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Adman, P. (2023). Do principals discriminate against school parents less when having close minority colleagues? A field experiment. Politics, Groups, and Identities, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do principals discriminate against school parents less when having close minority colleagues? A field experiment
2023 (English)In: Politics, Groups, and Identities, ISSN 2156-5503, E-ISSN 2156-5511, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Interethnic contacts are generally assumed to reduce discrimination and prejudice. According to this optimistic view – and in conflict with Allport’s well-known theory – contacts have positive effects even when they are rather distant. However, findings of recent experimental field research indirectly cast doubt on this belief. To our knowledge, this is the first field experiment thoroughly investigating close as well as more distant contacts simultaneously. In a correspondence study (n = 3015), Swedish elementary school principals were randomly contacted by fictional parents with Arabic- or Swedish-sounding names asking school-related questions. The unique design also used registry data (e.g., on ethnicity). The results support Allport’s more pessimistic view: working closely with minority members of school management was associated with lower levels of ethnic discrimination regarding important qualitative aspects of the principals’ communication with the school parents, but no such pattern was observed for more distant workplace contacts with minority teachers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-532290 (URN)10.1080/21565503.2023.2224759 (DOI)001021187200001 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2019-00504Swedish Research Council, 2016-03070
Available from: 2024-06-18 Created: 2024-06-18 Last updated: 2024-07-03
Adman, P. & Gschwind, L. (2023). Is the Positive Effect of Education on Ethnic Tolerance a Method Artifact?: A Multifactorial Survey Experiment on Social Desirability Bias in Sweden. International journal of public opinion research, 35(4), Article ID edad029.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the Positive Effect of Education on Ethnic Tolerance a Method Artifact?: A Multifactorial Survey Experiment on Social Desirability Bias in Sweden
2023 (English)In: International journal of public opinion research, ISSN 0954-2892, E-ISSN 1471-6909, Vol. 35, no 4, article id edad029Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Educated individuals are believed to be more tolerant towards ethnic minorities-a finding widely inferred from standard survey items. We propose a new approach that helps mitigate the risk of socially desirability bias (SDB), using a multifactorial survey experiment with name-based vignette dimensions. The experiment is strategically inserted into a question about a social dilemma not related to ethnicity. By embedding our experiment into an established survey-the Swedish part of the European Values Survey-we show that individuals with a high level of education are more tolerant towards ethnic minorities, even under a lower risk of SDB. The study strengthens findings in prior research and supports the hypothesis that education can further ethnic tolerance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press (OUP), 2023
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-512837 (URN)10.1093/ijpor/edad029 (DOI)001066373400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-03070Swedish Research Council, 2019-03305
Available from: 2023-10-03 Created: 2023-10-03 Last updated: 2023-10-03Bibliographically approved
Larsson Taghizadeh, J. & Adman, P. (2022). Discrimination in marketized welfare services: a field experiment on Swedish schools. Journal of Social Policy, 1-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discrimination in marketized welfare services: a field experiment on Swedish schools
2022 (English)In: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823, p. 1-31Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Providers’ tendency to cream skim clients according to certain sociodemographic traits is widely believed to increase under marketization, and therefore also discrimination. However, due to a lack of experimental research, little is known about the presence of discrimination in marketized welfare services and of the potential drivers of such biased treatment. The lack of research is particularly evident in regard to socioeconomic status (SES) discrimination and publicly financed for-profit providers. Moreover, competition, an important aspect of marketization, has not been investigated. Focusing on the interesting case of the Swedish school sector, we aim to improve knowledge on these matters. In a field experiment, 3,430 elementary school principals were randomly contacted though e-mail by parents with Arabic- or Swedish-sounding names and in low- or high-socioeconomic professions. The fictional parents were interested in placing their children at the school. The Swedish school sector resembles marketized public services in several Western countries. The results show clear signs of ethnic as well as SES discrimination, particularly in regard to more qualitative aspects of the replies. However, we find no significant differences in discrimination between public and private/for-profit schools and depending on the degree of competition in the school market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2022
Keywords
marketization, cream skimming, field experiment, discrimination, school vouchers, for-profit, privatisering, skolval, diskriminering, fältexperiment, valfrihet
National Category
Political Science Public Administration Studies
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-491141 (URN)10.1017/s0047279422000940 (DOI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2019-00504
Available from: 2022-12-19 Created: 2022-12-19 Last updated: 2022-12-21
Larsson Taghizadeh, J., Åström, A. & Adman, P. (2022). Do Politicians Discriminate against Ethnic Minority Constituents?: A Field Experiment on Social Interactions between Citizens and Swedish Local Politicians. Parliamentary Affairs, 75(1), 154-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do Politicians Discriminate against Ethnic Minority Constituents?: A Field Experiment on Social Interactions between Citizens and Swedish Local Politicians
