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Hytteborn, Håkan, professor emeritusORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1695-7347
Publications (10 of 22) Show all publications
Hytteborn, H., Carlsson, B. Å., Svensson, B. M., Zhang, L. & Rydin, H. (2023). Spatial heterogeneity ensures long-term stability in vegetation and Fritillaria meleagris flowering in Uppsala Kungsäng, a semi-natural meadow. PLOS ONE, 18(3), Article ID e0282116.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial heterogeneity ensures long-term stability in vegetation and Fritillaria meleagris flowering in Uppsala Kungsäng, a semi-natural meadow
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2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 3, article id e0282116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Semi-natural grasslands are becoming increasingly rare, and their vegetation may be affected by environmental changes and altered management. At Kungsängen Nature Reserve, a wet to mesic semi-natural meadow near Uppsala, Sweden, we analysed long-term changes in the vegetation using data from 1940, 1982, 1995 and 2016. We also analysed the spatial and temporal dynamics in the Fritillaria meleagris population based on countings of flowering individuals in 1938, 1981–1988 and 2016–2021. Between 1940 and 1982 the wet part of the meadow became wetter, which led to an increased cover of Carex acuta and pushed the main area of flowering of F. meleagris up towards the mesic part. Annual variation in the flowering propensity of F. meleagris (in May) was affected by temperature and precipitation in the phenological phases of growth and bud initiation (June in the previous year), shoot development (September in the previous year) and initiation of flowering (March–April). However, the response to weather was in opposite directions in the wet and mesic parts of the meadow, and the flowering population showed large year-to-year variation but no long-term trend. Variation in management (poorly documented) led to changes in different parts of the meadow, but the overall composition of the vegetation, species richness and diversity changed little after 1982. Species richness and species composition of the meadow vegetation, and the long-term stability of the F. meleagris population are maintained by the variation in wetness, highlighting the importance of spatial heterogeneity as an insurance against biodiversity loss in semi-natural grasslands and nature reserves generally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-498307 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0282116 (DOI)000948775000030 ()36888605 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-03-14 Created: 2023-03-14 Last updated: 2023-04-21Bibliographically approved
Backéus, I., Skoglund, J., Skarpe, C. & Hytteborn, H. (2022). Diameter growth of trees in miombo and acacia woodland in an eroded landscape in NE Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 60(3), 714-722
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diameter growth of trees in miombo and acacia woodland in an eroded landscape in NE Tanzania
2022 (English)In: African Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0141-6707, E-ISSN 1365-2028, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 714-722Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Diameter increment of trees typical of miombo and acacia woodland was studied dur- ing a period of 20 years in Kondoa district, Tanzania. The study was performed in permanent plots in a severely degraded area subjected to considerable restoration efforts. A total of 15 species were selected from a database collected within a pro- ject for monitoring the landscape recovery. Growth performance of African woodland species was searched for in the literature for comparison, and a comprehensive list of citations was compiled. We found growth to fall within the range reported in earlier studies, although growth varied both between and within species. There are reports that the radial increments of trees are unimodal over their lifespan, but we found no clear support. In several species, the annual growth increased with stem diameter. Growth during the rainy ENSO year 1997/98 was pairwise compared with the preced- ing two years and was found to be significantly higher during the wet year, pointing to soil water as a limiting factor. We conclude that free development is an alternative to tree planting on marginal land.

Abstract [fr]

