaeology: current state and suggestions for development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information Policy for (Digital) Information in Archaeology: current state and suggestions for development
    2015 (English)In: Internet Archaeology, ISSN 1363-5387, E-ISSN 1363-5387, no 40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of digital data capturing and management technologies has transformed information practices in archaeology. Digital documentation and digital infrastructures are integrated in archaeologists' daily work now more than ever. International and national institutions and projects have contributed to the development of digital archiving and curation practices. Because knowledge production in archaeology depends heavily on documentation and information dissemination, and on retrieval of past documentation, the question of how information is managed is profoundly intertwined with the possibilities for knowledge production. Regulations at different levels articulate demands and expectations from the emerging digital information practices, but how are these different regulations coordinated, and do they support archaeological knowledge production?

    In this article we look into the state of information policy - the sum of principles guiding decisions about information - in archaeology and related areas. The aim of the article is to shed light on how information policy directs practice in archaeology, and to show that analysis of such policies is therefore vital. Information policy in legislation and guidelines in Swedish archaeology serves as a case study, and examples from development-led archaeology and the museum sector illustrate how information policies have varied roles across different heritage sectors. There are historical and local trajectories in the policy documents specific to Sweden, but the discussion shows that the emergence of Swedish policies have many parallels with processes in other countries. The article provides recommendations for information policy development for archaeology and related areas.

    Keywords
    Digital humanities; cultural heritage sector; digital heritage; digital archaeology; digital museums; information policy; digital agendas; digitization
    National Category
    Information Studies Archaeology
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275630 (URN)10.11141/ia.40.4 (DOI)
    Projects
    ARKDIS
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 340-2012-5751
    Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Beyond information policy: Conflicting documentation ideals in extra-academic knowledge making practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond information policy: Conflicting documentation ideals in extra-academic knowledge making practices
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 674-695Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and explicate documentation ideals parallel to information policy, and by means of this analysis demonstrate how the concept “documentation ideals” is an analytical tool for engaging with political and institutional contexts of information practices.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a case study of documentation ideals in a debate about quality in archaeological documentation. The methodology draws on idea analysis, and on the science and technology studies’ controversy studies approach.

    Findings – The paper explicates three documentation ideals, how these ideals allocate responsibility for documentation to different actors, how the ideals assign roles to practitioners, and how the ideals point to different beneficiaries of the documentation. Furthermore, the analysis highlights ideas about two different means to reach the documentation ideals.

    Research limitations/implications – The case’s debate reflects opinions of Northern European professionals.

    Social implications – The paper illuminates how documentation ideals tweak and even contest formal information policy in claims on the documentation and on the practitioners doing documentation.

    Originality/value – Documentation ideal analysis is crucial as a complement to formal information policy analysis and to analysis guided by practice theory in attempts to understand the contexts of information practices and documentation, insights central for developing information literacies.

    Keywords
    Archaeology, Information practices, Information policy, Controversy studies, Documentation ideals, Idea analysis, Knowledge making practices
    National Category
    Information Studies
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277190 (URN)10.1108/JDOC-10-2015-0134 (DOI)000379787000004 ()
    Projects
    ARKDIS
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 340-2012-5751
    Available from: 2016-02-17 Created: 2016-02-17 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Grey literature – grey sources?: Nuancing the view on professional documentation: the case of Swedish archaeology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grey literature – grey sources?: Nuancing the view on professional documentation: the case of Swedish archaeology
    2015 (Swedish)In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 1158-1182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims at nuancing the perception about professional documentation (a.k.a. ‘grey literature’), assuming perception of documentation being a cultural aspect of accessibility.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study explores variations within the archaeological report genre through a bibliometric analysis of source use. Source characteristics are explored as well as correlations between report authors and source originators. Statistical frequency distribution is complemented by a correspondence analysis and a k-Means cluster analysis to explore patterns. The patterns are interpreted as ‘frames of references’ and related to circumstances for archaeological work. The study also discusses source representations.

