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Aiming at Moving Targets: Applying Cognitive Work Analysis to Work Domains in Transition
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8605-1850
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The design of IT systems for complex work environments is essential for workers to be able to operate more effectively and efficiently. To design a system that supports the workers' specific tasks we need to understand the work demands and the context in which the system operates. However, this is a difficult task because of the dynamic nature of complex systems. The thesis investigates how the cognitive work analysis (CWA) framework (Vicente, 1999) can be applied to understand a domain under transformation by (1) developing methods to manage challenges associated with applying CWA to real-world complex systems and (2) investigating how models from the CWA framework can be used to contend with the moving target for development. The studies are carried out within two quite different application domains: long-haul driving and health care. An activity prioritization method was suggested as a useful technique to focus the analyzing efforts during the analysis of tasks and strategies. However, adaption to practical constraints has to be done thoughtfully in order not to lose the value of the analysis. Moreover, workshops were proposed as a means to bridge the gap between the analysis and design by finding design metaphors and possible future work strategies from the domain knowledge of the drivers. Third, a study was done using the abstraction hierarchy (AH) to learn about digitization in health care, which is an example of ongoing change in a work domain. The AH was also adapted to model health IT systems as a means to provide an overview and consistent vision of strategic decisions. Using the AH as an overview of sub-systems that were developed by different organizations or organizational units would make it possible to identify collaboration needs or a lack of connectivity and integration between systems. The AH can therefore be applied to support the development of an IT system that is to be part of a transforming work domain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2020. , p. 73
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1893
Keywords [en]
cognitive work analysis, work domain analysis, control task analysis, strategies analysis, abstraction hierarchy, contextual activity template, activity prioritization, systems design, heavy vehicle development, long haul trucks, intensive care, nursing, digitalization.
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401128ISBN: 978-91-513-0846-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-401128DiVA, id: diva2:1383386
Public defence
2020-02-27, ITC 2446, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-02-06 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-03-05
List of papers
1. Activity prioritization to focus the control task analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activity prioritization to focus the control task analysis
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 91-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298003 (URN)10.1177/1555343416629307 (DOI)000374661200006 ()
Projects
MODAS
Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-06-29 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
2. Rebuttal to Burns and Naikar
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rebuttal to Burns and Naikar
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 109-110Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299392 (URN)10.1177/1555343416629179 (DOI)000374661200008 ()
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-07-18 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
3. Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
2018 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 101-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introducing automation in a human-machine system changes the tasks performed by human operators. It is difficult to analyse systems for which there are no experienced operators. This issue emerged within a project with the aim to develop a human–machine interface for a highly automated long-haul vehicle. To handle the problem, a formative strategies analysis method with promises to enable desktop analyses through predefined strategy categories was adopted. The method was used to investigate strategies for controlling the future long haul vehicle by conducting workshops with today's drivers. The method was shown to be a valuable asset in eliciting strategies for revolutionary design.

Keywords
Cognitive work analysis, strategies analysis, automation, revolutionary systems design, long haul trucks
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292799 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2017.1278805 (DOI)000428728900006 ()
Projects
MODAS
Funder
VINNOVA, 2012-03678
Available from: 2017-01-27 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
4. Work domain analysis of an intensive care unit: An Abstraction Hierarchy based on a bed-side approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work domain analysis of an intensive care unit: An Abstraction Hierarchy based on a bed-side approach
2016 (English)In: Proc. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter 2015 Annual Conference, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Work in intensive care units requires interaction with several medical devices and interpretation of dynamic information from several sources. The aim of the current study was to gain understanding of the work domain to support the development of a holistic information environment and further analyses of risky situations. A total of 18 hours of bed-side observations at an intensive care unit and interviews with three experienced intensive care unit nurses were conducted in order to receive input data for the modelling of the work domain. The domain was modelled in an abstraction hierarchy, as according to the first phase of the cognitive work analysis framework. The results show that the ultimate purpose of the work carried out in an intensive care unit is keeping patients alive while gaining time for treatment, but also to perform treatment and relieve symptoms. The purpose is represented at the top level of the model, and lower levels include functions as supporting the patients’ vital functions and avoiding secondary complications. With this work domain analysis as a basis, three different design challenges identified can be dealt with systematically.