L'augmentation du diamètre des arbres typiques des forêts de miombo et d'acacia a été étudiée pendant une période de 20 ans dans le district de Kondoa, en Tanzanie. L'étude a été réalisée sur des parcelles permanentes dans une zone sévèrement dégradée soumise à des efforts de restauration considérables. Un total de 15 espèces ont été sélectionnées à partir d'une base de données collectée dans le cadre d'un projet de suivi de la restauration du paysage. Les performances de croissance des espèces forestières africaines ont été recherchées dans la littérature à des fins de comparaison, et une liste bibliographique complète de citations a été compilée. Nous avons constaté que la croissance se situait dans la fourchette indiquée dans des études antérieures, bien que la croissance varie à la fois entre et au sein des espèces. Nos résultats ne confirment pas que l ́augmentation en diamètre des arbres est unimodale au cours de leur croissance. Chez plusieurs espèces, la croissance annuelle a augmenté en même temps que le diamètre du tronc. La croissance pendant l'année pluvieuse ENSO 1997-98 a été comparée par paires avec les deux années précédentes, et s'est avérée être significativement plus élevée pendant l'année humide, indiquant que la teneur en eau du sol est un facteur limitant. Pour conclure, la régénération naturelle est une alternative aux plantations forestières sur les terres marginales.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
acacias, Brachystegia, degraded ecosystem, limiting factors, restoration, semi-arid, tree growth
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-473059 (URN)10.1111/aje.12970 (DOI)000768758900001 ()
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation AgencySwedish Phytogeographical Society
Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2024-05-23Bibliographically approved
Eshghi Sahraei, S., Furneaux, B., Kluting, K., Zakieh, M., Rydin, H., Hytteborn, H. & Rosling, A. (2022). Effects of operational taxonomic unit inference methods on soil microeukaryote community analysis using long‐read metabarcoding. Ecology and Evolution, 12(3), Article ID e8676.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of operational taxonomic unit inference methods on soil microeukaryote community analysis using long‐read metabarcoding
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2022 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 12, no 3, article id e8676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Long amplicon metabarcoding has opened the door for phylogenetic analysis of the largely unknown communities of microeukaryotes in soil. Here, we amplified and sequenced the ITS and LSU regions of the rDNA operon (around 1500 bp) from grassland soils using PacBio SMRT sequencing. We tested how three different methods for generation of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) effected estimated richness and identified taxa, and how well large-scale ecological patterns associated with shifting environmental conditions were recovered in data from the three methods. The field site at Kungsängen Nature Reserve has drawn frequent visitors since Linnaeus's time, and its species rich vegetation includes the largest population of Fritillaria meleagris in Sweden. To test the effect of different OTU generation methods, we sampled soils across an abrupt moisture transition that divides the meadow community into a Carex acuta dominated plant community with low species richness in the wetter part, which is visually distinct from the mesic-dry part that has a species rich grass-dominated plant community including a high frequency of Fmeleagris. We used the moisture and plant community transition as a framework to investigate how detected belowground microeukaryotic community composition was influenced by OTU generation methods. Soil communities in both moisture regimes were dominated by protists, a large fraction of which were taxonomically assigned to Ciliophora (Alveolata) while 30%–40% of all reads were assigned to kingdom Fungi. Ecological patterns were consistently recovered irrespective of OTU generation method used. However, different methods strongly affect richness estimates and the taxonomic and phylogenetic resolution of the characterized community with implications for how well members of the microeukaryotic communities can be recognized in the data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & SonsWiley, 2022
Keywords
clustering, ITS, rDNA, species hypothesis
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-470614 (URN)10.1002/ece3.8676 (DOI)000775192200018 ()35342585 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council, 2018‐05973EU, European Research Council, 678792
Available from: 2022-03-27 Created: 2022-03-27 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Skoglund, J., Karlsson, S. & Hytteborn, H. (2020). Vegetation history of the primeval forest Fiby urskog, south Sweden. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 274, Article ID 104151.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vegetation history of the primeval forest Fiby urskog, south Sweden
2020 (English)In: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 274, article id 104151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vegetation history of a primeval forest (Fiby urskog) in south Sweden is outlined from a paleoecological perspective. Pollen, spores, charcoal fragments and mineral particles were analyzed from a small, centrally placed wetland basin. C-14 dating, diatom analysis and shore displacement data aided in dating the vegetation succession. Indicators of human impact and other disturbances, during the last ca 1000 years, are given particular attention, as well as Picea immigration. Elevated parts of Fiby area rose above the Littorina Sea level ca 7000 BP. Early establishing forest included Pinus, Betula, Alnus and Quercetum mixtum forest species. The wetland basin became isolated ca 5800 cal. yr BP. Drier conditions eventually permitted woody species such as Alnus and Betula to enter the basin from ca 4540 cal. yr BP, or earlier. Sedimentation stopped in the contemporary warm and dry conditions creating an hiatus. Paludification occurred and sedimentation resumed from ca 2600 cal. yr BP, turning the basin into Sphagnum fen with Menyanthes trifoliata, Lysimachia and Carex spp. Pinus and Betula maintained strong presence though some species, particularly Alnus, continued a decreasing trend. Fires were mainly restricted to bedrock outcrops. Last extensive fires were at ca 600 and 400 cal. yr BP. A much delayed Picea immigration commenced from ca 300 cal. yr BP, accompanied by a decline in forest fires. Occasional cereal and weed pollen indicating agricultural activity appear, but are considered as imports from surrounding landscapes. Gap phase dynamics evolve as the most important disturbance factor in the final Picea dominated forest. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER, 2020
Keywords
Boreo-nemoral forest, C-14 dating, Disturbance, Picea abies, Pollen analysis, Vegetation history
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-408188 (URN)10.1016/j.revpalbo.2019.104151 (DOI)000518878100004 ()
Available from: 2020-04-06 Created: 2020-04-06 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
Backéus, I. & Hytteborn, H. (2019). "Det har vi vetat hela tiden!": akademikerna och lövängen för hundra år sedan. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 113(3/4), 219-231
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Det har vi vetat hela tiden!": akademikerna och lövängen för hundra år sedan
2019 (Swedish)In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 113, no 3/4, p. 219-231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mown meadows with scattered trees were a characteristic of the old Swedish landscape.  It has been an established truth that the botanists, particularly R. Sernander and H. Hesselman, did not understand that the meadows would turn into forests when abandoned, whereas the human geographer M. Sjöbeck in several publications from 1927 onwards made this clear. This view was supported by, i.a,. L.-G. Romell.

