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  • 1.
    Ahi, Ehsan Pashay
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology. Univ Helsinki, Organismal & Evolutionary Biol Res Programme, Helsinki, Finland..
    Brunel, Mathilde
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Mol Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Tsakoumis, Emmanouil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiology and Environmental Toxicology.
    Chen, Junyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiology and Environmental Toxicology.
    Appetite regulating genes in zebrafish gut; a gene expression study2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 7, article id e0255201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying molecular pathophysiology of feeding disorders, particularly in peripheral organs, is still largely unknown. A range of molecular factors encoded by appetite-regulating genes are already described to control feeding behaviour in the brain. However, the important role of the gastrointestinal tract in the regulation of appetite and feeding in connection to the brain has gained more attention in the recent years. An example of such inter-organ connection can be the signals mediated by leptin, a key regulator of body weight, food intake and metabolism, with conserved anorexigenic effects in vertebrates. Leptin signals functions through its receptor (lepr) in multiple organs, including the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. So far, the regulatory connections between leptin signal and other appetite-regulating genes remain unclear, particularly in the gastrointestinal system. In this study, we used a zebrafish mutant with impaired function of leptin receptor to explore gut expression patterns of appetite-regulating genes, under different feeding conditions (normal feeding, 7-day fasting, 2 and 6-hours refeeding). We provide evidence that most appetite-regulating genes are expressed in the zebrafish gut. On one hand, we did not observed significant differences in the expression of orexigenic genes (except for hcrt) after changes in the feeding condition. On the other hand, we found 8 anorexigenic genes in wild-types (cart2, cart3, dbi, oxt, nmu, nucb2a, pacap and pomc), as well as 4 genes in lepr mutants (cart3, kiss1, kiss1r and nucb2a), to be differentially expressed in the zebrafish gut after changes in feeding conditions. Most of these genes also showed significant differences in their expression between wild-type and lepr mutant. Finally, we observed that impaired leptin signalling influences potential regulatory connections between anorexigenic genes in zebrafish gut. Altogether, these transcriptional changes propose a potential role of leptin signal in the regulation of feeding through changes in expression of certain anorexigenic genes in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish.

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  • 2.
    Ahi, Ehsan Pashay
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Brunel, Mathilde
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, BioCentrum, Dept Mol Sci, Allmas Alle 5, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tsakoumis, Emmanouil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Transcriptional study of appetite regulating genes in the brain of zebrafish (Danio rerio) with impaired leptin signalling2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 20166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hormone leptin is a key regulator of body weight, food intake and metabolism. In mammals, leptin acts as an anorexigen and inhibits food intake centrally by affecting the appetite centres in the hypothalamus. In teleost fish, the regulatory connections between leptin and other appetite-regulating genes are largely unknown. In the present study, we used a zebrafish mutant with a loss of function leptin receptor to investigate brain expression patterns of 12 orexigenic and 24 anorexigenic genes under different feeding conditions (normal feeding, 7-day fasting, 2 and 6-hours refeeding). Expression patterns were compared to wild-type zebrafish, in order to identify leptin-dependent differentially expressed genes under different feeding conditions. We provide evidence that the transcription of certain orexigenic and anorexigenic genes is influenced by leptin signalling in the zebrafish brain. We found that the expression of orexigenic genes was not affected by impaired leptin signalling under normal feeding conditions; however, several orexigenic genes showed increased transcription during fasting and refeeding, including agrp, apln, galr1a and cnr1. This suggests an inhibitory effect of leptin signal on the transcription of these orexigenic genes during short-term fasting and refeeding in functional zebrafish. Most pronounced effects were observed in the group of anorexigenic genes, where the impairment of leptin signalling resulted in reduced gene expression in several genes, including cart family, crhb, gnrh2, mc4r, pomc and spx, in the control group. This suggests a stimulatory effect of leptin signal on the transcription of these anorexigenic genes under normal feeding condition. In addition, we found multiple gain and loss in expression correlations between the appetite-regulating genes, in zebrafish with impaired leptin signal, suggesting the presence of gene regulatory networks downstream of leptin signal in zebrafish brain. The results provide the first evidence for the effects of leptin signal on the transcription of various appetite-regulating genes in zebrafish brain, under different feeding conditions. Altogether, these transcriptional changes suggest an anorexigenic role for leptin signal, which is likely to be mediated through distinct set of appetite-regulating genes under different feeding conditions.

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  • 3.
    Ahi, Ehsan Pashay
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Singh, Pooja
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Lecaudey, Laurene Alicia
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Gessl, Wolfgang
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Sturmbauer, Christian
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Maternal mRNA input of growth and stress-response-related genes in cichlids in relation to egg size and trophic specialization2018In: EvoDevo, E-ISSN 2041-9139, Vol. 9, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Egg size represents an important form of maternal effect determined by a complex interplay of long-term adaptation and short-term plasticity balancing egg size with brood size. Haplochromine cichlids are maternal mouthbrooders showing differential parental investment in different species, manifested in great variation in egg size, brood size and duration of maternal care. Little is known about maternally determined molecular characters of eggs in fishes and their relation to egg size and trophic specialization. Here we investigate maternal mRNA inputs of selected growth- and stress-related genes in eggs of mouthbrooding cichlid fishes adapted to different trophic niches from Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi, Lake Victoria and compare them to their riverine allies.

    Results: We first identified two reference genes, atf7ip and mid1ip1, to be suitable for cross-species quantification of mRNA abundance via qRT-PCR in the cichlid eggs. Using these reference genes, we found substantial variation in maternal mRNA input for a set of candidate genes related to growth and stress response across species and lakes. We observed negative correlation of mRNA abundance between two of growth hormone receptor paralogs (ghr1 and ghr2) across all haplochromine cichlid species which also differentiate the species in the two younger lakes, Malawi and Lake Victoria, from those in Lake Tanganyika and ancestral riverine species. Furthermore, we found correlations between egg size and maternal mRNA abundance of two growth-related genes igf2 and ghr2 across the haplochromine cichlids as well as distinct clustering of the species based on their trophic specialization using maternal mRNA abundance of five genes (ghr1, ghr2, igf2, gr and sgk1).

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that variations in egg size in closely related cichlid species can be linked to differences in maternal RNA deposition of key growth-related genes. In addition, the cichlid species with contrasting trophic specialization deposit different levels of maternal mRNAs in their eggs for particular growth-related genes; however, it is unclear whether such differences contribute to differential morphogenesis at later stages of development. Our results provide first insights into this aspect of gene activation, as a basis for future studies targeting their role during ecomorphological specialization and adaptive radiation.

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  • 4.
    Ahlstrom, Christina A.
    et al.
    US Geol Survey, Alaska Sci Ctr, 4210 Univ Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Woksepp, Hanna
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Dev & Publ Hlth, S-39185 Kalmar, Sweden.;Linnaeus Univ, Dept Med & Optometry, S-39185 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Sandegren, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Mohsin, Mashkoor
    Univ Agr Faisalabad, Inst Microbiol, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan..
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Anim Bacteriol Sect, Anim Bacteriol Sect Microbial Sci Pests & Dis, Bundoora, Vic, Australia..
    Muzyka, Denys
    Inst Expt & Clin Vet Med, Natl Sci Ctr, UA-61023 Kharkiv, Ukraine..
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Microbiol, SE-39185 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Aguirre, Filip
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Microbiol, SE-39185 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Tok, Atalay
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Zoonosis Sci Ctr, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Soderman, Jan
    Linköping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Lab Med, Linköping, Sweden..
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ramey, Andrew M.
    US Geol Survey, Alaska Sci Ctr, 4210 Univ Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linköping Univ, Dept Biomed & Clin Sci, S-58183 Linköping, Sweden.;Region Kalmar Cty, Dept Infect Dis, S-39185 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Genomically diverse carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae fromwild birds provide insight into global patterns of spatiotemporal dissemination2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 824, article id 153632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a threat to public health globally, yet the role of the environment in the epidemiology of CRE remains elusive. Given that wild birds can acquire CRE, likely from foraging in anthropogenically impacted areas, and may aid in the maintenance and dissemination of CRE in the environment, a spatiotemporal comparison of isolates from different regions and timepoints may be useful for elucidating epidemiological information. Thus, we characterized the genomic diversity of CRE from fecal samples opportunistically collected from gulls (Larus spp.) inhabiting Alaska (USA), Chile, Spain, Turkey, and Ukraine and from black kites (Milvus migrans) sampled in Pakistan and assessed evidence for spatiotemporal patterns of dissemination. Within and among sampling locations, a high diversity of carbapenemases was found, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), oxacillinase (OXA), and Verona integron Metallo beta-lactamase (VIM). Although the majority of genomic comparisons among samples did not provide evidence for spatial dissemination, we did find strong evidence for dissemination among Alaska, Spain, and Turkey. We also found strong evidence for temporal dissemination among samples collected in Alaska and Pakistan, though the majority of CRE clones were transitory and were not repeatedly detected among locations where samples were collected longitudinally. Carbapenemase-producing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae was isolated from gulls in Spain and Ukraine and some isolates harbored antimicrobial resistance genes conferring resistance to up to 10 different antibiotic classes, including colistin. Our results are consistent with local acquisition of CRE by wild birds with spatial dissemination influenced by intermediary transmission routes, likely involving humans. Furthermore, our results support the premise that anthropogenicallyassociated wild birds may be good sentinels for understanding the burden of clinically-relevant antimicrobial resistance in the local human population.

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  • 5.
    Ahnesjo, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Kvarnemo, C
    Merilaita, S
    Using potential reproductive rates to predict mating competition among individuals qualified to mate2001In: BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY, ISSN 1045-2249, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 397-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential reproductive rate (PRR), which is the offspring production per unit time each sex would achieve if unconstrained by mate availability, often differs between the sexes. An increasing sexual difference in PRR predicts an intensified mating com

  • 6.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Forsgren, Elisabet
    Norsk institutt for naturforskning i Trondheim, Norway.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Enheten för biologisk mångfald och områdesskydd, Havs och Vattenmyndigheten, Göteborg.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Zoologi, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Fiskbiologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Umeå.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Etologi, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Östlund Nilsson, Sara
    Nasjonalbiblioteket, Oslo, Norway.
    En beteende-ekologisk forskningsperiod på Klubbans biologiska station: Rapport från återträff med Doktorer som disputerade (1983-2001) på avhandlingar med fältarbete på Klubbans Biologiska station. I en värld av kantnålar, stubbar, spiggar och nudingar.2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We had the fortune as PhD-students and scientists in Animal Ecology at Uppsala University, to spend joyful and creative field work summers at Klubban Biological Station, during the 1980-90’s. A reunion in June 2018 resulted in this report highlighting research on pipefishes, gobies, sticklebacks and nudibranchs. Our research on these animals have provided novel insights and knowledge of the process of sexual selection and paternal care. These animals have, in many aspects, now become model organisms in evolutionary behavioral ecology in marine environments. Our list of publications provides many examples of how environmental factors influence how sexual selection and mate choice operate, how predictors like potential reproductive rates, operational sex ratios work and how male parental care is prominent in influencing selection. This research, that started at Klubban, has broadened our understanding of the ecological importance of shallow marine areas. The evolutionary understanding of how males and females can behave and how adaptive traits are selected in interaction with social and an increasingly changing ambient environment is in focus in our continued scientific endeavors. We have happily compiled this report illustrating how science and scientist can stimulate each other at a wonderful place like Klubban Biological Station, with the access to amazing organisms like pipefishes, gobies, sticklebacks and nudibranchs.

