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A comparative analysis of the influence of hydrofluoroethers as diluents on solvation structure and electrochemical performance in non-flammable electrolytes
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0763-5239
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7606-0881
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4831-3842
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 4111-4125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To enhance battery safety, it is of utmost importance to develop non-flammable electrolytes. An emerging concept within this research field is the development of localized highly concentrated electrolytes (LHCEs). This type of liquid electrolyte relies on the concept of highly concentrated electrolytes (HCEs), but possesses lower viscosity, improved conductivity and reduced costs due to the addition of diluent solvents. In this work, two different hydrofluoroethers, i.e., bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) ether (BTFE) and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl ether (TTE), are studied as diluents in a phosphate-based non-flammable liquid electrolyte. These two solvents were added to a highly concentrated electrolyte of 3.0 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) in triethyl phosphate (TEP) whereby the salt concentration was diluted to 1.5 M. The solvation structures of the HCE and LHCE were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, where the latter was shown to be essential to provide more detailed insights. By using molecular dynamics simulations, it was shown that a highly concentrated Li+-TEP solvation sheath is formed, which can be protected by the diluents TTE and BTFE. These simulations have also clarified the energetic interaction between the components in the LHCE, which supports the experimental results from the viscosity and the NMR measurements. By performing non-covalent interaction analysis (NCI) it was possible to show the main contributions of the observed chemical shifts, which indicated that TTE has a stronger effect on the solvation structure than BTFE. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of the electrolytes were evaluated in half-cells (Li|NMC622, Li|graphite), full-cells (NMC622|graphite) and Li metal cells (Li|Cu). Galvanostatic cycling has shown that the TTE based electrolyte performs better in full-cells and Li-metal cells, compared to the BTFE based electrolyte. Operando pressure measurements have indicated that no significant amount of gases is evolved in NMC622|graphite cells using the here presented LHCEs, while a cell with 1.0 M LiFSI in TEP displayed clear formation of gaseous products in the first cycles. The formation of gaseous products is accompanied by solvent co-intercalation, as shown by operando XRD, and quick cell failure. This work provides insights on understanding the solvation structure of LHCEs and highlights the relationship between electrochemical performance and pressure evolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023. Vol. 11, no 8, p. 4111-4125
National Category
Physical Chemistry Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-501602DOI: 10.1039/d2ta08404jISI: 000922593400001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-501602DiVA, id: diva2:1756313
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-07152VinnovaSwedish Research Council, 2018-07152Vinnova, 2018-04969Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019-02496Swedish Research CouncilAvailable from: 2023-05-11 Created: 2023-05-11 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
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van Ekeren, WesselAlbuquerque, MarceloEk, GustavMogensen, RonnieBrant, William R.Brandell, DanielYounesi, Reza

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