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  • 1.
    Aplin, L. M.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Firth, J. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Farine, D. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, Ancon, Italy..
    Voelkl, B.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Crates, R. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Culina, A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Garroway, C. J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Hinde, C. A.
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Anim Sci, Behav Ecol Grp, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Kidd, L. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Psorakis, I.
    Univ Oxford, Math Inst, Oxford, England..
    Milligan, N. D.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Radersma, R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Unit, Lund, Sweden..
    Verhelst, B. L.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Sheldon, B. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Consistent individual differences in the social phenotypes of wild great tits, Parus major2015In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 108, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest in animal social networks, surprisingly little is known about whether individuals are consistent in their social network characteristics. Networks are rarely repeatedly sampled; yet an assumption of individual consistency in social behaviour is often made when drawing conclusions about the consequences of social processes and structure. A characterization of such social phenotypes is therefore vital to understanding the significance of social network structure for individual fitness outcomes, and for understanding the evolution and ecology of individual variation in social behaviour more broadly. Here, we measured foraging associations over three winters in a large PIT-tagged population of great tits, and used a range of social network metrics to quantify individual variation in social behaviour. We then examined repeatability in social behaviour over both short (week to week) and long (year to year) timescales, and investigated variation in repeatability across age and sex classes. Social behaviours were significantly repeatable across all timescales, with the highest repeatability observed in group size choice and unweighted degree, a measure of gregariousness. By conducting randomizations to control for the spatial and temporal distribution of individuals, we further show that differences in social phenotypes were not solely explained by within-population variation in local densities, but also reflected fine-scale variation in social decision making. Our results provide rare evidence of stable social phenotypes in a wild population of animals. Such stable social phenotypes can be targets of selection and may have important fitness consequences, both for individuals and for their social-foraging associates.

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  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pagmar, David
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uddén, Julia
    Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    When did you stop speaking to yourself?: Age-related differences in adolescents' world knowledge-based audience design2022In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 9, no 11, article id 220305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to adapt utterances to the world knowledge of one’s addressee is undeniably ubiquitous in human social cognition, but its development and association with other cognitive mechanisms during adolescence have not been studied. In an online production task, we measured the ability of children entering adolescence (ages 11–12, M = 11.8, N=29, 17 girls) and adolescents (ages 15–16, M = 15.9, N=29, 17 girls) to tailor referential expressions in accordance with the inferred world knowledge of their addressee—an ability we refer to as world knowledge-based audience design (AD). A post-test survey showed that both age groups held similar assumptions about the addressees’ knowledge of referents, but the younger age group did not consistently adapt their utterances in accordance with these assumptions during online production, resulting in a significantly improved AD behaviour across age groups. We also investigated the reliance of AD on executive functions (EF). Executive functioning (as reflected by performance on the Wisconsin card sorting task) increased significantly with age, but did not explain the age-related increase in AD performance. We thus provide evidence in support of an adolescent development of world knowledge-based AD over and above development of EF.

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  • 3.
    Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. School of Psychology, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, 2308, Australia.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Humans' Pupillary Contagion Extends to Cats and Dogs2021In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 16, no 1-2, p. 153-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When viewing pupil sizes change, our own pupil sizes change, a phenomenon known as pupillary contagion. This involuntary response is reliable between humans, but can be affected by familiarity and empathy. We investigated whether the pupillary contagion response occurs for humans viewing familiar species - cats and dogs - and whether it is modulated by preferences for particular species. Pupil sizes were measured while viewing cat, dog, and human images with small, medium, and large pupils. Trait empathy, cat and dog affiliation and experience were subsequently measured. There was an image pupil size effect, but this did not vary by species. There was greater pupil size change to cats and dogs than to humans, but this might have been due to the varying size and appearance of the cats and dogs. Greater dog affiliation was also associated with smaller overall pupil size change to dogs and larger change to humans, but this did not interact with image pupil size. Dog affiliation might be associated with less arousal to dog images. In sum, pupillary contagion responses indicate a spontaneous transfer of information about internal states and the findings suggest that humans are sensitive to this across species, regardless of individual preference.

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  • 4.
    Axling, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Intraspecific divergence and phenotypic plasticity in behavioural profiles of teleost fish2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioural differences between and within individuals can greatly affect the outcome of behavioural studies. In addition, behavioural interactions between individuals can compromise the health and welfare of captive fish. In paper I, I investigate the relationship between locomotory activity, boldness and aggressive behaviour in ~2000 hatchery-reared Baltic salmon parr (Salmo salar L), with the aim to predict aggression level from activity and boldness displayed in the open field test. We found that activity and boldness were positively correlated while they were not correlated with aggression level measured in the mirror stimulation test. Surprisingly, medium and low aggressive fish were the most active, while highly aggressive fish showed only average activity. We conclude that the open field test, although efficient, does not accurately predict aggressive behaviour. However, the mirror stimulation test can be used for high-throughput aggression profiling of juvenile salmon. In paper II, I tested a subset of the salmon parr for a second time, to quantify behavioural consistency between trials and to investigate if phenotypic plasticity was related to aggression level. Our results show that activity was the most stable behavioural variable between trials. Even though aggression was not consistent between tests, we found that the fish displaying a low level of aggression in the first test were less consistent in their behaviour than highly aggressive fish. In paper III, we compared the behavioural development of zebrafish larvae of two strains, the AB strain and 5th generation offspring of wild-caught zebrafish from India. Individual larvae were screened for activity and boldness at the age of 5-, 7-, 12- and 30-days post fertilization using an open field test with alternating light and dark cycles. Furthermore, we analysed mRNA expression of genes encoding serotonin, dopamine, galanin and opioid receptor subunits, as well the peptide neurotransmitter spexin in whole brain samples from juveniles, with the aim to investigate potential neuroendocrine mechanisms of divergent behavioural profiles. Our results show that larvae from the wild strain had higher activity and greater variance in their behaviour than AB larvae, under both light and dark conditions. Wild larvae also had significantly higher expression of dopamine receptor subunit drd2b at 30 days post fertilization, a difference that could be related to difference in activity. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis contribute to our understanding of animal behavioural profiles, at both an intraspecific and intraindividual level. 