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  • 7.
    Akram, Mehwish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Univ Punjab, Sch Biol Sci, Quaid E Azam Campus, Lahore 54590, Pakistan.
    Rashid, Naeem
    Univ Punjab, Sch Biol Sci, Quaid E Azam Campus, Lahore 54590, Pakistan.
    Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels in Drosophila Regulate the Sleep/Wake Behaviour through PDF-Neurons2019In: PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, ISSN 0030-9923, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 709-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potassium channels are important modulators of cell function depending on the cell type of where they are expressed. They are involved in regulation of cell membrane resting potential, potassium homeostasis and control a variety of cellular functions including metabolism. In this study we determined that a regulator of Pigment dispersing factor, PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the Drosophila melanogaster adult brain, is an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, IRK1. Knocking down the potassium channels specifically on PDF expressing neurons using UAS-GAL4 RNA(1) system resulted in altered axonal projections of lateral neurons (LNv) towards the dorsal neurons (DN). Moreover, it was observed that lack of the potassium channels also caused a robust increase in sleep and reduction in the fly's active period during the day. We observed that the normal circadian control of the morning and evening anticipation is also dependant on these potassium channels. The flies deficient in IRK1 channels didn't show an evening anticipation peak. Another interesting disclosure during this study was the inability of PDF- Tri neurons to undergo programmed cell death in the absence of inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Hence, IRK1, though poorly expressed in the Drosophila central nervous system, plays an important role in the normal functioning of PDF expressing neurons. Further studies are needed to elaborate the physiological roles of Drosophila potassium channels which may lead to a better understanding of human Kir channels related to pathological conditions and diseases.

  • 8.
    Al Naggar, Yahya
    et al.
    Tanta Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Zool, Tanta 31527, Egypt; Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Gen Zool, Inst Biol, D-06120 Halle, Germany.
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Univ Saskatchewan, Sch Environm & Sustainabil, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C8, Canada; Univ Saskatchewan, Global Inst Water Secur, Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5, Canada; Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan.
    Sayes, Christie M.
    Baylor Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Waco, TX 76798 USA.
    AL-Kahtani, Saad N.
    King Faisal University.
    Dar, Showket A.
    Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences andTechnology of Kashmir.
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Jiangsu University; Menoufia Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt.
    Grünewald, Bernd
    Goethe-Universität.
    Giesy, John P.
    University of Saskatchewan; Baylor University; Michigan State University.
    Are Honey Bees at Risk from Microplastics?2021In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous and persistent pollutants, and have been detected in a wide variety of media, from soils to aquatic systems. MPs, consisting primarily of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyacrylamide polymers, have recently been found in 12% of samples of honey collected in Ecuador. Recently, MPs have also been identified in honey bees collected from apiaries in Copenhagen, Denmark, as well as nearby semiurban and rural areas. Given these documented exposures, assessment of their effects is critical for understanding the risks of MP exposure to honey bees. Exposure to polystyrene (PS)-MPs decreased diversity of the honey bee gut microbiota, followed by changes in gene expression related to oxidative damage, detoxification, and immunity. As a result, the aim of this perspective was to investigate whether wide-spread prevalence of MPs might have unintended negative effects on health and fitness of honey bees, as well as to draw the scientific community's attention to the possible risks of MPs to the fitness of honey bees. Several research questions must be answered before MPs can be considered a potential threat to bees.

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  • 9.
    Al Naggar, Yahya
    et al.
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Biol, Gen Zool, Hoher Weg 8, D-06120 Halle, Germany.;Tanta Univ, Fac Sci, Zool Dept, Tanta 31527, Egypt..
    Sayes, Christie M.
    Baylor Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Waco, TX 76706 USA..
    Collom, Clancy
    Baylor Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Waco, TX 76706 USA..
    Ayorinde, Taiwo
    Baylor Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Waco, TX 76706 USA..
    Qi, Suzhen
    Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Inst Apicultural Res, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China..
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Menoufia Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt.
    Paxton, Robert J.
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Biol, Gen Zool, Hoher Weg 8, D-06120 Halle, Germany..
    Wang, Kai
    Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Inst Apicultural Res, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China..
    Chronic Exposure to Polystyrene Microplastic Fragments Has No Effect on Honey Bee Survival, but Reduces Feeding Rate and Body Weight2023In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics (MPs), in the form of fragments and fibers, were recently found in honey samples collected in Ecuador as well as in honey bees collected from Denmark and China. However, little is known about how MPs impact bee health. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated the potential toxicity of irregularly shaped polystyrene (PS)-MP fragments on honey bee health. In the first experiment of its kind with honey bees, we chronically exposed bees with a well-established gut microbiome to small (27 ± 17 µm) or large (93 ± 25 µm) PS-MP fragments at varying concentrations (1, 10, 100 µg mL−1) for 14 days. Bee mortality, food consumption, and body weight were all studied. We found that chronic exposure to PS-MP fragments has no effect on honey bee survival, but reduced the feeding rate and body weight, particularly at 10 µg PS-MP fragments per mL, which may have long-term consequences for honey bee health. The findings of this study could assist in the risk assessment of MPs on pollinator health.

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  • 10.
    Alatalo, Rauno V
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Lundberg, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Can Female Preference Explain Sexual Dichromatism In The Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula-Hypoleuca1990In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 39, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How important female choice is for the evolution of male secondary sexual characteristics is controversial. Two field and one laboratory experiment, using the pied flycatcher, were performed to test the female choice aspect of sexual selection. In addition, non-manipulative data from 5 years are presented. The observational data suggest a slight preference for dark males by females but in field experiments in which males had territories at random sites (i.e. they did not choose a territory) or the colour of concurrently arriving males was altered, there was no preference for darker ones. Similarly, oestradiol-treated females did not prefer black or brown males in the laboratory. Thus, there is little support for the idea that female choice has been an important mechanism in the evolution of sexual dichromatism in the pied flycatcher.

  • 11. Ali El Hadi Mohamed, Rania
    et al.
    Abdelgadir, Deena M.
    Bashab, Hind M.
    Al-Shuraym, Laila A.
    Sfouq Aleanizy, Fadilah
    Alqahtani, Fulwah Y.
    Ahmed Al-Keridis, Lamya
    Mohamed, Nahla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Princess Nourah Bint Abdurrahman University.
    First record of West Nile Virus detection inside wild mosquitoes in Khartoum capital of Sudan using PCR2020In: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, ISSN 1319-562X, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 3359-3364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) inside four species of mosquitoes: Culex univittatus (Theobald), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) Aedes vittatus (Bigot) and Aedes vexans (Meigen). Adult wild mosquitoes were collected from different sites: Soba West, Hellat Kuku, Shambat, and Khartoum North Central Live Stock Market (KCLM). Surveys were carried out at Khartoum State during two phases: pre to the rainy season and post to the rainy season. Mosquito specimens were identified using classical keys then preserved at −80 °C freezer for two weeks till the virus examination using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were carried out. WNV has been detected inside the three species of mosquitoes: A. vexans, C. univittatus, and C. quinquefasciatus. The species were collected from Hellat Kuku, (Shambat and Hellat Kuku), and (Shambat and KCLM) respectively. Two species of mosquitoes were positive for the virus: C. quinquefasciatus and C. univittatus. Positive results for the virus during the first phase of the study; males of C. quinquefasciatus and C. univittatus collected during the second phase of the study were also tested for the existence of the virus and they were positive. For our knowledge this study represents first record of WNV inside wild mosquitoes in Sudan. PCR technique provided reliable information because specific primer-probe sets were used for the detection of the virus. Extra studies are required to incriminate these species of mosquitoes as potential vectors of WNV.

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  • 12.
    Allander, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Temporal variation and reliability of blood parasite levels in captive Yellowhammer males Emberiza citrinella1997In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 325-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal variation of blood parasites in captive Yellowhammer males was studied in order to investigate possible costs of parasites. Birds were caught in the wild in early April and kept in aviaries during the study period. Blood samples were taken, body mass measured, and moult was scored twelve times for the same individuals from April to October. Blood parasites were detectable in smears during the whole study period with an intensity peak coinciding with breeding in the wild. Young birds had more parasites and a consistently higher body mass than older birds. There was no relationship between parasite intensity and mass in older birds but possibly one in young birds. Parasites did not seem to affect moult in either age class. Repeatability of parasite counts of smears from the same individual was very high and smears are therefore a reliable method for estimating parasite intensity. We conclude that blood parasites are probably most severe during, but occur in their hosts long after, the breeding season. Possible costs of parasites outside the breeding season require further study.

  • 13. Alström, Per
    et al.
    Cibois, Alice
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Fuchs, Jerome
    The worldwide expansion of ‘higher’ passerines, and some ancient, relictual lineages2020In: The Largest Avian Radiation: The Evolution of Perching Birds, or the Order Passeriformes / [ed] Fjeldså, J., Christidis, L., Ericson, P.G.P., Barcelona: Lynx Edicions , 2020Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Cibois, Alice
    Nat Hist Museum Geneva, Dept Mammal & Ornithol, CP 6434, CH-1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland..
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, POB 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zuccon, Dario
    UMS MNHN CNRS 2700 Outils & Methodes Systemat Int, CP 51,57 Rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris 05, France.;Sorbonne Univ, Museum Natl Hist Nat, UMR7205,EPHE, Inst Systemat,Evolut,Biodiversite,CNRS,MNHN,UPMC, CP 51,57 Rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris 05, France..
    Gelang, Magnus
    Gothenburg Nat Hist Museum, Box 7283, S-40235 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Fjeldsa, Jon
    Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Zool Museum, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Univ Pk 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Andersen, Michael
    Univ New Mexico, Dept Biol, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA.;Univ New Mexico, Museum Southwestern Biol, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA..
    Moyle, Robert
    Univ Kansas, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.;Univ Kansas, Biodivers Inst, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Pasquet, Eric
    UMS MNHN CNRS 2700 Outils & Methodes Systemat Int, CP 51,57 Rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris 05, France.;Sorbonne Univ, Museum Natl Hist Nat, UMR7205,EPHE, Inst Systemat,Evolut,Biodiversite,CNRS,MNHN,UPMC, CP 51,57 Rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris 05, France..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci Systemat & Biodivers, Box 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the grassbirds and allies (Locustellidae) reveals extensive non-monophyly of traditional genera, and a proposal for a new classification2018In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 127, p. 367-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread Old World avian family Locustellidae ('grassbirds and allies') comprises 62 extant species in 11 genera. In the present study, we used one mitochondrial and, for most species, four nuclear loci to infer the phylogeny of this family. We analysed 59 species, including the five previously unsampled genera plus two genera that had not before been analysed in a densely sampled dataset. This study revealed extensive disagreement with current taxonomy; the genera Bradypterus, Locustella, Megalurus, Megalurulus and Schoenicola were all found to be non-monophyletic. Non-monophyly was particularly pronounced for Megalurus, which was widely scattered across the tree. Three of the five monotypic genera (Amphilais, Buettikoferella and Malia) were nested within other genera; one monotypic genus (Chaetornis) formed a Glade with one of the two species of Schoenicola; whereas the position of the fifth monotypic genus (Elaphrornis) was unresolved. Robsonius was confirmed as sister to the other genera. We propose a phylogenetically informed revision of genus-level taxonomy, including one new generic name. Finally, we highlight several non-monophyletic species complexes and deep intra-species divergences that point to conflict in taxonomy and suggest an underestimation of current species diversity in this group.