    Findings

    The source use patterns reveal a latent variation, not visible in the general analysis: a professional/academic frame of reference (mainly among authors affiliated with incorporated businesses and sole proprietorships) and an administrative frame of reference (mainly among authors affiliated with government agencies, foundations and member associations) emerge.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study focuses on Swedish field evaluation reports. Future research could 1) test the results in relation to other types of reports, and 2) go beyond the document perspective to explore source use in documentation practices.

    Social implications

    The results on variations in frames of references among report writers have implication for report readers and user. The results should also be considered in archaeology management and policy-making. On the level of source representation the results call for clarifications of vague representations and possibly omitted sources.

    Originality/value

    This study contextualises archaeological information use and focuses on variations in professional archaeology which has received little previous research attention. The bibliometric approach complements previous qualitative studies of archaeological information.

    Keywords
    Documentation; Reports; Grey literature; Information sources; Information use: Referencing; Bibliometrics; Sociology of professions; Archaeology
    National Category
    Information Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246514 (URN)10.1108/JD-09-2014-0137 (DOI)000369171600003 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 340-2012-5751
    Available from: 2015-03-08 Created: 2015-03-08 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Research outside academia?: An analysis of resources in extra-academic report writing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Research outside academia?: An analysis of resources in extra-academic report writing
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant part of all research takes place in extra-academic organizations. Practitioner researchers often present their results in publications different from those in academia, e.g. in reports, sometimes (and here) referred to as “gray literature”. Gray literature is increasingly available online. However, availability does not mean that reports are exploited to their full potential in research. Disciplines like archaeology have substantial problems with the scholarly communication and knowledge sharing between extra-academic and academic research. This paper approaches this problem from a report-user perspective. For the benefit of potential report users’ gray literature literacies, report-writing practices are analyzed by means of practice theory. Qualitative interviews with six practitioner researchers in Swedish archaeology firms make up the material. The analysis focuses on how report writers draw on regulative, institutional, and infrastructural resources in their practices. Based on the findings about the practices in which reports are written and become informative, the paper presents seven suggestions supporting report users’ potential to critically analyze and use report content. The results contribute to the information science field with insights into extra-academic information practices, and as input in a wider critical discussion of the information-related conditions for research outside academia.

    Keywords
    Scholarly communication; Practitioner researchers; Grey literature; Archaeology; Practice theory
    National Category
    Information Studies
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303766 (URN)
    Conference
    Annual Meeting of the Association for Information Science and Technology, Copenhagen, Denmark Oct. 14-18, 2016
    Projects
    ARKDIS
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 340-2012-5751
    Available from: 2016-09-23 Created: 2016-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-20
  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Balkanisering och klassifikation: En komparativ studie av klassifikationen av forna Jugoslavien, beträffande språk, geografi och historia, i DDC och SAB2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master's thesis examines the possibilities of correction and change in a classification scheme, with regard to the changes that occur in the world the classification system intends to describe.

    Applying a comparative method and classification theory, the classification of the example of the former Yugoslavia (1918-1941, 1945-1991), its republics and successor states, and the languages, formerly known as Serbo-Croatian are examined through a comparison of the main classes and divisions of language, geography, and history, in Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), and Klassifikationssystem för svenska bibliotek [Classification for Swedish Libraries] (SAB). Eight editions of DDC, from 1876 to 2014, are compared to seven editions of SAB, from 1921 to 2013. The editions have been selected in order to show the changes prior to, and following, the First World War, changes after the Second World War, and changes following the collapse of Yugoslavia in 1991.

    The examination shows that both systems have updated their editions according to the changes in former Yugoslavia over the years. DDC has well constructed facet schedules, especially Table 2 concerning geography, but fails, in some cases, to construct a logic and hierarchical structure for the republics and languages of Yugoslavia, partly due to the fixed classes and divisions that survive from the very first edition of DDC from 1876, but also as a result of the decimal notation, and its limitations, itself.