 We have scrutinized the literature and the minutes of the Plant Biology Seminar in Uppsala from 1892 to 1944, in order to understand Sernander’s views. Hesselman considered the matter uncertain. Sernander probably understood the dynamics also before 1927, but his standpoint was influenced by a wish to restore the postglacial broadleaved forests of which he saw the meadows as degraded relicts. This could be done by leaving meadows for free development. Gradually he saw the need also to maintain meadows and the cultural landscape as such. Several other botanists, e.g. G. Samuelsson and G. Einar Du Rietz, already early on understood the dependence of meadows on human management. 

National Category
Botany
Research subject
History of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-388445 (URN)
Available from: 2019-06-30 Created: 2019-06-30 Last updated: 2020-06-15Bibliographically approved
Lokken, J. O., Hofgaard, A., Dalen, L. & Hytteborn, H. (2019). Grazing and warming effects on shrub growth and plant species composition in subalpine dry tundra: An experimental approach. Journal of Vegetation Science, 30(4), 698-708
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grazing and warming effects on shrub growth and plant species composition in subalpine dry tundra: An experimental approach
2019 (English)In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 698-708Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Questions

Vegetation in the forest–tundra ecotone faces changes in both climate and land‐use. While climate warming is an important driver of vegetation growth and composition, herbivory may have opposing effects. In the present study, we experimentally test how removal of sheep herbivory affects the vegetation in an alpine forest–tundra ecotone, and how responses are manifested at higher temperatures.

Location

Dovre Mountains, Central Norway.

Methods

Shrub growth (height and cover) and ground layer composition were analysed each third year over an 18‐year period in a nested, three‐factorial experiment (ambient temperature and herbivory; ambient temperature and no herbivory; increased temperature and no herbivory). Fencing and open‐top‐chambers were used as expedients. Treatment effects and interactions over time were analysed using linear mixed effects models and ordination.

Results

Shrub height and cover increased over time due to reduced herbivory, but without additional warming effect. Lichen cover declined in all treatments over time, but more rapidly and earlier under warming treatment (significant after three years). Contrary to expectations, there was no statistically significant increase in woody species due to warming, although evergreen woody species displayed a trend shift after six years, comprising a sharp decline towards year twelve. Litter accumulated in all treatments, but at higher rates under warming (significant after nine years).