  • 15.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    de Juana, Eduardo
    Donald, Paul F.
    Suárez, Francisco
    Mediterranean Short-toed Lark (Alaudala rufescens)2023Other (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Donald, Paul F.
    Sharpe's Lark (Mirafra sharpii)2022Other (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Donald, Paul F.
    Turkestan Short-toed Lark (Alaudala heinei)2023Other (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100101 , China.
    Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin
    Donald, Paul F
    Nymark, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Enbody, Erik D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz , Santa Cruz, CA 95060 , USA.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Elisha, Emmanuel Barde
    Ndithia, Henry K
    Tieleman, B Irene
    Engelbrecht, Derek
    Olsson, Urban
    Rancilhac, Loïs
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Stervander, Martin
    Integrative taxonomy reveals unrecognised species diversity in African Corypha larks (Aves: Alaudidae)2023In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The species complex comprising the rufous-naped lark Corypha africana, Sharpe’s lark Corypha sharpii, the red-winged lark Corypha hypermetra, the Somali long-billed lark Corypha somalica and Ash’s lark Corypha ashi encompasses 31 recognised taxa across sub-Saharan Africa, many of which are extremely poorly known and some not observed for decades. Only 17 taxa have been studied molecularly and none comprehensively for morphology, vocalisations or other behaviours. Here, we undertake comprehensive integrative taxonomic analyses based on plumage and morphometrics (for 97% of the taxa), mitochondrial and nuclear loci (77%), ≤ 1.3 million genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (68%), song (many described for the first time; 52%) and additional behavioural data (45%). All polytypic species as presently circumscribed are paraphyletic, with eight primary clades separated by ≤ 6.3–6.8 Myr, broadly supported by plumage, morphometrics, song and other behaviours. The most recent divergences concern sympatric taxon pairs usually treated as separate species, whereas the divergence of all clades including C. africana subspecies is as old as sister species pairs in other lark genera. We propose the recognition of nine instead of five species, while C. ashi is synonymised with C. somalica rochei as C. s. ashi. The geographical distributions are incompletely known, and although the nine species are generally para-/allopatric, some might be sympatric.

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  • 19.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin
    Enbody, Erik D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, 95060, Santa Cruz, CA, USA.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Engelbrecht, Derek
    Crochet, Pierre-André
    Guillaumet, Alban
    Rancilhac, Loïs
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Tieleman, B. Irene
    Olsson, Urban
    Donald, Paul F.
    Stervander, Martin
    Systematics of the avian family Alaudidae using multilocus and genomic data2023In: Avian Research, E-ISSN 2053-7166, Vol. 14, article id 100095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family Alaudidae, larks, comprises 93–100 species (depending on taxonomy) that are widely distributed across Africa and Eurasia, with single species extending their ranges to North and northernmost South America and Australia. A decade-old molecular phylogeny, comprising ∼80% of the species, revealed multiple cases of parallel evolution and large variation in rates of morphological evolution, which had misled taxonomists into creating many non-monophyletic genera. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny of the larks, using a dataset covering one mitochondrial and 16 nuclear loci and comprising all except one of the currently recognised species as well as several recently proposed new species (in total 133 taxa; not all loci available for all species). We provide additional support using genome-wide markers to infer a genus-level phylogeny based on near-complete generic sampling (in total 51 samples of 44 taxa across 40 species). Our results confirm the previous findings of rampant morphological convergence and divergence, and reveal new cases of paraphyletic genera. We propose a new subfamily classification, and also that the genus Mirafra is divided into four genera to produce a more balanced generic classification of the Alaudidae. Our study supports recently proposed species splits as well as some recent lumps, while also questioning some of the latter. This comprehensive phylogeny will form an important basis for future studies, such as comparative studies of lark natural history, ecology, evolution and conservation.

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  • 20.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rasmussen, Pamela C.
    Delicate Prinia (Prinia lepida)2022Other (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Rasmussen, Pamela C.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Integrat Biol, E Lansing, MI 48864 USA.;Michigan State Univ, MSU Museum, E Lansing, MI 48864 USA.;Nat Hist Museum, Nat Hist Museum Tring, Bird Grp, Akeman St, Tring HP23 6AP, England..
    Sangster, George
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, POB 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.;Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Darwinweg 4, NL-2333 CR Leiden, Netherlands..
    Dalvi, Shashank
    GKVK, Natl Ctr Biol Sci, Researchers Wildlife Conservat, F-21,Bellary Rd, Bengaluru 560065, Karnataka, India..
    Round, Philip D.
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Biol, Rama 6 Rd, Bangkok 10400, Thailand..
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Yao, Cheng-Te
    COA, Endem Species Res Inst, High Altitude Expt Stn, Chi Chi, Taiwan..
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, POB 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Le Manh, Hung
    Grad Univ Sci & Technol, Vietnam Acad Sci & Technol, Inst Ecol & Biol Resources, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Systemat & Biodivers, Box 463, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Multiple species within the Striated Prinia Prinia crinigera-Brown Prinia P. polychroa complex revealed through an integrative taxonomic approach2020In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 162, no 3, p. 936-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We re-evaluated the taxonomy of the Striated Prinia Prinia crinigera-Brown Prinia P. polychroa complex using molecular, morphological and vocal analyses. The extensive seasonal, sexual, age-related, geographical and taxon-specific variation in this complex has never before been adequately studied. As no previous genetic or vocal analyses have focused on this group, misinterpretation of taxonomic signals from limited conventional morphological study alone was likely. Using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we found that P. crinigera sensu lato (s.l.) comprises two non-sister groups of taxa (Himalayan crinigera and Chinese striata groups) that differ substantially morphologically and vocally and that are broadly sympatric in Yunnan Province, China. Prinia polychroa cooki (Myanmar) and P. p. rocki (southern Vietnam) are each morphologically, vocally and genetically distinct. Thai, Cambodian and Laotian populations formerly ascribed to P. p. cooki are morphologically and vocally most similar to and most closely related to Javan P. p. polychroa, and require a new name, proposed here. Prinia p. bangsi of Yunnan is part of the crinigera group rather than of P. polychroa, and hence there is no evidence for sympatry between P. polychroa s.l. and P. crinigera s.l., nor of the occurrence of P. polychroa in mainland China or Taiwan. We recommend the recognition of five species in the complex, with the following suggestions for new English names: Himalayan Prinia P. crinigera sensu stricto (s.s.; with subspecies striatula, crinigera, yunnanensis and bangsi); Chinese Prinia P. striata (subspecies catharia, parumstriata and striata); Burmese Prinia P. cooki (monotypic); Annam Prinia P. rocki (monotypic) and Deignan's Prinia P. polychroa s.s. (subspecies Javan polychroa and the new Southeast Asian taxon). This study underlines the importance of using multiple datasets for the elucidation of diversity of cryptic bird species and their evolutionary history and biogeography.

  • 22.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ryan, Peter
    Horsfield's Bushlark (Mirafra javanica)2022Other (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sundev, Gombobaatar
    Mongolian Short-toed Lark (Calandrella dukhunensis)2021Other (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Sundev, Gombobaatar
    Natl Univ Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646a,POB 537, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.;Mongolian Ornithol Soc, Ulaanbaatar 210646a,POB 537, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia..
    Mongolian Short-toed LarkCalandrella dukhunensis, an overlooked East Asian species2021In: Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 2193-7192, E-ISSN 2193-7206, Vol. 162, no 1, p. 165-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eastern subspecies of Greater Short-toed LarkCalandrella brachydactyla dukhunensishas recently been considered a separate species,Calandrella dukhunensis, by several authors based on molecular data. We present supporting evidence for this treatment based on studies of morphology, vocalisations and song-flight, and also present new data on other aspects of its biology based on field studies. We show that its breeding distribution is considerably smaller than previously thought, and is restricted to the eastern half of Mongolia and, marginally, neighbouring parts of China and perhaps Russia.

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  • 25.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sundev, Gombobaatar
    Donald, Paul F.
    Asian Short-toed Lark (Alaudala cheleensis)2023Other (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Alva Caballero, Lucia Ximena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    A tale of two wagtails: Incongruence between phenotypic patterns and genetic differentiation in the Yellow and Citrine Wagtails2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Yellow Wagtail complex, comprising the Western Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava) and the Eastern Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla tschutschensis) are broadly distributed Palearctic passerine species. This complex is remarkably polytypic, presenting 15 recognized subspecies, most of which show a distinct male head plumage pattern. Their phenotypic variation and the appearance of similar-looking phenotypes in widely separated geographical areas make this species complex and particularly interesting to study the speciation process and evolution of plumage coloration. However, while trying to clarify the taxonomy of this complex, previous studies using different molecular datasets have recovered the Citrine Wagtail (M. citreola) either as nested within the yellow wagtail complex or as a sister to the yellow wagtails. These results were puzzling as the Citrine Wagtail is sympatric with both yellow wagtail species, with many morphological differences, suggesting strong reproductive barriers. The uncertainty in previous phylogenetic reconstructions motivated this study to take a deeper look into the causes behind the incongruences between gene trees and the species tree with the goal of identifying the evolutionary relationships between the Yellow and Citrine Wagtails. I employed phylogenetic analysis using whole genome SNPs and population structure analyses and tests to detect introgression and incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). Phylogenetic reconstructions always found the Citrine Wagtail nested within the yellow wagtail complex and confirmed high heterogeneity across gene trees. Our results found introgression and ILS to be present among the Yellow and Citrine Wagtails, with a high chance of being the leading causes behind gene tree discordance in this group, making the identification of the species tree challenging. All three possible topologies were recovered across the genome. In two of them, the yellow wagtails were paraphyletic; in one, there was reciprocal monophyly between the Citrine and Yellow Wagtails. Lastly, we found M. tschutschensis plexa, a subspecies of the Eastern Yellow wagtail, as an intergrade between the Western Yellow Wagtail and the Eastern Yellow Wagtail. These results have taken us a step closer to being able to solve the relationships between Citrine Wagtail and yellow wagtails, as they have given us a deeper perspective into their evolutionary history. 