    SAB seeks to construct a hierarchically logic and equal scheme for the languages, areas, and states of the former Yugoslavia. Although the facets for geography and chronology aren't as developed as the ones in DDC, the overall result is that of a logically consistent and hierarchically clear classification, with short notation codes, thanks to the alphabetic mixed notation, which allows more subdivisions than the numerals and the pure notation of DDC.

    This study is a two years master's thesis in Archive, Library and Museum studies.

  • 3.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Following the Footnotes: A Bibliometric Analysis of Citation Patterns in Literary Studies2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides an in-depth study of the possibilities of applying bibliometric methods to the research field of literary studies. The four articles that constitute the backbone of this thesis focus on different aspects of references and citations in literary studies: from the use of references in the text to citation patterns among 34 literature journals. The analysis covers both an Anglo-Saxon context as well as research in Swedish literary studies, and the materials used include Web of Science data, references in the Swedish literature journal TFL (Tidskrift för Litteraturvetenskap) and applications to the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet). A study is also made of the influence of one single publication—Walter Benjamin’s Illuminations—and its impact in literary studies and in wider academia.

    The results from the four articles are elaborated upon using a theoretical framework that focuses on differences in the social and intellectual organization of research fields. According to these theories literary studies can be described as a fragmented, heterogenic, interdisciplinary and ‘rural’ field with a diverse audience. The fragmented and rural organization of the field is reflected in low citation frequencies as well as in the difficulties in discerning research specialities in co-citation mappings, while the analysis of the intellectual base (highly cited authors) is an example of the heterogenic and interdisciplinary character of the field, as it includes authors from many fields across the humanities and the social sciences.

    The thesis emphasizes that bibliometric studies of research fields in the humanities need to incorporate non-English and non-journal publications in order to produce valid and fair results. Moreover, bibliometric methods must be modified in accordance with the organization of research in a particular field, and differences in referencing practices and citation patterns ought to be considered. Consequently, it is advised that bibliometric measures for evaluating research in these fields should, if used at all, be applied with great caution.

    List of papers
    1. Referencing in the humanities and its implications for citation analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Referencing in the humanities and its implications for citation analysis
    2010 (English)In: Journal of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, ISSN 1532-2882, E-ISSN 1532-2890, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 310-318Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies citation practices in the arts andhumanities from a theoretical and conceptual viewpoint,drawing on studies from fields like linguistics, history,library & information science, and the sociology of science.The use of references in the humanities is discussedin connection with the growing interest in thepossibilities of applying citation analysis to humanisticdisciplines. The study shows how the use of referenceswithin the humanities is connected to concepts of originality,to intellectual organization, and to searching andwriting. Finally, it is acknowledged that the use of referencesis connected to stylistic, epistemological, andorganizational differences, and these differences mustbe taken into account when applying citation analysis tohumanistic disciplines.

    Keywords
    Citation analysis, Citation theory, bibliometrics, humanities, referencing
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-113528 (URN)10.1002/asi.21256 (DOI)000274038400007 ()
    Available from: 2010-01-29 Created: 2010-01-29 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Interdisciplinarity and the intellectual base of literature studies: citation analysis of highly cited monographs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interdisciplinarity and the intellectual base of literature studies: citation analysis of highly cited monographs
    2011 (English)In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 705-725Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies interdisciplinarity and the intellectual base of 34 literature journals using citation data from Web of Science. Data from two time periods, 1978-1987 and 1998-2007 were compared to reveal changes in the interdisciplinary citing of monographs. The study extends the analysis to non-source publications; using the classification of monographs to show changes in the intellectual base. There is support for increased interdisciplinary citing of sources, especially to the social sciences, and changes in the intellectual base reflect this. The results are explained using theories on the intellectual and social organization of scientific fields and the use of bibliometric methods on the humanities is discussed. The article demonstrates how citation analysis can provide insights into the communication patterns and intellectual structure of scholarly fields in the arts and humanities.