National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335425 (URN)
Conference
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter 2015 Annual Conference
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2020-01-08
5. Using Cognitive Work Analysis to Model the Impact of Digitalization on Intensive Care Nursing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Cognitive Work Analysis to Model the Impact of Digitalization on Intensive Care Nursing
(English)In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The continuous development of health IT fuels a process of ongoing digitalization that affects the work of hospital staff. A Cognitive Work Analysis methodology was used to investigate the impact of digitalization through a Clinical Information System (CIS), an addition to the basic Electronic Medical Record, on one intensive care unit (ICU). Both observations and semi-structured interviews were performed. The replacement of a paper charting system with a digital CIS that meant some of the administrative tasks could be automated and other tasks being performed on a computer screen instead of using paper. The nurses’ work domain was modeled and compared to a study performed prior to the implementation of the CIS. The study demonstrates the potential utility of the Cognitive Work Analysis approach (when applied both pre and post-implementation) to evaluate the impact of a CIS on ICU nurses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications
Keywords
Cognitive Work Analysis, Work Domain Analysis, Intensive Care, Nursing, Digitalization
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401122 (URN)
Projects
The effects of digitalization on the work environment of nurses (DISA)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07153
Available from: 2020-01-06 Created: 2020-01-06 Last updated: 2020-02-06Bibliographically approved
6. Supporting industrial uptake of cognitive work analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting industrial uptake of cognitive work analysis
2015 (English)In: Proc. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 59th Annual Meeting, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2015, p. 170-174Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As part of a broader industrial project, the first two stages of a Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA, Work Domain Analysis [WDA] and Control Task Analysis [ConTA]) were completed for Long Haul Commercial Road Transport. To support the potential uptake of CWA by different stakeholders within the industrial organization, parts of the ConTA Contextual Activity Template (CAT) were truncated. The goal of the current, exploratory study, was to identify which stakeholders within the industrial organization could benefit from using the WDA or CAT for either their Strategic (Research) or Product (Development) planning, and over what time horizon. We observed differences in the perceived usefulness of the WDA and the CAT between the different stakeholders. Innovative solutions to the issues raised should significantly enhance the industrial use of Cognitive Work Analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2015
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268730 (URN)978-0-945289-47-0 (ISBN)
Conference
HFES 2015, October 26–30, Los Angeles, CA
Available from: 2015-10-30 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
7. Visualizing Purpose and Functionality Overlaps of Health IT Systems using an Abstraction Hierarchy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visualizing Purpose and Functionality Overlaps of Health IT Systems using an Abstraction Hierarchy
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, 2019, Vol. 63, p. 317-321Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The development of health IT fuels a digitalization process that affects the work of hospital staff negatively in the case of poor integration of IT systems. A challenge lies in keeping track of the existing IT systems and possible overlapping functions. The Abstraction Hierarchy model from the Cognitive Work Analysis framework describes how parts of a complex system relate to the over-arching goals of the system, which could work as an overview of the IT systems. In this study, we explore how an Abstraction Hierarchy can be used to visualize how IT systems’ functions overlap, interfere with, or depend on each other. The Abstraction Hierarchy was developed based on documentation, interviews, and a study visit at a hospital ward. The overlaps in functionality visualized in the Abstraction Hierarchy could serve as indicators for the need for further investigation of effects on the hospital staff’s work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, 2019
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-398112 (URN)10.1177/1071181319631463 (DOI)
Conference
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
Projects
The effects of digitalization on the work environment of nurses (DISA)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07153
Available from: 2019-12-02 Created: 2019-12-02 Last updated: 2020-01-08
8. Cognitive Work Analysis to support development of health IT in a complex organization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive Work Analysis to support development of health IT in a complex organization
(English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The continuous development of health IT fuels a process of ongoing digitalization that can affect the work of hospital staff negatively with respect to the poor integration of IT systems. One aim is to understand challenges associated with the work of implementing health IT systems within a complex organization. Another aim is to explore how an abstraction hierarchy, a modeling tool from the cognitive work analysis framework, can be used for development of health IT by visualizing how IT systems’ functions overlap, interfere with or depend on each other. We interviewed decision makers holding different positions at a large university hospital in Sweden and the possible use of the abstraction hierarchy was evaluated during a workshop. Multiple challenges are associated with the development of health IT systems, including difficulties in usability work, various work roles and use cases, the complexity of the organization, external development and technical and legal barriers to system integration. The abstraction hierarchy could indicate the need for further investigation of functionality overlap and reveal collaboration needs between development projects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier
Keywords
Digitalization, Cognitive Work Analysis, Work Domain Analysis, Abstraction Hierarchy
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401125 (URN)
Projects
The effects of digitalization on the work environment of nurses (DISA)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07153
Available from: 2020-01-06 Created: 2020-01-06 Last updated: 2020-02-05Bibliographically approved

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