  • 27.
    Amaya-Marquez, Marisol
    et al.
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Inst Ciencias Nat, Bogota 111321, Colombia.
    Tusso Gomez, Sergio
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Div Evolutionary Biol, Fac Biol, 82152 Grosshaderner Str, Planegg Martinsried, Germany.
    Hernandez, Juan
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Inst Ciencias Nat, Bogota 111321, Colombia.
    Dario Jimenez, Juan
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Inst Ciencias Nat, Bogota 111321, Colombia.
    Wells, Harrington
    Tulsa Univ, Dept Biol, Tulsa, OK 74104 USA.
    Abramson, Charles, I
    Oklahoma State Univ, Dept Psychol, Stillwater, OK 74078 USA.
    Olfactory Learning in the Stingless Bee Melipona eburnea Friese (Apidae: Meliponini)2019In: Insects, E-ISSN 2075-4450, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory learning and floral scents are co-adaptive traits in the plant-pollinator relationship. However, how scent relates to cognition and learning in the diverse group of Neotropical stingless bees is largely unknown. Here we evaluated the ability of Melipona eburnea to be conditioned to scent using the proboscis extension reflex (PER) protocol. Stingless bees did not show PER while harnessed but were able to be PER conditioned to scent when free-to-move in a mini-cage (fmPER). We evaluated the effect of: 1) unconditioned stimulus (US) reward, and 2) previous scent-reward associations on olfactory learning performance. When using unscented-US, PER-responses were low on day 1, but using scented-US reward the olfactory PER-response increased on day 1. On day 2 PER performance greatly increased in bees that previously had experienced the same odor and reward combination, while bees that experienced a different odor on day 2 showed poor olfactory learning. Bees showed higher olfactory PER conditioning to guava than to mango odor. The effect of the unconditioned stimulus reward was not a significant factor in the model on day 2. This indicates that olfactory learning performance can increase via either taste receptors or accumulated experience with the same odor. Our results have application in agriculture and pollination ecology.

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  • 28.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Fishing for Females: Sensory Exploitation in the Swordtail Characin2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate choice plays an important role in sexual selection and speciation. The evolution of mate choice is intriguing in cases where choosy individuals gain little except for genetic material from the mate and where the trait used as a criterion for the choice is costly to its bearer. The sensory exploitation hypothesis is an interesting idea that applies to such cases because it suggests that sexual preferences may arise as side-effects of preferences that are under selection in other contexts. The role of mate choice in speciation is strong but is debated because the reasons for population divergence in mate preferences and sexual traits are sometimes hard to explain. Also in this context sensory exploitation offers a potential explanation in that a link between natural and sexual selection may result in divergence in sexual selection whenever populations differ in natural selection.

    In this thesis, I test several aspects of this hypothesis in a species of fish, the swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei). In this species males display a flag-like ornament that grows from the operculum. Because females respond to this ornament by biting at it, it has been proposed to act as a food-mimic. By manipulating female food type and quantity, and testing the resulting female preference for the male ornament, I find support for the theory that the preference has evolved through sensory exploitation and that females indeed appear to relate the ornament to a food item. Furthermore, I show that sensory exploitation can lead to morphological divergence among natural populations in this species. Apart from the flag-ornament, other courtship signals are also investigated. The results show that the relative importance of different signals may vary depending on receiver motivation. This suggests that various aspects of both male courtship signals and the conditions during which they are being signalled should be considered to gain a full understanding of mate choice and its role in sexual selection and speciation.

    List of papers
    1. Does female feeding motivation affect the response to a food-mimicking male ornament in the swordtail characin Corynopoma riisei?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does female feeding motivation affect the response to a food-mimicking male ornament in the swordtail characin Corynopoma riisei?
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Female response to various aspects of male trait morphology and the effect of female feeding motivation were investigated in the swordtail characin Corynopoma riisei, a species where males are equipped with a flag-like food-mimicking ornament that grows from the operculum. Unfed females responded more strongly to the male ornament and showed a stronger preference for larger ornaments than did fed females. Females were shown not to discriminate between artificial male ornaments of either undamaged or damaged shape.

    Keywords
    diet, mate preference, plasticity, sensory exploitation, signalling
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206572 (URN)10.1111/jfb.12175 (DOI)000322547900007 ()
    Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Sensory exploitation and plasticity in female mate choice in the swordtail characin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensory exploitation and plasticity in female mate choice in the swordtail characin
    2013 (English)In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 891-898Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite extensive research in the field of sexual selection, the evolutionary origin and maintenance of preferences for sexual ornaments are still debated. Recent studies have pointed out that plasticity in mate choice might be more common than previously thought, but little is still known about the factors that affect such plasticity. The swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei, is a tropical fish species in which males use a food-mimicking ornament to attract females. We tested whether ecological factors, more specifically prior foraging experience, can affect female preference for male ornaments. For this, we habituated females on a diet consisting of either red-coloured food or standard-coloured green food items and then we tested whether female preferences for artificially red-coloured male ornaments matched their previous foraging experience. We found a strong effect of food treatment: females trained on red food showed a stronger response to males with red-coloured ornaments than females trained on green food. Our results show that ecological variation can generate divergence of female preferences for male ornaments and that the response in preference to environmental change can be rapid if the bias is partly learnt.

    Keywords
    Corynopoma riisei, diet, mate choice, sensory exploitation, sexual selection, swordtail characin
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-203305 (URN)10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.02.001 (DOI)000319332000004 ()
    Available from: 2013-07-08 Created: 2013-07-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Diversification of a Food-Mimicking Male Ornament via Sensory Drive
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversification of a Food-Mimicking Male Ornament via Sensory Drive
    2012 (English)In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 22, no 15, p. 1440-1443Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The evolutionary divergence of sexual signals is often important during the formation of new animal species, but our understanding of the origin of signal diversity is limited [1, 2]. Sensory drive, the optimization of communication signal efficiency through matching to the local environment, has been highlighted as a potential promoter of diversification and speciation [3]. The swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei) is a tropical fish in which males display a flag-like ornament that elicits female foraging behavior during courtship. We show that the shape of the male ornament covaries with female diet across natural populations. More specifically, natural populations in which the female diet is more dominated by ants exhibit male ornaments more similar to the shape of an ant. Feeding experiments confirm that females habituated to a diet of ants prefer to bite at male ornaments from populations with a diet more dominated by ants. Our results show that the male ornament functions as a "fishing lure" that is diversifying in shape to match local variation in female search images employed during foraging. This direct link between variation in female feeding ecology and the evolutionary diversification of male sexual ornaments suggests that sensory drive may be a common engine of signal divergence.

    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-181121 (URN)10.1016/j.cub.2012.05.050 (DOI)000307415000026 ()
    Available from: 2012-09-19 Created: 2012-09-17 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    4. Courtship signalling with a labile bilateral signal: males show their best side
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Courtship signalling with a labile bilateral signal: males show their best side
    2009 (English)In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 63, no 12, p. 1717-1725Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Asymmetries in courtship signals can result from both developmental instability during ontogeny and from temporary or permanent damage following mating, fighting, or interactions with predators. These two types of asymmetries, which can be divided into fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and damage asymmetry (DA), have both been suggested to play an important role in mate choice as potential honest indicators of phenotypic and/or genetic quality, while at the same time, DA may affect ornament asymmetry in a random manner. Interestingly, despite the massive research effort that has been devoted to the study of asymmetry during the past decades, very little is known about how an individual's behaviour relates to asymmetry. Here, we measure and characterise asymmetry in morphological courtship signals in Corynopoma riisei, a fish where males carry elaborate paddle-like appendices on each side of the body that they display in front of females during courtship. Moreover, we investigate whether male courtship display, employing this bilateral morphological trait, reflects trait asymmetry. Finally, we assess whether males respond to phenotypic manipulations of DA with corresponding changes in courtship behaviour. We show that male display behaviour is asymmetric in a manner that reflects asymmetry of their morphological courtship trait and that male display behaviour responds to manipulations of asymmetry of these paddles. Our results thus suggest that males preferentially use their best side and, hence, that males respond adaptively to temporary changes in signal trait asymmetry.

    Keywords
    Sexual signalling, Sexual selection, Lateralization, Mate choice, Sensory bias, Indicator, Self-awareness
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-127482 (URN)10.1007/s00265-009-0785-7 (DOI)000270684200003 ()
    Available from: 2010-07-15 Created: 2010-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Multiple male sexual signals and female responsiveness in the swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple male sexual signals and female responsiveness in the swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei
    2015 (English)In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 98, no 7, p. 1731-1740Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the courtship process, multiple signals are often used between the signaller and the receiver. Here we describe female response to multiple male visual morphological and behavioural signals in the swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei. The swordtail characin is a species in which males display several morphological ornaments as well as a rich courtship repertoire. Our results show that high courtship intensity was associated with an increased female response towards the male ornament, increased number of mating attempts and a reduction in female aggression. The morphological aspects investigated here did not seem to correlate with female response. This may indicate that, when both behaviour and morphology are considered simultaneously, courtship behaviour may have priority over morphological cues in this species.

    Keywords
    courtship, multiple signalling, visual cues, morphology, mate choice
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207333 (URN)10.1007/s10641-015-0388-2 (DOI)000355620700001 ()
    Available from: 2013-09-12 Created: 2013-09-12 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
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  • 29.
    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands.;Behbahan Khatam Alanbia Univ Technol, Dept Environm Sci, Behbahan, Iran..
    Xu, Charles C. Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands..
    Kingma, Sjouke A.
    Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands..
    Komdeur, Jan
    Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands..
    Effect of tree logging on reproductive performance in Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus)2017In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 158, no 1, p. 339-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For birds, habitat quality is largely determined by local vegetation, and reproductive performance can therefore be negatively influenced by anthropogenic activities. A tree logging event enabled us to examine the effect of removing trees of different maturities and types on the reproductive performance of Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Against expectations, only the logging of small coniferous trees, but not larger and deciduous trees, was associated with a reduction in the number of eggs laid, whereas logging had no significant effect on lay date. Therefore, we conclude that modest logging activity has no or limited negative influence on Blue Tit reproductive performance.

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  • 30.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Differentiation and Pathogenicity within the Saprolegniaceae: Studies on Physiology and Gene Expression Patterns in Saprolegnia parasitica and Aphanomyces astaci2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Saprolegnia parasitica and Aphanomyces astaci are parasitic water moulds belonging to the Oomycetes. Despite their importance as parasites they are very little studied at the molecular level and the work described in this thesis was aimed at increasing the molecular knowledge of these organisms by cloning and characterising genes of potential importance for reproduction and pathogenicity.

    Stage-specific transcripts from Saprolegnia parasitica were isolated by differential display RT-PCR. One of the markers, puf1 encodes a putative mRNA binding protein which may be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. S. parasitica puf1 is expressed exclusively in spore cysts that have not been determined for germination or repeated zoospore emergence indicating that the cyst stage has two phases, of about equal duration, which are physiologically and transcriptionally distinct. A similar expression pattern is observed in Aphanomyces spp. with different regulation of spore development and in the transcript is detected in both primary and secondary cysts.

    A putative chitinase AaChi1, was cloned from the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci. Analysis of chitinase activity and AaChi1 expression showed that chitinase in A. astaci is constitutively expressed in growing and sporulating mycelia, but absent in zoospores, a pattern which reflects the infectious life cycle of A. astaci. This expression pattern is conserved between the four known genotypes of A. astaci, in contrast to saprophytic and fish-pathogenic Aphanomyces spp.

