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Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Emissions from Recycling Processes of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
2022 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The lithium-ion battery (LIB) recycling industry is currently under development to improve the yields for critical metals. However, the organic components of LIBs must also be handled, which may result in harmful chemical emissions as by-products. Of particular concern are highly persistent and mobile per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that could be released during LIB recycling since some of these compounds have been linked with adverse health effects. In this work, an extensive literature review was conducted to determine the presence of fluorinated materials in state-of-the-art LIBs and the recycling conditions which could lead to the release of problematic PFAS. This information was used to develop a new analytical approach to capture the broadest range of organic and inorganic fluorine species in samples taken in different stages of the recycling process. This new method is based on a sequential extraction procedure using different solvents, followed by combustion ion chromatography (CIC) to quantify the potential emission of fluorine-containing chemicals of different polarities. The results show that organofluorine compounds are formed during recycling, particularly for the cathodes, indicating that PFAS might be present. For other samples, such as the NiMnCo salt product of recycling, only low fluorine levels were detected which implies almost complete removal. Future work should further outline the emission paths of these processes. This study highlights the necessity to further investigate the emissions related to fluorinated materials during LIB recycling and indicates that post-treatments or changes in conditions might be necessary to avoid the formation and emission of PFAS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2022. , p. 76
Series
UPTEC K, ISSN 1650-8297 ; 22017
Keywords [en]
lithium-ion, battery, PFAS, recycling, LIB recycling, ion chromatography, hydrometallurgy, thermal processes, persistent
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering Energy Systems Analytical Chemistry Materials Chemistry Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-479345OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-479345DiVA, id: diva2:1678689
External cooperation
Rise - Research Institutes of Sweden
Educational program
Master Programme in Chemical Engineering
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2022-06-30 Created: 2022-06-29 Last updated: 2022-06-30Bibliographically approved

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Other Chemical EngineeringEnergy SystemsAnalytical ChemistryMaterials ChemistryMetallurgy and Metallic MaterialsEnvironmental Biotechnology

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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