2022 (English)In: Parliamentary Affairs, ISSN 0031-2290, E-ISSN 1460-2482, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 154-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In ethnically diverse societies, are citizens treated equally by their political representatives? Several field experiments find that politicians discriminate in their daily communication with voters. However, these studies only focus on the USA and South Africa and may overestimate the degree of discrimination by ignoring sex and socio-economic status. We address these shortcomings by investigating ethnic discrimination in Sweden. In an email experiment, all 812 municipal commissioners were randomly contacted by voters with Arabic- or Swedish-sounding names. Our results do not show any clear signs of discrimination; thus, previous results might not be generalisable to Sweden or similar democracies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2022
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-421651 (URN)10.1093/pa/gsaa053 (DOI)000746437200009 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-03070
Available from: 2020-10-12 Created: 2020-10-12 Last updated: 2023-01-02Bibliographically approved
Adman, P. (2020). Does poor health cause political passivity even in a Scandinavian welfare state?: Investigating the impact of self-rated health using Swedish panel data. Electoral Studies, 65, Article ID 102110.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does poor health cause political passivity even in a Scandinavian welfare state?: Investigating the impact of self-rated health using Swedish panel data
2020 (English)In: Electoral Studies, ISSN 0261-3794, E-ISSN 1873-6890, Vol. 65, article id 102110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Poor health is generally believed to cause political passivity. Prior studies that satisfactorily acknowledge the causality problems involved are mainly limited to considering turnout and the U.S.A., so we lack knowledge of how non-electoral participation is affected in other countries. This article considers Sweden, characterized by a generous welfare state and an extensive public health system. Using unique panel data, which allow more thorough analyses of causality, poor health was found to have a negative effect on voting but not on non-electoral participation. By primarily focusing on other countries than Sweden and the U.S.A., it is a task for future longitudinal research to show whether the belief that poor health lead to political passivity is incorrect—or whether Sweden is an exceptional case, due to the barriers to participation being particularly low there.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Political participation, Health, Causal effect, Panel data, Sweden, Scandinavian welfare state
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401066 (URN)10.1016/j.electstud.2019.102110 (DOI)000536750400004 ()
Available from: 2020-01-05 Created: 2020-01-05 Last updated: 2020-08-26Bibliographically approved
Adman, P. (2020). Swedish exceptionalism?: Investigating the effect of associational involvement on generalized trust with panel data. Journal of Civil Society, 16(1), 35-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish exceptionalism?: Investigating the effect of associational involvement on generalized trust with panel data
2020 (English)In: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For some time been it has been hypothesized that involvement in civic associations creates generalized social trust. Yet, prior panel data studies, based mainly on data collected in Australia, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, have found little support for the existence of such an effect. This article adds further empirical knowledge, focusing on Sweden. The evidence presented here is the first to provide support for the hypothesis using a survey that allows panel data models. In the conclusions, it is discussed whether the differing findings may depend on Sweden being a particularly favourable environment, considering its comparatively democratic and prosperous associational life; or if the reason is that the data at hand do not allow using exactly the same panel models as in some of the prior studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020
Keywords
Civic associations, organizational involvement, generalized trust, social trust, panel data, Sweden
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-419057 (URN)10.1080/17448689.2020.1721723 (DOI)000551195300003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 20141768
Available from: 2020-09-15 Created: 2020-09-15 Last updated: 2020-09-15Bibliographically approved
Adman, P. & Strömblad, P. (2018). Political Integration in Practice: Explaining a Time-Dependent Increase in Political Knowledge among Immigrants in Sweden. Social Inclusion, 6(3), 248-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Political Integration in Practice: Explaining a Time-Dependent Increase in Political Knowledge among Immigrants in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Social Inclusion, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 248-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scholarly findings suggest that immigrants in Western countries, in general, participate less in politics and show lower levels of political efficacy than native-born citizens. Research is scarce, however, when it comes to immigrants´ knowledge about politics and public affairs in their new home country, and what happens with this knowledge over the years. This article focuses on immigrants in Sweden, a country known for ambitious multicultural policies, but where immigrants also face disadvantages in areas such as labor and housing markets. Utilizing particularly suitable survey data we find that immigrants, in general, know less about Swedish politics than natives, but also that this difference disappears with time. Exploring the influence of time of residence on political knowledge, the article shows that the positive effect of time in Sweden among immigrants remains after controlling for an extensive set of background factors. Moreover, the article examines this political learning effect through the lens of an Ability-Motivation-Opportunity (AMO) model. The findings suggest that the development of an actual ability to learn about Swedish politics - via education in Sweden, and by improved Swedish language skills - is an especially important explanation for the increase in political knowledge.