    Genetic and physiological analysis were conducted on five strains of Aphanomyces, isolated from suspected outbreaks of crayfish plague in Spain and Italy. The strains are not virulent against freshwater crayfish, and RAPD PCR and ITS sequence analysis show that they are unrelated to the crayfish plague fungus, A. astaci.

    List of papers
    1. Pumilio homologue from Saprolegnia parasitica specifically expressed in undifferentiated spore cysts
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pumilio homologue from Saprolegnia parasitica specifically expressed in undifferentiated spore cysts
    2002 In: Eukaryotic Cell, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89574 (URN)
    Available from: 2001-12-20 Created: 2001-12-20Bibliographically approved
    2. Comparison of pufI expression in Aphanomyces spp. with different regulation of germination
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of pufI expression in Aphanomyces spp. with different regulation of germination
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89575 (URN)
    Available from: 2001-12-20 Created: 2001-12-20 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Analysis of chitinase expression in the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of chitinase expression in the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci
    Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89576 (URN)
    Available from: 2001-12-20 Created: 2001-12-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Physiological and Genetic Characterisation of some Aphanomyces Strains Isolated from Freshwater Crayfish
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physiological and Genetic Characterisation of some Aphanomyces Strains Isolated from Freshwater Crayfish
    Show others...
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89577 (URN)
    Available from: 2001-12-20 Created: 2001-12-20 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
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  • 31.
    Andersson, Matilda L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Sundberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Eklöv, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Chasing away accurate results: exhaustive chase protocols underestimate maximum metabolic rate estimates in European perch Perca fluviatilis2020In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 97, no 6, p. 1644-1650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic rates are one of many measures that are used to explain species' response to environmental change. Static respirometry is used to calculate the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of fish, and when combined with exhaustive chase protocols it can be used to measure maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope (AS) as well. While these methods have been tested in comparison to swim tunnels and chambers with circular currents, they have not been tested in comparison with a no‐chase control. We used a repeated‐measures design to compare estimates of SMR, MMR and AS in European perch Perca fluviatilis following three protocols: (a) a no‐chase control; (b) a 3‐min exhaustive chase; and (c) a 3‐min exhaustive chase followed by 1‐min air exposure. We found that, contrary to expectations, exhaustive chase protocols underestimate MMR and AS at 18°C, compared to the no‐chase control. This suggests that metabolic rates of other species with similar locomotorty modes or lifestyles could be similarly underestimated using chase protocols. These underestimates have implications for studies examining metabolic performance and responses to climate change scenarios. To prevent underestimates, future experiments measuring metabolic rates should include a pilot with a no‐chase control or, when appropriate, an adjusted methodology in which trials end with the exhaustive chase instead of beginning with it.

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  • 32.
    Andersson, Måns Sverker
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. zooekologi.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Glycosylated haemoglobin: a new measure of condition in birds1995In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, no 260, p. 299-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The influence of condition on time of breeding and reproductive success has been discussed since Darwin first suggested a relation in 1871. We used a novel method to investigate the influence of condition on the timing of breeding and reproductive success by measuring a relatively inert physiological parameter - the amount of glycosylated haemoglobin - in blood samples taken from the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. The percentage of glycosylated haemoglobin (%HbG) was assumed to be proportional to the average blood glucose level, during the 3-5 weeks before the blood sampling. The %HbG was influenced neither by sex nor age. Date of arrival at the breeding ground was negatively correlated with %HbG so that early-arriving birds had significantly higher %HbG than those arriving later. Clutch size, corrected for the effect of laying date, correlated positively with %HbG in females, as did the number of fledged young, corrected for the effect of laying date, for both sexes. We found no correlation between body mass and the %HbG. We suggest that prebreeding condition influences the timing of breeding and subsequent reproductive performance and that %HbG can be used as an indicator of prebreeding-condition in migrating birds.

  • 33.
    Angthong, Pacharaporn
    et al.
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Program Biotechnol, Fac Sci..
    Roytrakul, Sittiruk
    Natl Sci & Technol Dev Agcy, Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC..
    Jarayabhand, Padermsak
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Grad Sch, Interdisciplinary Grad Program Maritime Adm..
    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Characterization and function of a tachylectin 5-like immune molecule in Penaeus monodon2017In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 76, p. 120-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tachylectin5A and its homolog, tachylectin5B both contain a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and have been studied in horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and shown to be involved in host defense. Here, we demonstrate the presence of tachylectin5-like genes in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, designated as Penlectin5-1 (PL5-1) and Penlectin5-2 (PL5-2), which both contain a signal peptide and a single FReD with an acetyl group and a calcium binding sites and they are both structurally similar to horseshoe crab tachylectin/carcinolectin5. The PL5-land PL5-2 transcript were expressed in various shrimp tissues in normal shrimp, and their expression was upregulated in tissues such as hemocytes and hindgut following challenge with pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. The PL5-2 protein was detected in various tissues as well as in cell-free hemolymph. The biological function of the PL5-2 protein is to recognize some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria regardless whether they are non-pathogenic or pathogenic. They have hemagglutination activity on human erythrocyte and bacterial agglutination activity to both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Possible binding sites of PL5-2 to bacteria could be at the N-acetyl moiety of the G1cNAc-MurNAc cell wall of the peptidoglycan since the binding could be inhibited by G1cNAc or GaINAC. The presence of PL5-2 protein in both circulating hemolymph and intestine, where host and microbes are usually interacting, may suggest that the physiological function of shrimp tachylectin-like proteins is to recognize and bind to invading bacteria to immobilize and entrap these microbes and subsequently clear them from circulation and the host body, and probably to control and maintain the normal flora in the intestine.

  • 34.
    Angthong, Pacharaporn
    et al.
    Program in Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University..
    Roytrakul, Sittiruk
    National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC); National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA)..
    Jarayabhand, Padermsak
    Interdisciplinary Graduate Program on Maritime Administration, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University..
    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Involvement of a tachylectin-like gene and its protein in pathogenesis of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon2017In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 76, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shrimp disease, the so-called acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by a specific strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) and it has resulted in significant losses to the global shrimp farming industry. In our previous study, three of tachylectin-like genes were cloned and characterized from the intestine of Penaeus monodon, designated as Penlectin5-1 (PL5-1), Penlectin5-2 (PL5-2) and Penlectin5-3 (PL5-3). These three genes all contain fibrinogen-related domain (FReD). The expression level of PL5-1, PL5-2 and PL5-3 was elevated in the stomach after oral administration with AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus 3HP (VP3HP). A polyclonal antibody to PL5-2 was successfully produced in a rabbit using the purified recombinant P15-2 as an immunogen, and this because only the predominant protein PL5-2 could be successfully purified from shrimp plasma by affinity chromatography using a N-Acetyl-oglucosamine column allowed us to perform functional studies of this lectin. The native purified PL5-2 protein had binding and agglutination activities towards VP3HR To further understand the functions and the involvements of this lectin in response to AHPND in shrimp, RNAi-mediated knockdown of PL5-1, PL5-2 or PL5-3 was performed prior to an oral administration of VP3HP. As a result, Penlectin5-silencing in shrimp challenged with VP3HP showed higher mortality and resulted in more severe histopathological changes in the hepatopancreas with typical signs of AHPND. These results therefore suggest a role for crustacean fibrinogen-related proteins (FRePs) in innate immune response during the development of AHPND, and maybe also during other infections.

  • 35.
    Aplin, L. M.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Firth, J. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Farine, D. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, Ancon, Italy..
    Voelkl, B.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Crates, R. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Culina, A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Garroway, C. J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Hinde, C. A.
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Anim Sci, Behav Ecol Grp, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Kidd, L. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Psorakis, I.
    Univ Oxford, Math Inst, Oxford, England..
    Milligan, N. D.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Radersma, R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Unit, Lund, Sweden..
    Verhelst, B. L.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Sheldon, B. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Consistent individual differences in the social phenotypes of wild great tits, Parus major2015In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 108, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest in animal social networks, surprisingly little is known about whether individuals are consistent in their social network characteristics. Networks are rarely repeatedly sampled; yet an assumption of individual consistency in social behaviour is often made when drawing conclusions about the consequences of social processes and structure. A characterization of such social phenotypes is therefore vital to understanding the significance of social network structure for individual fitness outcomes, and for understanding the evolution and ecology of individual variation in social behaviour more broadly. Here, we measured foraging associations over three winters in a large PIT-tagged population of great tits, and used a range of social network metrics to quantify individual variation in social behaviour. We then examined repeatability in social behaviour over both short (week to week) and long (year to year) timescales, and investigated variation in repeatability across age and sex classes. Social behaviours were significantly repeatable across all timescales, with the highest repeatability observed in group size choice and unweighted degree, a measure of gregariousness. By conducting randomizations to control for the spatial and temporal distribution of individuals, we further show that differences in social phenotypes were not solely explained by within-population variation in local densities, but also reflected fine-scale variation in social decision making. Our results provide rare evidence of stable social phenotypes in a wild population of animals. Such stable social phenotypes can be targets of selection and may have important fitness consequences, both for individuals and for their social-foraging associates.

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  • 36.
    Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Polish Acad Sci, Inst Systemat & Evolut Anim, Ul Slawkowska 17, PL-31016 Krakow, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Biol Environm & Earth Sci, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Dubiec, Anna
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Wilcza 64, PL-00679 Warsaw, Poland..
    Martyka, Rafal
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nat Conservat, Mickiewicza 33, PL-31120 Krakow, Poland..
    Sudyka, Joanna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    The interactive effect of ambient temperature and brood size manipulation on nestling body mass in blue tits: an exploratory analysis of a long-term study2022In: Frontiers in Zoology, E-ISSN 1742-9994, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Relatively few studies have examined the interactive effects of ecological factors on physiological responses in wild animals. Nearly all of them have been short-term investigations that did not include experimental manipulations, limiting our ability to understand how climate change will affect natural populations. Using a 10-year brood size manipulation experiment in wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), we quantified the impact of weather conditions and brood competition on the body mass and structural size (tarsus length) of nestlings just prior to leaving the nest. Results We found that variation in nestling body mass on day 14 after hatching was explained by an interactive effect between average ambient temperature experienced during nestling period and brood size treatment. Specifically, in control broods nestling body mass was correlated with temperature in a non-linear manner (concave) with the vertex point (maximum body mass) at ca. 13 degrees C. In contrast, in enlarged broods nestling body mass permanently increased (also non-linearly) as temperature advanced. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of considering the effects of brood rearing conditions alongside other environmental factors experienced during growth while investigating early-life environmental effects on body condition.