    Keywords
    Citation analysis, Humanities, Intellectual structure, Interdisciplinarity, Literature studies
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-144416 (URN)10.1007/s11192-010-0314-5 (DOI)000286627500011 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-30 Created: 2011-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Citation analysis on the micro-level: The example of Walter Benjamin's Illuminations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Citation analysis on the micro-level: The example of Walter Benjamin's Illuminations
    2011 (English)In: Journal of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, ISSN 1532-2882, E-ISSN 1532-2890, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 819-830Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article employs citation analysis on a micro level- the level of the cited document; in this case, Walter Benjamin's Illuminations (1968/2007). The study shows how this frequently cited publication-more than 4,000 citations in Web of Science-has been received. The growth of citations and interdisciplinary citing is studied, and a novel approach-page citation analysis-is applied to study how different parts of Illuminations have been cited. The article demonstrates how bibliometric methods can be used together with qualitative accounts to map the impact and dissemination of a particular publication. Furthermore, it shows how bibliometric methods can be utilized to study intellectual structures in the humanities, and highlights the influence of the humanities on the social sciences and sciences.

    National Category
    Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-144417 (URN)10.1002/asi.21504 (DOI)000289486100002 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-30 Created: 2011-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Harvesting footnotes in a rural field: citation patterns in Swedish literary studies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Harvesting footnotes in a rural field: citation patterns in Swedish literary studies
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 536-558Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to study a locally oriented and book-based research field using two Swedish-language sources. Knowledge about citation patterns outside journal based, English-language databases is scarce; thus a substantial part of research in the humanities and the social sciences is neglected in bibliometric studies.

    Design: Citation characteristics (publication type, language, gender and age) in the journal Tidskrift för Litteraturvetenskap (2000-2009) and in grant applications (2006-2009) are studied. The datasets are analyzed further, adopting an author-co-citation approach for depicting and comparing the ‘intellectual base’ of the field.

    Findings: It is shown that monographs and anthologies are the main publication channel in Swedish literary research. English, followed by Swedish, is the major language, and the gender of authors seems to influence citation practices. Furthermore, a common intellectual base of literary studies that is independent of publication type and language could be identified.

    Practical implications: Bibliometric analysis of fields within the humanities needs to go beyond established databases and materials. The extensive use of recent English-language monographs in Swedish literary studies informs the acquisition policy of university libraries serving literature scholars.

    Originality/value: Citation analysis of non-English sources offers further knowledge about scholarly fields with a local and ‘rural’ profile. The approach of using references in grant applications provides a novel and promising venue for bibliometric research.

    Keywords
    Citation analysis, bibliometrics, grant applications, humanities, literary studies, scholarly communication, Sweden
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-170386 (URN)10.1108/00220411211239101 (DOI)000308836300007 ()
    Available from: 2012-03-12 Created: 2012-03-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Hedemark, Åse
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Det föreställda folkbiblioteket: En diskursanalytisk studie av biblioteksdebatter i svenska medier 1970-20062009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze debates and discourses about the public library in Swedish media from the 1970s up to and including 2006. The empirical material is derived from TV, radio and the daily press and by using discourse theory and methodology a number of debates are problematized. The result of the analysis showed similarities but also differences between dominant discourses during different decades. One discourse, termed the book discourse, recurs during all the decades of the study. The book discourse is primarily associated with concepts such as printed books, good quality fiction and popular education. The 1970s is dominated by a discourse called the community centre discourse. It called for public libraries to become community centers for various kinds of cultural and political activities. The information mediation discourse appeared first in the 1980s and was present during the 1990s and the following decade. This discourse argues that public libraries should prioritize new technology and engage primarily in mediating information, irrespective of the format in which it is presented. The analysis as a whole also revealed that authors often had a prominent position in and exerted substantial influence over the content of the debates. Librarians, however, did not participate to any great extent in the debates.

