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Fiber Optical Detection of Lithium Plating at Graphite Anodes
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7246-1680
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2538-8104
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3598-3903
2023 (English)In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 2201665Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Avoiding the plating of metallic lithium on the graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries, potentially leading to aging and the formation of dendrites is critical for long term and safe operation of the cells. In this contribution, in operando detection of lithium plating via a fiber optical sensor placed at the surface of a graphite electrode is demonstrated. The detection is based on the modulation of light at the sensing region, which is in direct contact with the graphite particles. This is first demonstrated by the intentional deposition of lithium on a copper electrode, followed by experiments with graphite electrodes in pouch cells where plating is initiated both as a result of over-lithiation and excessive cycling rates. The plating resulted in a significant loss of light from the fiber, and the findings correlated well with previous experiments on the detection of sodium plating. The modulated light is also found to correlate well with the graphite staging via changes in the optical properties of the graphite during slow (de)intercalation of lithium ions. In a practical application, the fiber optical sensor may provide a battery management system (BMS) with input to optimize the charging procedure or to warn for cell failure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2023. Vol. 10, no 3, article id 2201665
Keywords [en]
Evanescent waves, Fiber optic sensors, Graphite, Lithium-ion batteries, Lithium plating
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-469921DOI: 10.1002/admi.202201665ISI: 000916679400001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-469921DiVA, id: diva2:1645013
Funder
StandUpVinnova, 2019-00064
Note

Title in the list of papers of Jonas Hedman's thesis: Fiber Optic detection of Lithium Plating at Graphite Anodes

Available from: 2022-03-16 Created: 2022-03-16 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fiber Optic Sensors for Monitoring of Lithium- and Sodium-ion Batteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fiber Optic Sensors for Monitoring of Lithium- and Sodium-ion Batteries
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Rechargeable batteries, particularly lithium-ion batteries, have rapidly evolved since their introduction and now dominate the market, owing primarily to their high energy and power densities. With growing demand for high-performance batteries in portable electronics and electric vehicles, the need for safe, efficient, and reliable batteries is crucial. Conventional battery management systems, which generally rely on parameters such as current, voltage, and temperature, provide limited information on the chemical and physical processes taking place in the battery during operation. The understanding of degradation processes and how they evolve with time is also limited due to the complex nature of batteries. In order to enhance the battery lifetime, safety, and reliability of current batteries as well as for emerging battery technologies, more detailed information from the cells is required. Developing sensors that can be used to probe the batteries could allow for optimized performance and a more accurate determination of cell state. In this regard, fiber optic sensors are promising candidates.

This work explores the use of fiber optical evanescent wave (FOEW) sensors for monitoring chemical and electrochemical reactions in lithium- and sodium-ion batteries under working conditions. The sensor response and battery performance were compared with the sensor either fully embedded in a lithium iron phosphate cathode or positioned at the electrode surface. The optical response was further linked to the oxidation and reduction of the active material during cycling by means of galvanostatic and voltammetric experiments. The influence of cycling rate, sensor position, and electrolyte salt concentration was also discussed. The work also shows the ability of the FOEW sensors to detect lithium and sodium plating, both as a result of insufficient storage capacity and high cycling rates. This is an important finding as plating poses a serious risk for short circuit in batteries. A correlation with the sensor response and lithium staging in graphite anodes could also be seen.

These findings highlight the value of optical sensors for monitoring batteries under working conditions. The concept of fiber optic sensing in batteries is still in its early stages, but the research field is gaining more interest. This work has aimed to advance the understanding of FOEW sensors in particular, and the results could help to provide directions for the research community for the realization of fiber optic sensing in commercial batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2022. p. 99
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 2126
Keywords
Evanescent waves, Fiber optic evanescent wave sensors, Fiber optic sensors, Graphite, Hard carbon, LiBOB, Lithium iron phosphate, Lithium manganese oxide, Lithium plating, Lithium-ion batteries, Prussian white, Sodium plating, Sodium-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-469922 (URN)978-91-513-1444-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-05-06, Polhemsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-04-12 Created: 2022-03-16 Last updated: 2022-04-27

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Hedman, JonasMogensen, RonnieYounesi, RezaBjörefors, Fredrik

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