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  • 37.
    Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Polish Acad Sci, Inst Systemat & Evolut Anim, Ul Slawkowska 17, PL-31016 Krakow, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Biol Environm & Earth Sci, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Mellinger, Samantha
    Mol Ecol & Evolut Lab, Dept Biol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Martyka, Rafal
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nat Conservat, Mickiewicza 33, PL-31120 Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Extra-pair paternity in Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) depends on the combination of social partners' age2022In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 164, no 2, p. 388-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing evidence that engaging in extra-pair copulations may be a strategy by which females can modify their initial mate choice if they are constrained by primary choice of the social mate. Several factors such as genetic similarity and adult phenotypic traits can affect extra-pair paternity (EPP) patterns, but the relative importance of these factors may vary among species. Moreover, interactive effects of male and female characteristics have rarely been considered. Here, we aimed to study how multiple parameters characterizing a breeding pair (i.e. genetic similarity between mates, partners' age and laying date) predict the occurrence of EPP at the brood level. The study uses 4 years of data from a wild population of Blue Tits Cyanistes caeruleus. Contrary to predictions of the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis, we did not find a positive relationship between the occurrence of EPP and the relatedness of social mates. We also found that the probability of EPP was unrelated to laying date. However, EPP was predicted by an interaction of social partners' ages. Specifically, EPP was less likely when old females were paired with old males in comparison to old females paired to young males. Our study suggests that the occurrence of EPP may be the result of behavioural interactions in which both male and female age are important for determining the outcome. Our results confirm the importance of considering the interactions of male and female characteristics in studies investigating EPP patterns.

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  • 38. Arganda, S.
    et al.
    Nicolis, Stamatios C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Perochain, A.
    Pechabadens, C.
    Latil, G.
    Dussutour, A.
    Collective choice in ants: The role of protein and carbohydrates ratios2014In: Journal of insect physiology, ISSN 0022-1910, E-ISSN 1879-1611, Vol. 69, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a foraging context, social insects make collective decisions from individuals responding to local information. When faced with foods varying in quality, ants are known to be able to select the best food source using pheromone trails. Until now, studies investigating collective decisions have focused on single nutrients, mostly carbohydrates. In the environment, the foods available are a complex mixture and are composed of various nutrients, available in different forms. In this paper, we explore the effect of protein to carbohydrate ratio on ants' ability to detect and choose between foods with different protein characteristics (free amino acids or whole proteins). In a two-choice set up, Argentine ants Linepithema humile were presented with two artificial foods containing either whole protein or amino acids in two different dietary conditions: high protein food or high carbohydrate food. At the collective level, when ants were faced with high carbohydrate foods, they did not show a preference between free amino acids or whole proteins, while a preference for free amino acids emerged when choosing between high protein foods. At the individual level, the probability of feeding was higher for high carbohydrates food and for foods containing free amino acids. Two mathematical models were developed to evaluate the importance of feeding probability in collective food selection. A first model in which a forager deposits pheromone only after feeding, and a second model in which a forager always deposits pheromone, but with greater intensity after feeding. Both models were able to predict free amino acid selection, however the second one was better able to reproduce the experimental results suggesting that modulating trail strength according to feeding probability is likely the mechanism explaining amino acid preference at a collective level in Argentine ants.

  • 39.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rowe, Locke
    The shape of preference functions and what shapes them: a comment on Edward2015In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 325-325Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Ashitani, T.
    et al.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Bioenvirom, Fac Agr, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 9978555, Japan.;Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Garboui, Samira Sadek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Schubert, F.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vongsombath, C.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Natl Univ Laos NOUL, Viangchan, Laos..
    Liblikas, I.
    Inst Technol, Sect Organ Chem, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Palsson, K.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borg-Karlson, A. -K
    Activity studies of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides from the plant Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and its repellency on Ixodes ricinus (Acari:Ixodidae)2015In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 595-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), a plant traditionally used as a mosquito repellent, has been investigated for repellent properties against nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Essential oils and volatile compounds of fresh and dried leaves, from plants originating from Laos and Guinea-Bissau, were identified by GC-MS and tested in a tick repellency bioassay. All the essential oils were strongly repellent against the ticks, even though the main volatile constituents differed in their proportions of potentially tick repellent chemicals. (+)/(-)-sabinene were present in high amounts in all preparations, and dominated the emission from dry and fresh leaves together with 1,8-cineol and alpha-phellandrene. 1,8-Cineol and sabinene were major compounds in the essential oils from H. suaveolens from Laos. Main compounds in H. suaveolens from Guinea-Bissau were (-)-sabinene, limonene and terpinolene. Among the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified, alpha-humulene exhibited strong tick repellency (96.8 %). Structure activity studies of oxidation or sulfidation products of germacrene D, alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, showed increased tick repellent activity: of mint sulfide (59.4 %), humulene-6,7-oxide (94.5 %) and caryophyllene-6,7-oxide (96.9 %). The substitution of oxygen with sulfur slightly lowered the repellency. The effects of the constituents in the oils can then be regarded as a trade off between the subsequently lower volatility of the sesquiterpene derivatives compared to the monoterpenes and may thus increase their potential usefulness as tick repellents.

  • 41.
    Ast, Jennifer C
    University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
    Mitochondrial DNA evidence and evolution in Varanoidea (Squamata)2001In: Cladistics, ISSN 0748-3007, E-ISSN 1096-0031, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 211-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Varanoidea is a monophyletic group of anguimorph lizards, comprising the New World helodermatids, the Bornean earless monitor Lanthanotus borneensis, and the Old World monitors (Varanus). I use mitochondrial DNA sequences and extensive taxonomic sampling to test alternative hypotheses of varanoid relationships. The most parsimonious hypothesis confirms the monophyly of Varanoidea (Heloderma, Lanthanotus, and Varanus) and Varanus, as well as the sister-taxon relationship of Varanus and Lanthanotus. The relationships among Varanus species differ in several respects from previous hypotheses. Three major lineages are recognized within Varanus: an African clade basal to the rest of the group, an Indo-Asian clade, and an Indo-Australian clade. Within the last lineage, the endemic Australian dwarf monitors (Odatria) form a clade sister to the large Australian monitors (the gouldii group). Tests of the effects of rate heterogeneity and homoplasy demonstrate that putative process partitions of data are largely congruent with one another and contribute positive support to the overall hypothesis.

  • 42.
    Axling, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Intraspecific divergence and phenotypic plasticity in behavioural profiles of teleost fish2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioural differences between and within individuals can greatly affect the outcome of behavioural studies. In addition, behavioural interactions between individuals can compromise the health and welfare of captive fish. In paper I, I investigate the relationship between locomotory activity, boldness and aggressive behaviour in ~2000 hatchery-reared Baltic salmon parr (Salmo salar L), with the aim to predict aggression level from activity and boldness displayed in the open field test. We found that activity and boldness were positively correlated while they were not correlated with aggression level measured in the mirror stimulation test. Surprisingly, medium and low aggressive fish were the most active, while highly aggressive fish showed only average activity. We conclude that the open field test, although efficient, does not accurately predict aggressive behaviour. However, the mirror stimulation test can be used for high-throughput aggression profiling of juvenile salmon. In paper II, I tested a subset of the salmon parr for a second time, to quantify behavioural consistency between trials and to investigate if phenotypic plasticity was related to aggression level. Our results show that activity was the most stable behavioural variable between trials. Even though aggression was not consistent between tests, we found that the fish displaying a low level of aggression in the first test were less consistent in their behaviour than highly aggressive fish. In paper III, we compared the behavioural development of zebrafish larvae of two strains, the AB strain and 5th generation offspring of wild-caught zebrafish from India. Individual larvae were screened for activity and boldness at the age of 5-, 7-, 12- and 30-days post fertilization using an open field test with alternating light and dark cycles. Furthermore, we analysed mRNA expression of genes encoding serotonin, dopamine, galanin and opioid receptor subunits, as well the peptide neurotransmitter spexin in whole brain samples from juveniles, with the aim to investigate potential neuroendocrine mechanisms of divergent behavioural profiles. Our results show that larvae from the wild strain had higher activity and greater variance in their behaviour than AB larvae, under both light and dark conditions. Wild larvae also had significantly higher expression of dopamine receptor subunit drd2b at 30 days post fertilization, a difference that could be related to difference in activity. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis contribute to our understanding of animal behavioural profiles, at both an intraspecific and intraindividual level. 

    List of papers
    1. Locomotory activity is more consistent over trials than thigmotaxis and aggressive behaviour in sea-ranched Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Locomotory activity is more consistent over trials than thigmotaxis and aggressive behaviour in sea-ranched Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study we examined the behavioural consistency over time of activity, boldness and aggressive behaviour in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L) parr. We performed a combined open field and mirror stimulation test on two test occasions, recording three behavioural variables: duration moving in the whole arena (activity), duration in centre zone (boldness) and distance between nose and mirror (aggression) during the mirror stimulation test. Of these behavioural variables activity proved the most consistent between trials. Moreover, the fish that displayed least aggressive behaviour in the first trial had the largest variance in their behavioural variables compared to highly aggressive fish, which showed more consistent levels of the behavioural variables. Overall, aggression level in the first test was a strong predictor of the other behavioural variables, in addition to significant effects of water temperature and body weight. In conclusion, our results show that juvenile Baltic salmon classified according to aggression level during the first test also differ in other aspects of their behavioural profile, and highly aggressive salmon are less phenotypically plastic compared to low aggressive fish. 

    Keywords
    aggression, activity, Salmo salar, open field test, mirror stimulation test, phenotypic plasticity, repeated testing, consistency, repeatability
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Comparative Physiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-486715 (URN)
    Available from: 2022-10-14 Created: 2022-10-14 Last updated: 2022-10-16
    2. Boldness, activity, and aggression: Insights from a large-scale study in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boldness, activity, and aggression: Insights from a large-scale study in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L)
    2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 7, article id e0287836Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) display high levels of agonistic behavior in aquaculture farms, resulting in fin damage and chronic stress. Aggression affects fish growth and performance negatively and presents a serious welfare problem. Indeed, it would be beneficial to identify, separate or exclude overly aggressive individuals. Research on behavioral syndromes suggests that aggressive behavior may correlate with traits from other contexts, such as boldness and locomotory activity. We aimed to develop a high-throughput method to quantify and predict aggressive behavior of individual parr in hatchery-reared Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.). We screened approximately 2000 parr in open field (OF) and mirror image stimulation (MIS) tests. We extracted seven variables from video tracking software for each minute of the tests; distance moved and duration moving (activity), the duration in and number of entries to the center of the arena (boldness), the distance moved in, and duration spent in the area adjacent to the mirror during the MIS test (aggressiveness) and head direction (lateralization). To investigate the relationship between activity, boldness, and aggression we first correlated the first six variables to one another. Second, we assigned individuals to high, medium, low or zero aggression groups based on the MIS test and quantified activity and boldness in each group. Third, we analyzed whether the fish viewed the mirror with the left or right eye. Our results show that medium and low aggressive fish were the most active, while highly aggressive fish showed average activity. Aggressive groups did not differ in boldness. Activity and boldness were positively correlated. Finally, we detected a preference for fish to view the mirror with the left eye. We conclude that although the OF may not accurately predict aggressive behavior, the MIS test can be used for large-scale aggression profiling of juvenile salmon