Conclusions

Our results disclose removal of sheep herbivory as a prominent driver of shrub growth, with warming as a subordinate driver in the studied alpine vegetation. The warming‐driven increased litter abundance may, however, be caused by the decrease of wind inside chambers and the subsequent absence of wind‐driven removal of litter. This chamber effect and the displayed timing differences in vegetation responses call for the critical use of short‐term experimental data in predictions of long‐term consequences of environmental change.

Keywords
alpine vegetation, climate warming, exclosure, experimental warming, forest-tundra ecotone, herbivory, long-term experiment, OTC, plant community, shrub growth
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390984 (URN)10.1111/jvs.12752 (DOI)000474629200011 ()
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
Backéus, I., Hytteborn, H. & Rydin, H. (2018). Var Sellingaffären kulmen på en sekellång botanisk konflikt?. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 112(6), 380-393
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Var Sellingaffären kulmen på en sekellång botanisk konflikt?
2018 (Swedish)In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 112, no 6, p. 380-393Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 1950s saw a series of miscarriages of justice against public persons in Sweden. In one of these, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences tried to force Olof Selling from his professorship in paleobotany at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, on the basis of mental illness, but this failed after a long and public calamity. In his book Naturen inför rätta [Nature facing trial], Keith Wijkander (2017) claims that Selling was the victimof a century-long conflict between botanists in Uppsala and Stockholm,and places Selling in the Uppsala camp. We try to give a more balanced picture of the relationships between plant ecology in Uppsala and Stockholm during the early 20th century. R. Sernander, L.-G. Romell and G. E. Du Rietz are among the main actors. The fierce debates between the two camps make this an interesting period in Swedish botany.

National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371067 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Hytteborn, H., Svensson, B. M., Kempe, K., Press, A. & Rydin, H. (2017). Century-long tree population dynamics in a deciduous forest stand in central Sweden. Journal of Vegetation Science, 28(5), 1057-1069
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Century-long tree population dynamics in a deciduous forest stand in central Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1057-1069Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Question: We quantify tree dynamics over a century of free development in a small broadleaved forest dominated by Fraxinus excelsior and Ulmus glabra. What are the internal and external factors driving the changes, and how predictable are they? What were the time scale and effects of the spread of Dutch elm disease (DED)? Location: Vårdsätra, eastern central Sweden.

Methods: The survival, growth and recruitment of all trees (≥ 12 cm in girth) were monitored in 1912, 1967, 1988 and 2013 (more often for a part of the forest). Woody species in the field and shrub layers were surveyed in permanent plots in 1976 and 2012. We used transition matrix models to project changes in population sizes and species composition within the century and for 2050.

Results: The results indicate that the forest was in a successional development during the first period. The species composition had stabilised by 1967, except for an expansion of Acer platanoides and the drastic effect of DED that struck the forest around 2000. It took only a decade to kill virtually all large elms in the forest, leading to strong decrease in stem density and basal area. The evidence for effects of DED is still weak, but there has been an increase in saplings, notably of Fraxinus, Prunus padus, Ulmus, and of shoots of Corylus avellana. Several species that are abundant in the vicinity and as seeds fail to establish (Picea abies, Betula spp., Quercus robur, Populus tremula). Projections for 2050 based on the third period (1988-2013) are probably unrealistic since also Fraxinus may disappear because of the recent arrival of the ash dieback.

Conclusions: Slow dynamics in forests that could follow from climate change will locally probably be overruled by unforeseen catastrophes, such as invasions by forest pathogens. These initiate changes with long lag phases difficult to quantify. Still, a dense deciduous forest can resist invasion of colonist species and of regionally dominant conifers; the reason being unfavourable conditions for establishment rather than dispersal limitation