    In the conclusion I argue that there are important aspects of the public library that does not appear in the material. The role of the library as a meeting place is one such absent theme. Another is the importance of the library to ensure integration. I argue that this invisibility is a result of the book discourse dominating the debate. If the public image of the library is defined from the viewpoint of the book discourse, the result can well be that the institution is equated with a specific media format - printed books. Because of significant changes in media consumption and the ongoing digitization of information, this focus could in the long run mean that the library risks loss of legitimacy. Describing the library as a cultural institution, as a community centre or as an information centre depends on different discourses that aim to further different wills and interests. By highlighting the political, professional and institutional interests articulated in dominant discourses on the public library in Swedish media during a period of almost 40 years, this study suggests that the media debates must be widened and opened up for more actors.

  • 5.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Från kungaporträtt till läsketikett: en domänanalytisk studie över Kungl. bibliotekets bildsamling med särskild inriktning mot katalogiserings- och indexeringsfrågor2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A prerequisite for pictures to be studied and used as sources of knowledge is that they are collected, organised, and made accessible. The aim of this thesis has been to analyse these processes within a specific cultural heritage institution – the National Library of Sweden’s picture collection.

    Pictures play a central role as bearers of communication and information in the information space of our society. They have increasingly drawn attention to themselves both as historical artefacts and as culturally important and “identity creating” objects. In addition, recent technological advances make it possible to disseminate pictures in a hitherto unprecedented manner, leading to new challenges in how to improve access to such material. Much attention has been geared toward finding and implementing a standard solution applicable for various tasks and situations, irrespective of domains.

    In contrast to such homogenising ambitions, I instead argue for the elaboration of solutions more sensitive to domain specific demands, where the comprehen-sion of pictures must be sought in shared communities of meaning. Influenced by socio-cultural and discursive perspectives this study sees knowledge and meaning as historically constructed and socially situated.

    The study is divided into two main parts. Part One includes the introduction and the discussion of theory and method. Part Two consists of the empirical investigation and a conclusion. The former consists of four chapters centering on the historical background, a presentation of the picture material, the institutional practices and the knowledge organisation tools deployed by the National Library’s Picture Collection. In the conclusion I argue that our visual cultural heritage is constructed with the aid of the tools, discourses, and practices used in our institutional settings; in this particular case the Picture Collection of The National Library of Sweden.

  • 6.
    Nyström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Att göra historia: En kritisk studie av historieämnet som kunskapsorganiserande system2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central theme of the present thesis is the history subject viewed as a knowledge organizing system (KOS). The history subject is studied as a class within the two universal classification systems SAB and DDC, where it is characterized by a conceptual intention and extension giving it a unique identity. The form and structure characterizing the history subject in these KOS are present in other artefacts as well, and world history works function as supplementary empirical examples to SAB and DDC. The established conception of word history is reproduced via a number of prioritized channels, producing a hegemonic formation termed the traditional formation. In that form, history appears as a coherent entity, logically separated from closely related subjects. From a semiotically inspired point of view, KOS are viewed as self-contained systems where the analysis reveal their identity as narratives rather than merely as neutral and universal categories. Instead of regarding the geographical axis as a division of territories, it is acknowledged as a division into “historical subjects”. Furthermore, the division of the temporal axis in periods is viewed as closely related to the narrative described by the historical subject. Thus, a better description of this supposedly neutral Newtonian time-room emerge through the Bakhtinian concept chronotope, intertwining a temporal and spatial dimension. This perspective enables a reading of KOS as a meaningful narrative. An analysis of this narrative reveal what best may be described as “the myth of the white man”. Assembled from a certain myth, the narrative may be contemplated as an expression of the interests of a small group at a certain point in time, rather than a truly universal story. In conclusion, the thesis questions the functionality of the studied systems, arguing for the importance of a critical and contextual analysis of KOS sensitive to historical change.