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023
    Keywords
    Behavior, Aggression, Mirror test, Lateralization, Boldness, Salmo salar
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Research subject
    Medical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-486676 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0287836 (DOI)001035045000091 ()37471414 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, ANIHWA 2014-01842Swedish Research Council, VR 2017-03779
    Available from: 2022-10-14 Created: 2022-10-14 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Boldness in Zebrafish Larvae-Development and Differences between a Domesticated Lab Strain and Offspring of Wild-Caught Fish
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boldness in Zebrafish Larvae-Development and Differences between a Domesticated Lab Strain and Offspring of Wild-Caught Fish
    Show others...
    2022 (English)In: Fishes, E-ISSN 2410-3888, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are becoming one of the most important model organisms in behavioural neuroscience. It has been shown repeatedly that different zebrafish strains show large behavioural differences. These divergent behavioural profiles may have a genetic basis, but environmental factors and previous experience are also known to greatly affect the behavioural phenotype of zebrafish. It could be expected that behavioural differences at the larval stage should be less affected by environmental factors and experience. In the present study, we screened larvae of zebrafish of the AB strain and offspring of wild-caught zebrafish for boldness, using an open field test. In order to follow the behavioural development, we studied larvae at the age of 5-, 7-, 12- and 30-days post fertilization (dpf). Behaviour, as well as behavioural development, clearly differed between the larvae of the different strains. Wild larvae showed larger total distance moved than AB larvae, both at light and dark conditions. These differences were already present at 12 dpf but became more pronounced with age. Wild larvae had a greater variance compared to AB larvae for most of the variables. We have previously shown that bold and shy adult zebrafish differ in the brain expression of dopamine and opioid receptors. The results of the current study show that wild larvae display significantly higher brain expression of drd2b than AB larvae at 30 dpf, a difference that could be related to differences in activity. We did not detect any differences in the expression of opioid receptors.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI AG, 2022
    Keywords
    behaviour, boldness, anxiety, larvae, domestication, dopamine, opioid receptors
    National Category
    Developmental Biology Zoology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-484232 (URN)10.3390/fishes7040197 (DOI)000846021900001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR-NT11 2017-03779
    Available from: 2022-09-12 Created: 2022-09-12 Last updated: 2022-10-14Bibliographically approved
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  • 43.
    Axling, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Jakobsson, Hampus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Frymus, Natalia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Thörnqvist, P O
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Petersson, Erik
    Swedish Univ Agr, Dept Aquat Resources, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Boldness in Zebrafish Larvae-Development and Differences between a Domesticated Lab Strain and Offspring of Wild-Caught Fish2022In: Fishes, E-ISSN 2410-3888, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are becoming one of the most important model organisms in behavioural neuroscience. It has been shown repeatedly that different zebrafish strains show large behavioural differences. These divergent behavioural profiles may have a genetic basis, but environmental factors and previous experience are also known to greatly affect the behavioural phenotype of zebrafish. It could be expected that behavioural differences at the larval stage should be less affected by environmental factors and experience. In the present study, we screened larvae of zebrafish of the AB strain and offspring of wild-caught zebrafish for boldness, using an open field test. In order to follow the behavioural development, we studied larvae at the age of 5-, 7-, 12- and 30-days post fertilization (dpf). Behaviour, as well as behavioural development, clearly differed between the larvae of the different strains. Wild larvae showed larger total distance moved than AB larvae, both at light and dark conditions. These differences were already present at 12 dpf but became more pronounced with age. Wild larvae had a greater variance compared to AB larvae for most of the variables. We have previously shown that bold and shy adult zebrafish differ in the brain expression of dopamine and opioid receptors. The results of the current study show that wild larvae display significantly higher brain expression of drd2b than AB larvae at 30 dpf, a difference that could be related to differences in activity. We did not detect any differences in the expression of opioid receptors.

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  • 44.
    Backstroem, Tobias
    et al.
    Univ Koblenz Landau, Inst Integrated Nat Sci, Univ Str 1, D-56070 Koblenz, Germany..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Winberg: Behavioral Neuroendocrinology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Winberg: Behavioral Neuroendocrinology.
    Social effects on AVT and CRF systems2021In: Fish Physiology & Biochemistry, ISSN 0920-1742, E-ISSN 1573-5168, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1699-1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and aggression have negative effects on fish welfare and productivity in aquaculture. Thus, research to understand aggression and stress in farmed fish is required. The neuropeptides arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) are involved in the control of stress and aggression. Therefore, we investigated the effect of agonistic interactions on the gene expression of AVT, CRF and their receptors in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The social interactions lead to a clear dominant-subordinate relationship with dominant fish feeding more and being more aggressive. Subordinate fish had an upregulation of the AVT receptor (AVT-R), an upregulation of CRF mRNA levels, and higher plasma cortisol levels. The attenuating effect of AVT on aggression in rainbow trout is proposed to be mediated by AVT-R, and the attenuating effect of the CRF system is proposed to be mediated by CRF.

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  • 45.
    Ballesteros, Ainara
    et al.
    Inst Marine Sci ICM CSIC, Dept Marine Biol & Oceanog, Barcelona, Spain..
    Östman, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Santin, Andreu
    Inst Marine Sci ICM CSIC, Dept Marine Biol & Oceanog, Barcelona, Spain..
    Marambio, Macarena
    Inst Marine Sci ICM CSIC, Dept Marine Biol & Oceanog, Barcelona, Spain..
    Narda, Mridvika
    ISDIN, Innovat & Dev, Barcelona, Spain..
    Gili, Josep-Maria
    Inst Marine Sci ICM CSIC, Dept Marine Biol & Oceanog, Barcelona, Spain..
    Cnidome and Morphological Features of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) Throughout the Different Life Cycle Stages2021In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 8, article id 714503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pelagia noctiluca is considered the most important jellyfish in the Mediterranean Sea, due to its abundance and the severity of its stings. Despite its importance in marine ecosystems and the health problems caused by its massive arrival in coastal areas, little is known about its early life stages and its cnidome has never been described. This study of the morphological and anatomical features throughout the life cycle identifies four early stages: two ephyra and two metaephyra stages. Ephyra stage 1, newly developed from a planula, has no velar canals, gastric filaments or nematocyst batteries. Ephyra stage 2, has velar canals, a cruciform-shaped manubrium and gastric filaments. Metaephyra stage 3 has eight tentacle buds and nematocyst clusters for the first time. Lastly, in metaephyra stage 4, the eight primary tentacles grow nearly simultaneously, with no secondary tentacles. Complete nematocyst battery patterns gradually develop throughout the later life stages. Four nematocyst types are identified: a-isorhiza, A-isorhiza, O-isorhiza and eurytele. Of these, a-isorhiza and eurytele are the most important throughout the entire life cycle, while A-isorhiza and O-isorhiza have a more important role in advanced stages. All nematocysts show a positive correlation between increasing capsule volumes and increasing body diameter of the ephyrae, metaephyrae, young medusae and adult medusae. In the early stages, the volumes of euryteles in the gastric filaments are larger than those in the exumbrella, indicating that the capsule volume is critical in the absence of marginal tentacles, specialized for feeding. This study provides updated information, the most extensive description to date, including high-resolution photographs and schematic drawings of all the developmental stages in the life cycle of P. noctiluca. Additionally, the first cnidome characterization is provided for each stage to facilitate accurate identification of this species when collected in the water column, and to raise awareness of the potential for human envenomation.

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  • 46.
    Bangyeekhun, Eakaphun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Parasite on Crayfish: Characterisation of Their Pathogenesis, Host Interactions and Diversity2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The crayfish plague refractory crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, which can harbour the fungal parasite within melanotic sheath, are found to constitutively express the gene encoding for prophenoloxidase (proPO) after mimicking parasite attack. In contrast, the susceptible crayfish, Astacus astacus, responds to the parasite by increased levels of proPO transcript, particularly in the semigranular haemocytes. The upregulation of proPO could confer a temporary resistance towards the fungal infection, suggesting that additional factors are involved in maintaining the balance between host and parasite. The resistant crayfish may have adapted to the parasite by increasing the transcript level of immune genes. The parasite can be considered as a symbiont since it does not harm the host rather than it activates the immune gene and possibly preventing other pathogens to become established.

    Two serine proteinase genes encoding a subtilisin-like (AaSP1) and a trypsin (AaSP2) enzyme were isolated from the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci. These proteinases are prepropeptides and generate mature proteins of 39 kDa and 29 kDa, respectively. Characterisation of AaSP1 suggests that the enzyme may be involved in intracellular control mechanisms rather than playing a role in pathogenesis. The AaSP2 transcript was not controlled by catabolic repression, but was induced by crayfish plasma, implying a role in pathogenesis toward the crayfish host.

    Physiology and genetics of five Aphanomyces strains, which were isolated from moribund crayfish, were characterised with regard to their pathogen diversity. These strains are not virulent against crayfish. Some physiological properties of these strains differed from A. astaci, such as growth rate, germination and production of chitinase. Genetic analysis clearly indicated that they are not related to A. astaci and their name are proposed to be Aphanomyces repetans.

    The crayfish P. leniusculus was found to be susceptible to white spot syndrome virus infection. The virus has a significant effect to the population of crayfish haemocyte. The number and proportion of granular cell from virus-infected crayfish were higher than in controls, indicating granular cells are more resistant to and may interact by some means with the virus.

    Two morphotypes of the crayfish parasite Psorospermium haeckeli obtained from different crayfish hosts of different geographical origin were analysed for ribosomal ITS DNA in order to compare their genetic diversity. The sequence difference between them was found largely in ITS 1 and ITS 2 regions, which was variable in length and showed 66% and 58% sequence similarity. Thus, different morphotypes of P. haeckeli are genetically diverse.

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  • 47.
    Barnaby, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Cooperative Breeding in the Southern Anteater-Chat: Sexual Disparity, Survival and Dispersal2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Group-living sets the scene for complex social behaviours such as cooperative breeding, and exploring the factors that shape group-living is crucial in understanding these behaviours. This thesis explores the ecology of a population of the facultative cooperative breeding southern anteater-chat (Myrmecocichla formicivora), a group-living bird species endemic to southern Africa. It reveals a breeding system based around a breeding pair and up to three auxiliary males. Despite equal numbers of males and females produced as fledglings there was a surplus of adult males, which remained philopatric. Dispersal was strongly female biased. Females dispersed within their first year, they dispersed further than males, and they lost the benefits of the natal site. The sex skew in the population suggested that these factors drive differential mortality, with juvenile females having much lower annual survival than juvenile males. Adult survival was higher, with female survival only slightly lower than male survival. Dispersal distances suggested that males selected the breeding location, nearer to their natal site. There was no evidence of surplus non-breeding females. On the loss of a breeding female there was no replacement until new females entered the population, yet if a breeding male disappeared the female promptly re-paired with a male from another group. There was no indication of birds floating in the population, and if males were orphaned or widowed they joined other groups as unrelated helpers in preference to floating. There was no sign of inter-group or individual aggression among chats, and unrelated helpers were peacefully accepted into groups, suggesting mutual benefits. In fact all birds in a group helped raise offspring of the breeding pair, and groups with more helpers fledged more offspring, which implies that both direct and indirect fitness benefits can be gained through joining a group and helping. There was surprisingly little inheritance of breeding position by auxiliaries, and strikingly low levels of extra-pair paternity. This study suggests that the Southern anteater-chat group structure arises through male philopatry due to a shortage of breeding females, the benefits of remaining on the natal site and helping, and the potentially high costs of living alone.

