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Stable Cycling of Sodium Metal All-Solid-State Batteries with Polycarbonate-Based Polymer Electrolytes
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3374-2276
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8019-2801
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9862-7375
2019 (English)In: ACS APPLIED POLYMER MATERIALS, ISSN 2637-6105, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 825-832Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solid polymer electrolytes based on high-molecular-weight poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) in combination with NaFSI salt were investigated for application in sodium batteries. The polycarbonate host material proved to be able to dissolve large amounts of salt, at least up to a carbonate:Na+ ratio of 1:1. Combined DSC, conductivity, and FTIR data indicated the formation of a percolating network of salt clusters along with the transition to a percolation-type ion transport mechanism at the highest salt concentrations. While the highest total ionic conductivities were seen at the highest salt concentrations (up to a remarkable 5 x 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 25 degrees C at a 1:1 carbonate:Na+ ratio), the most stable battery performance was seen at a more moderate salt loading of 5:1 carbonate:Na+, reaching >80 cycles at a stable capacity of similar to 90 mAh g(-1) at 60 degrees C in a sodium metal/Prussian blue cell. The results highlight the importance of the choice of salt and salt concentration on electrolyte performance as well as demonstrate the potential of utilizing polycarbonate-based electrolytes in sodium-based energy storage systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS) , 2019. Vol. 1, no 4, p. 825-832
Keywords [en]
polymer electrolytes, polycarbonates, sodium, batteries, ionic conductivity
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392889DOI: 10.1021/acsapm.9b00068ISI: 000476966800025OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-392889DiVA, id: diva2:1354042
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 771777 FUN POLYSTOREAvailable from: 2019-09-24 Created: 2019-09-24 Last updated: 2021-04-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Exploring the Frontiers of Polymer Electrolytes for Battery Applications: From Surface to Bulk
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the Frontiers of Polymer Electrolytes for Battery Applications: From Surface to Bulk
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lithium-ion batteries have dominated the market since their inception in 1991 due to their unparalleled energy and power densities, but are now faced with new challenges. Growing demand for battery materials for energy intense applications and large-scale interim energy storage have emphasized the need for safe and sustainable battery electrolytes. In this context, non-flammable solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are a promising alternative to address the shortcomings of conventional liquid electrolytes. Despite its significance, little research has thus far been devoted to understanding the electrochemical stability of SPEs under the harsh conditions exerted by next-generation electrode materials.

In this thesis, the stability and ramifications of interfaces in polycarbonate- and polyester-based SPEs have been investigated. The polycarbonate exhibited severe degradation upon contact with lithium compared to its ester counterpart. Volatile species stemming from polycarbonate and salt decomposition were observed independent of irreversible current response, thus also highlighting the limitations of voltammetry techniques to determine the electrochemical stability. Two novel techniques were thus devised to evaluate electrochemical stability of SPEs under more realistic conditions. Characterization of the electrode−polyester interface revealed formation of highly resistive interfacial layers composed of polymer, salt and impurity derivatives. The emergence of a detrimental resistance emanating from the polymer−polymer interface was also observed, thus identifying a crucial hurdle for double-layer SPEs as a strategy to extend the stability window.

The application of polycarbonate/polyester-based polymer electrolytes for sodium-ion batteries was also studied. Sodium is far more abundant than lithium, and thereby an excellent chemistry platform to develop new sustainable battery materials. The polycarbonate exhibited an exceptional ability to dissolve large quantities of sodium salt without compromising the mechanical stability. Spectroscopic and thermal measurements revealed the emergence of an alternative ionic transport mechanism at concentrations within the polymer-in-salt regime, which was decoupled from the segmental motion of the polymer chains. By incorporating flexible polyester moieties in polycarbonates, an SPE with better transport properties compared to its individual subunits, and polyether counterparts, was obtained. Optimal salt concentration in this copolymer was dependent on the degree of crystallinity, determined by the portion of polyester. Finally, the practical application of these polymer electrolytes was demonstrated in solid-state sodium-ion batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2021. p. 67
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 2044
Keywords
Lithium-ion batteries, solid-state polymer electrolytes, electrochemical stability window, interfaces, ionic conductivity, polycarbonate, polyester, sustainability, sodium-ion
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-440905 (URN)978-91-513-1214-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-06-11, Room Å2001, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-05-19 Created: 2021-04-21 Last updated: 2021-06-23

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Sångeland, ChristoferMogensen, RonnieBrandell, DanielMindemark, Jonas

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