National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-325261 (URN)10.1111/jvs.12556 (DOI)000408818000017 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-06-22 Created: 2017-06-22 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Pedrotti, E., Rydin, H., Ingmar, T., Hytteborn, H., Turunen, P. & Granath, G. (2014). Fine-scale dynamics and community stability in boreal peatlands: revisiting a fen and a bog in Sweden after 50 years. Ecosphere, 5(10), 133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fine-scale dynamics and community stability in boreal peatlands: revisiting a fen and a bog in Sweden after 50 years
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2014 (English)In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 133-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multi-decadal studies of community and ecosystemdynamics are rare; however, this time frame is most relevant for assessing the impact of anthropogenic influences and climate change on ecosystems. For this reason, we investigated changes in vegetation and microtopography over 52 years in two contrasting mire ecosystems, one ombrotrophic (bog) and one minerotrophic (fen), representing different successional stages and contrasting hydrological settings. In both peatlands, floristic composition was recorded in the same permanent plots (n = 55-56, 0.25 m(2)) in both 1960 and 2012 and microtopography was mapped over a large area (ca. 2500 m(2)) that encompassed these same plots. We quantified and compared the community-level changes and internal spatial dynamics, tested associations between pH/microtopography and community/species change, and examined how the area and location of hummock microforms had changed over time. The bog exhibited little site level change in vegetation, where few species changed significantly in cover and plot frequency. However, detailed analyses revealed some large within-plot changes over time in the bog, illustrating that bogs can be highly dynamic systems at a fine scale. In contrast, the rich fen experienced a clear directional change; specifically, bryophyte abundance decreased by 70% and brown mosses were almost extinct. Although pH had decreased over time at the rich fen, this decrease at the plot-level was not associated with the decline of brown moss abundance. The microtopographic structure did not change substantially at the bog where similar to 70% was covered by lawn/hummocks; however, in the rich fen hummocks expanded (from 10% to 16% cover) and moved or expanded down slope. Our study suggests, that at the site-level, the bog ecosystem was more resistant to environmental changes over time compared to the rich fen, as evidenced by shifts in vegetation and microtopography. The contrasting scales of vegetation dynamics observed within a bog (i.e., within-plot changes vs. site-level) indicate that plant-environment feedbacks contribute to the peatland level stability. While in rich fens, internal feedbacks may be weaker and the ecosystem's vegetation and microtopographic structure are vulnerable to shifting hydrological fluxes.

Keywords
beta diversity, boreal, microtopography, peatland development, plant population and community dynamics, Sphagnum, succession, vegetation change
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240147 (URN)10.1890/ES14-00202.1 (DOI)000345097200011 ()
Available from: 2015-01-07 Created: 2015-01-05 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Skarpe, C., Hytteborn, H., Moe, S. R. & Aarrestad, P. A. (2014). Historical Changes of Vegetation in the Chobe Area. In: Christina Skarpe, Johan T. du Toit and Stein R. Moe (Ed.), Elephants and Savanna Woodland Ecosystems: A Study from Chobe National Park, Botswana (pp. 43-60). Wiley-Blackwell
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical Changes of Vegetation in the Chobe Area
2014 (English)In: Elephants and Savanna Woodland Ecosystems: A Study from Chobe National Park, Botswana / [ed] Christina Skarpe, Johan T. du Toit and Stein R. Moe, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, p. 43-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Elephants are the main agent shaping the vegetation (substrate), whereas soil properties and, at a larger scale, climate constitute major controllers of elephants' activities and of their effects on vegetation. However, elephants have not been the only agents of change in the Chobe ecosystem and its vegetation during the 150 or more turbulent years covered by this chapter. There have been others. The chapter discusses the vegetation dynamics that took place concurrently with the fall and rise of the elephant population following the ivory hunt in the end of the 20th century, and explains the relative importance of elephants, smaller herbivores and direct human impact through logging, burning and livestock grazing in causing these changes. The fall and rise of the Chobe elephant population during the last 150 or so years, has affected the vegetation on the relatively nutrient rich alluvium differently from that on the nutrient-deficient sand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2014
Keywords
Alluvium, Chobe area, Elephants, Germs, Livestock, Vegetation changes
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307118 (URN)10.1002/9781118858615.ch4 (DOI)2-s2.0-84926148213 (Scopus ID)9781118858615 (ISBN)9780470671764 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2017-01-04Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1695-7347

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