    List of papers
    1. Group-living in the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group-living in the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Group-living sets the scene for complex social behaviours such as cooperative breeding, and exploring the factors that shape group-living is crucial in understanding these behaviours. Here we describe some aspects of the ecology of a population of the facultative cooperative breeding southern anteater-chat (Myrmecocichla formicivora), a group living bird species endemic to southern Africa. We used data from a four year study of individually marked birds, with pedigrees completed using microsatellite genotyping. Southern anteater-chats live in groups of 2-5 individuals - a breeding pair and up to three additional none-breeders. These auxiliary birds were either retained offspring or unrelated individuals, and all birds in a group assisted by feeding at the nest. Our population had a skewed sex ratio of approximately 58% males to 42% females, yet the sex ratio of fledglings was equal, suggesting sex-biased mortality. Helpers were predominantly retained male offspring; however 21% of helpers were unrelated to either of the breeding pair. Southern anteater-chats appear to be non-territorial, with an apparent lack of aggression both within and between groups. Our study confirms that the southern anteater-chat is a facultative cooperative breeder, with both pair breeders and groups with helpers capable of fledging youngsters. We provide evidence suggesting that the breeding system of the southern anteater-chat is based on prompt female dispersal, and male philopatry due to an apparent shortage of mates, potential benefits of the natal site and possible high costs of floating. It appears that ecological constraints promoting delayed dispersal are reinforced by benefits gained from remaining philopatric.

    Keywords
    Southern anteater-chat, cooperative breeding, social evolution, behavioural ecology, delayed dispersal, family living, Africa
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179071 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05
    2. Sex specific survival in the southern anteater-chat Mymecocichla formicivora.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex specific survival in the southern anteater-chat Mymecocichla formicivora.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Survival is a key factor behind life-history variation both between and within species. It is also a major influence on sociality in species which delay dispersal and live in family groups. Knowledge of differential survival rates between males and females and juveniles and adults give insights into the costs and benefits of different behavioural and life-history strategies. Here we investigate patterns of survival in a population of the southern anteater-chat (Myrmecocichla formicivora), a facultative cooperatively breeding passerine of southern Africa. Using data from a 9-year mark-capture-recapture study, we examined juvenile and adult sex related variation in survival, and the role of environmental variables (rainfall, temperature) for survival patterns in the population. Annual adult survival probability (mean ± SE) was 0.71 ± 0.03 for males and 0.60 ± 0.04 for females. Juvenile survival was lower for each sex, with juvenile female survival (0.36 ± 0.04) being 35% lower than juvenile male survival (0.55 ± 0.04). Using these estimates we calculated the mean life span (MLS) in years for male southern anteater-chat to be 4.0 ± 0.7, considerably higher than for females at 2.0 ± 0.4. These figures closely matched the population-age structure of the study area, and could explain the high male biased sex skew of adult birds in this population. Higher annual mean temperature was associated with higher survival, whereas higher annual rainfall was associated with lower survival for both sex and age classes. Female survival, particularly female juvenile survival, may be reduced due to prompt dispersal and longer dispersal distances, and the additional costs of breeding early in life. Differential survival can promote male philopatry and this in turn could well encourage the cooperative breeding we see in the southern anteater-chat.

    Keywords
    Southern anteater-chat, cooperative breeding, social evolution, behavioural ecology, delayed dispersal, family living, Africa
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179072 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05
    3. The rarer sex - female natal dispersal and breeder replacement in the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The rarer sex - female natal dispersal and breeder replacement in the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex biased dispersal is a crucial factor in understanding the mechanism of family dynamics in many cooperative breeders. Female biased dispersal occurs in many cooperatively breeding birds. It is often associated with females dispersing earlier and further, and a male biased sex skew in the population. Here we investigated female dispersal in the southern anteater-chat, a facultative cooperatively breeding passerine of southern Africa. Our study population had a male biased sex skew, and females had lower annual survival than males. Dispersal was strongly female biased, with females dispersing within their first year whereas many males remained philopatric beyond the next breeding season. Breeding females were on average younger than breeding males, and also dispersed further. Each breeding group contained only one female. No females were found floating in the population, and all females were associated with one or more males in a breeding group. It appears that all females disperse in their first year directly to a breeding position. If a female disappeared in the breeding season they were not replaced until new females matured and dispersed the following season, yet if a male breeder disappeared during the breeding season he was almost immediately replaced, indicating that there are no surplus females.

    Keywords
    Southern anteater-chat, cooperative breeding, social evolution, behavioural ecology, delayed dispersal, family living, Africa
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179073 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05
    4. From helping to breeding – male choice in the southern anteater-chats Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>From helping to breeding – male choice in the southern anteater-chats Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal choice is important in understanding population structure and dynamics. Here we examine male choice in the facultative cooperative breeding southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora based on a four year study in South Africa. The sex ratio in our study population was male biased, with many males remaining philopatric. All groups consisted of one or more adult males associated with one adult female. We found a significant positive effect of auxiliary number on group productivity (both number of young fledged, and first year survival), while controlling for potentially confounding variables (territory and breeder identity). The majority of auxiliaries, 54%, were related to both birds in the breeding pair, with another 25% related to one member of the pair, and 21% related to neither of the breeders. There was no evidence of males floating within our study population, and it appears that if males lose their family due to mortality they join other groups as unrelated non-breeding auxiliaries rather than float. No aggression was observed between individual southern anteater-chats, and unrelated group members helped rear offspring in the group they had joined. Despite the presence of, and helping by unrelated group members there was very little evidence of breeding position inheritance (1/24 auxiliaries unrelated to the breeding female) or extra-pair paternity (2.4% of fledglings). This study suggests that the southern anteater-chat group structure arises through male philopatry due to a lack of breeding females and potentially high costs of living alone.

    Keywords
    Southern anteater-chat, cooperative breeding, social evolution, behavioural ecology, delayed dispersal, family living, Africa
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179074 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05
    5. Development of a suit of microsatellite markers for the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a suit of microsatellite markers for the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the cross amplification of 37 microsatellite markers for their suitability in genotyping the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora, an opportunistic cooperatively breeding passerine bird endemic to southern Africa. Fourteen microsatellite markers were identified as having suitable characteristics, with minor deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and little evidence of null alleles. These 14 Primer pairs were combined in 4 multiplexes and run on 183 individual samples from our study population of southern anteater-chat on Benfontein Nature Reserve, near Kimberley in central South Africa. The loci ranged from 3-34 alleles per locus, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.45 -0.93. We then tested these 14 microsatellites for their use in examining paternity in a population of southern anteater-chat being studied on Benfontein Nature Reserve, near Kimberley in South Africa. Of the population of 183 individuals (the 2011 population) 93% of the offspring could be allocated a mother, 97% a father, and 87% a parent pair with 95% confidence. The remainder could be allocated at the 80% confidence level. Where mothers could be assigned from observations this was in 100% agreement with the microsatellite results, giving us good support for the accurate assignment of parentage in our population.

    Keywords
    Southern anteater-chat, cooperative breeding, social evolution, microsatellites, genotyping, cross-amplification, behavioural ecology, delayed dispersal, family living, Africa
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179075 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05
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  • 48.
    Barrenas, Fredrik
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Dept Microbiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Raehetz, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Kristoff, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Agricola, Brian
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Apetrei, Cristian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Agy, Michael B.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Carter, Victoria
    Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Flanary, Leon
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Green, Richard R.
    Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ma, DongZhu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    McLain, Randy
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Murnane, Robert
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Peng, Xinxia
    Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Richter, George H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Thomas, Matthew J.
    Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Trichel, Anita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Weiss, Jeffrey M.
    Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Anderson, David M.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Pandrea, Ivona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Katze, Michael G.
    Univ Washington, Dept Microbiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rhesus Macaques and African Green Monkeys Exhibit Striking Differences in Extracellular Matrix and Cell Adhesion Gene Expression During the Eclipse Phase of Siv Infection2015In: Journal of Medical Primatology, ISSN 0047-2565, E-ISSN 1600-0684, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 343-343Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Bayram, Helen L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sayadi, Ahmed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Identification of novel ejaculate proteins in a seed beetle and division of labour across male accessory reproductive glands2019In: Insect biochemistry and molecular biology, ISSN 0965-1748, Vol. 104, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The male ejaculate contains a multitude of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), many of which are key reproductive molecules, as well as sperm. However, the identification of SFPs is notoriously difficult and a detailed understanding of this complex phenotype has only been achieved in a few model species. We employed a recently developed proteomic method involving whole-organism stable isotope labelling coupled with proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to characterize ejaculate proteins in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We identified 317 proteins that were transferred to females at mating, and a great majority of these showed signals of secretion and were highly male-biased in expression in the abdomen. These male-derived proteins were enriched with proteins involved in general metabolic and catabolic processes but also with proteolytic enzymes and proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress. Thirty-seven proteins showed significant homology with SFPs previously identified in other insects. However, no less than 92 C. maculatus ejaculate proteins were entirely novel, receiving no significant blast hits and lacking homologs in extant data bases, consistent with a rapid and divergent evolution of SFPs. We used 3D micro-tomography in conjunction with proteomic methods to identify 5 distinct pairs of male accessory reproductive glands and to show that certain ejaculate proteins were only recovered in certain male glands. Finally, we provide a tentative list of 231 candidate female-derived reproductive proteins, some of which are likely important in ejaculate processing and/or sperm storage.

  • 50.
    Benton, Jeanne
    et al.
    Neuroscience Program, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481, USA.
    Kery, Rachel
    Neuroscience Program, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481, USA.
    Li, Jingjing
    Neuroscience Program, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481, USA.
    Noonin, Chadanat
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Söderhäll, Irene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Beltz, Barbara
    Neuroscience Program, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481, USA.
    Cells from the Immune System Generate Adult-Born Neurons in Crayfish2014In: Developmental Cell, ISSN 1534-5807, E-ISSN 1878-1551, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 322-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurogenesis is an ongoing process in the brains of adult decapod crustaceans. However, the first-generation precursors that produce adult-born neurons, which reside in a neurogenic niche, are not self-renewing in crayfish and must be replenished. The source of these neuronal precursors is unknown. Here, we report that adult-born neurons in crayfish can be derived from hemocytes. Following adoptive transfer of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU)-labeled hemocytes, labeled cells populate the neurogenic niche containing the first-generation neuronal precursors. Seven weeks after adoptive transfer, EdU-labeled cells are located in brain clusters 9 and 10 (where adult-born neurons differentiate) and express appropriate neurotransmitters. Moreover, the number of cells composing the neurogenic niche in crayfish is tightly correlated with total hemocyte counts (THCs) and can be manipulated by raising or lowering THC. These studies identify hemocytes as a source of adult-born neurons in crayfish and demonstrate that the immune system is a key contributor to adult neurogenesis.

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