  • 7.
    Sköld, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Documenting Videogame Communities: A Study of Community Production of Information in Social-Media Environments and its Implications for Videogame Preservation2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the disciplines of library and information studies and archival studies, this study seeks to explore the production of information in online videogame communities and to elucidate how such insights can offer practical and conceptual support to the knotty issue of how to preserve those sociocultural aspects of videogames that exist 'beyond' the code and audiovisual data resources of the videogame itself. This is accomplished in two principal moves: (i) by delving into the current state of socioculturally-focused videogame preservation and; (ii) by inquiring into the production of information carried out by videogame communities in what arguably is one of their most important interfaces of interaction—discussion forums, wikis, and other social-media services. The study is based on four papers (I–IV). Paper I develops the theoretical framework of the study on the basis of practice theory and document theory. Papers II and III report on field-studies of videogame-community information production in the context of two processes of importance in community social life: memory-making (II) and knowledge production (III). Paper IV offers a qualitative systematic review of videogame-archiving literature, allowing Papers I–III to be situated in an archival context. The study employs multiple methods and encompasses several empirical sites of inquiry and was inspired by the framework of exploratory research and of 'bricolage' research strategies.

    The results of the study add to the present state of knowledge on how information in the social-media environments of the large and influential present-day videogaming domain emerges as a result of community practices of production, and how videogame-community social life is entangled with information production in such spaces. The study also furthers archival inquiry on the topic of videogame preservation by providing a description and analysis of what information objects videogame-related social media plausibly hold, and by what communal practices and processes they have been brought into existence. Furthermore, the study examines the consequences of collecting community-produced social media and framing it as documentation of the sociocultural aspects of videogames—a key issue in videogames preservation.

    List of papers
    1. Tracing Traces: A Document-Centred Approach to the Preservation of Virtual World Communities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing Traces: A Document-Centred Approach to the Preservation of Virtual World Communities
    2013 (English)In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 18, no 3, article id C09Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. The aim of this paper is to form a framework capable of theorizing how virtual communities are entangled with their new media environments, thereby contributing to the understanding of present-day virtual communities and how to preserve them.

    Method. An extensive bibliography on virtual worlds, virtual world preservation, document- and practice theory, and virtual communities forms the conceptual basis of the paper.

    Analysis. The proposed framework was formed by the way of qualitative and synthetic conceptual analysis of the collected literature. Results. Virtual world communities can be fruitfully conceptualized as distinct domains with specialized documentary practices. In each domain of practice, the virtual world’s related new media ecology functions as a central hub where the configuration of shared routinized sayings, doings, and knowings specific to that virtual world are negotiated. 

    Conclusion. By theorizing the activities of virtual communities in new media environments as documentary practices, and blog posts, comments, and tweets as documents, the framework accentuates new media as infrastructures that do not solely carry informative traces of the activities of virtual communities, but in effect are an active and formative part of them. As such, they merit high preservational priority.

    Keywords
    Documents, Practices, New Media, Digital cultural heritage preservation, Virtual worlds
    National Category
    Information Studies
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-213410 (URN)000329310400018 ()
    Conference
    Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, Denmark, 19-22 August, 2013
    Available from: 2013-12-20 Created: 2013-12-20 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
    2. Documenting Virtual World Cultures: Memory-Making and Documentary Practices in the City of Heroes Community
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Documenting Virtual World Cultures: Memory-Making and Documentary Practices in the City of Heroes Community
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 294-316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to explore how virtual world communities employ new media as a repository to record information about their past.

    Design/methodology/approach. Using the notions of documentary practice and memory-making as a framework, a case study of MMORPGCity of Heroes’ (CoH) virtual community on Reddit discussion board “/r/cityofheroes” was conducted. The study consists of an interpretative analysis of posts, comments, images, and other materials submitted to /r/cityofheroes during a period of approximately seven months.

    Findings. The principal finding of the study is that the CoH community, with varying levels of intentionality, documented a range of pasts on /r/cityofheroes, relating to CoH as a game world, a site of personal experience, a product, a nexus of narratives, and a game. The analysis also lays bare the community’s memory-making processes, in which the documented conceptions of CoH’s past were put to work in the present, informing community action and viewpoints.