Keywords
ability; education; immigrants; language skills; motivation; opportunity; political information; political knowledge; Sweden; time-related differences
National Category
International Migration and Ethnic Relations Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358554 (URN)10.17645/si.v6i3.1496 (DOI)000443123900009 ()
Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2024-07-04Bibliographically approved
Adman, P. & Strömblad, P. (2018). Time for tolerance: Exploring the influence of learning institutions on the recognition of political rights among immigrants. Comparative Migration Studies, 6, Article ID 34.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time for tolerance: Exploring the influence of learning institutions on the recognition of political rights among immigrants
2018 (English)In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 6, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper empirically evaluates the idea that individual level political tolerance is influenced by the overall tolerance in a given society. The expectation is that more tolerant attitudes would be developed as a consequence of exposure to a social environment in which people in general are more inclined to accept freedom of speech, also when a specific message challenges one’s own values and beliefs. A theoretical learning model is formulated, according to which more broad-minded and permissive attitudes, from a democratic point of view, are adopted as a result of (1) an adjustment stimulated by mere observation of an overall high-level of political tolerance in society (‘passive learning’), and (2) an adjustment due to cognition and interaction within important spheres in society (‘active learning’). Using survey data, we explore empirically how length of residence among immigrants in the high-tolerance country of Sweden is related to measures of political tolerance. Further, we examine to what extent a time-related effect is mediated through participation in a set of ‘learning institutions’—focusing on activities related to education, working-life, civil society and political involvement. In concert with expectations, the empirical findings suggest that a positive effect of time in Sweden on political tolerance may be explained by a gradual adoption of the principle that political rights should be recognized. Importantly, however, such an adoption seems to require participation in activities of learning institutions, as we find that passive learning in itself is not sufficient.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372082 (URN)10.1186/s40878-018-0100-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062687836 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

The authors contributed equally.

Available from: 2019-01-05 Created: 2019-01-05 Last updated: 2022-12-06Bibliographically approved
Larsson Taghizadeh, J. & Adman, P. (2017). Evidensbaserade åtgärder mot etnisk diskriminering vid myndighetskontakter: underlagsrapport. Stockholm: Stockholms stad, Kommissionen för ett socialt hållbart Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidensbaserade åtgärder mot etnisk diskriminering vid myndighetskontakter: underlagsrapport
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stockholms stad, Kommissionen för ett socialt hållbart Stockholm, 2017. p. 44
Keywords
diskriminering, myndigheter, myndighetskontakter
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343591 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2024-04-18Bibliographically approved
Adman, P. (2017). Learning Political Tolerance: An Empirical Investigation of Causes of Tolerance in Sweden. Surveyjournalen, 3(1), 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning Political Tolerance: An Empirical Investigation of Causes of Tolerance in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Surveyjournalen, E-ISSN 2001-9327, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 2-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University Press, 2017
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312189 (URN)10.15626/sj.20163101 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-01-07 Created: 2017-01-07 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8717-0189

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