    Originality/value. Games and gaming practices are increasingly prevalent in leisure and professional settings. This trend, which makes virtual environments and online media proxies for or augmentations of “real life”, makes it necessary for information scholars to understand how the full range of human information behaviours, including documenting, and memory-making, emerge or are replicated online. Additionally, few studies have examined the interplay between new media affordances, documentary practices, and memory-making in the context of virtual world communities.

    Keywords
    Virtual community, Documents, Memory, Leisure activities, Documentation, Documentary practice
    National Category
    Information Studies
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247471 (URN)10.1108/JD-11-2013-0146 (DOI)000352716700007 ()
    Available from: 2015-03-18 Created: 2015-03-18 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
    3. Getting-to-Know: Inquiries, Sources, Methods, and the Production of Knowledge on a Videogame Wiki
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Getting-to-Know: Inquiries, Sources, Methods, and the Production of Knowledge on a Videogame Wiki
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 1299-1321Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sociocultural underpinnings of wiki-based knowledge production in the videogame domain, and to elucidate how these underpinnings relate to the formation of wikis as resources of videogame documentation.

    Design/methodology/approach. The paper is based on a three-month ethnographic investigation of knowledge practices on the Dark Souls Wiki (DSW). In focus of the analysis were the boundaries and knowledge aims of the DSW, together with how its contributors organized inquiries and used various sources, methods of investigation, and ways of warranting knowledge claims.

    Findings. The principal result of the paper is an empirical account of how the DSW functions as a culture of knowledge production, and how the content and structure of the wiki connects to the knowledge practices of its contributors. Four major factors that influenced knowledge practices on the wiki were identified: the structures and practices established by the community’s earlier wiki efforts; principles and priorities that informed wiki knowledge practices; the characteristics of the videogame in focus of the site’s knowledge-building work; the extent and types of relevant documentation provided by videogame industry, the videogaming press included.

    Originality/value. Previous research has shown interest in investigating the mechanisms by which community-created knowledge and online resources of documentation emerge, and how these are utilized in play. There is, however, little research seeking to elucidate the sociocultural structures and practices that determine and sustain collaborative online videogame knowledge production.

    Keywords
    Wikis, Knowledge production, Ethnography, Social media, Practices, Videogames
    National Category
    Information Studies
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336745 (URN)10.1108/JD-11-2016-0145 (DOI)000412873700012 ()
    Available from: 2017-12-16 Created: 2017-12-16 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
    4. Understanding the “Expanded Notion” of Videogames as Archival Objects: A Review of Priorities, Methods, and Conceptions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the “Expanded Notion” of Videogames as Archival Objects: A Review of Priorities, Methods, and Conceptions
    2018 (English)In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, ISSN 2330-1635, E-ISSN 2330-1643, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 134-145Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to show how videogames are construed as archival objects in the videogame-preservation literature by investigating drivers and motivations, selection of material, and methods of preservation. The review focuses on the expanded notion of videogames (“the EN”), a concept this paper introduces to collectively refer to the cultural and social aspects of videogames—for example, game culture, experiences, play, and community life and activity. The study's research aims are pursued on the basis of a critical systematic literature review of 42 publications originating from academic research and videogame-archiving projects. The study's main finding is that the archiving literature construes the EN of videogames in three principal ways: i) as an essential part of the videogame as an archival object; ii) as a useful resource in archiving videogames, able to provide documentation of game culture and social context; and iii) as a useful resource in inquiries focused on the current state and recent history of society and culture from a sociotechnical viewpoint. The study suggests videogame community dynamics, videogame ontology, the development of archival theory, and videogame-archive studies as rewarding directions for further research.

    National Category
    Information Studies
    Research subject
    Library and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336747 (URN)10.1002/asi.23875 (DOI)000418157900012 ()
    Available from: 2017-12-16 Created: 2017-12-16 Last updated: 2019-10-14
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