    List of papers
    1. Locomotory activity is more consistent over trials than thigmotaxis and aggressive behaviour in sea-ranched Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Locomotory activity is more consistent over trials than thigmotaxis and aggressive behaviour in sea-ranched Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study we examined the behavioural consistency over time of activity, boldness and aggressive behaviour in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L) parr. We performed a combined open field and mirror stimulation test on two test occasions, recording three behavioural variables: duration moving in the whole arena (activity), duration in centre zone (boldness) and distance between nose and mirror (aggression) during the mirror stimulation test. Of these behavioural variables activity proved the most consistent between trials. Moreover, the fish that displayed least aggressive behaviour in the first trial had the largest variance in their behavioural variables compared to highly aggressive fish, which showed more consistent levels of the behavioural variables. Overall, aggression level in the first test was a strong predictor of the other behavioural variables, in addition to significant effects of water temperature and body weight. In conclusion, our results show that juvenile Baltic salmon classified according to aggression level during the first test also differ in other aspects of their behavioural profile, and highly aggressive salmon are less phenotypically plastic compared to low aggressive fish. 

    Keywords
    aggression, activity, Salmo salar, open field test, mirror stimulation test, phenotypic plasticity, repeated testing, consistency, repeatability
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Comparative Physiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-486715 (URN)
    Available from: 2022-10-14 Created: 2022-10-14 Last updated: 2022-10-16
    2. Boldness, activity, and aggression: Insights from a large-scale study in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boldness, activity, and aggression: Insights from a large-scale study in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L)
    2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 7, article id e0287836Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) display high levels of agonistic behavior in aquaculture farms, resulting in fin damage and chronic stress. Aggression affects fish growth and performance negatively and presents a serious welfare problem. Indeed, it would be beneficial to identify, separate or exclude overly aggressive individuals. Research on behavioral syndromes suggests that aggressive behavior may correlate with traits from other contexts, such as boldness and locomotory activity. We aimed to develop a high-throughput method to quantify and predict aggressive behavior of individual parr in hatchery-reared Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.). We screened approximately 2000 parr in open field (OF) and mirror image stimulation (MIS) tests. We extracted seven variables from video tracking software for each minute of the tests; distance moved and duration moving (activity), the duration in and number of entries to the center of the arena (boldness), the distance moved in, and duration spent in the area adjacent to the mirror during the MIS test (aggressiveness) and head direction (lateralization). To investigate the relationship between activity, boldness, and aggression we first correlated the first six variables to one another. Second, we assigned individuals to high, medium, low or zero aggression groups based on the MIS test and quantified activity and boldness in each group. Third, we analyzed whether the fish viewed the mirror with the left or right eye. Our results show that medium and low aggressive fish were the most active, while highly aggressive fish showed average activity. Aggressive groups did not differ in boldness. Activity and boldness were positively correlated. Finally, we detected a preference for fish to view the mirror with the left eye. We conclude that although the OF may not accurately predict aggressive behavior, the MIS test can be used for large-scale aggression profiling of juvenile salmon

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023
    Keywords
    Behavior, Aggression, Mirror test, Lateralization, Boldness, Salmo salar
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Research subject
    Medical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-486676 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0287836 (DOI)001035045000091 ()37471414 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, ANIHWA 2014-01842Swedish Research Council, VR 2017-03779
    Available from: 2022-10-14 Created: 2022-10-14 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Boldness in Zebrafish Larvae-Development and Differences between a Domesticated Lab Strain and Offspring of Wild-Caught Fish
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boldness in Zebrafish Larvae-Development and Differences between a Domesticated Lab Strain and Offspring of Wild-Caught Fish
    Show others...
    2022 (English)In: Fishes, E-ISSN 2410-3888, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are becoming one of the most important model organisms in behavioural neuroscience. It has been shown repeatedly that different zebrafish strains show large behavioural differences. These divergent behavioural profiles may have a genetic basis, but environmental factors and previous experience are also known to greatly affect the behavioural phenotype of zebrafish. It could be expected that behavioural differences at the larval stage should be less affected by environmental factors and experience. In the present study, we screened larvae of zebrafish of the AB strain and offspring of wild-caught zebrafish for boldness, using an open field test. In order to follow the behavioural development, we studied larvae at the age of 5-, 7-, 12- and 30-days post fertilization (dpf). Behaviour, as well as behavioural development, clearly differed between the larvae of the different strains. Wild larvae showed larger total distance moved than AB larvae, both at light and dark conditions. These differences were already present at 12 dpf but became more pronounced with age. Wild larvae had a greater variance compared to AB larvae for most of the variables. We have previously shown that bold and shy adult zebrafish differ in the brain expression of dopamine and opioid receptors. The results of the current study show that wild larvae display significantly higher brain expression of drd2b than AB larvae at 30 dpf, a difference that could be related to differences in activity. We did not detect any differences in the expression of opioid receptors.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI AG, 2022
    Keywords
    behaviour, boldness, anxiety, larvae, domestication, dopamine, opioid receptors
    National Category
    Developmental Biology Zoology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-484232 (URN)10.3390/fishes7040197 (DOI)000846021900001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR-NT11 2017-03779
    Available from: 2022-09-12 Created: 2022-09-12 Last updated: 2022-10-14Bibliographically approved
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  • 5.
    Axling, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Vossen, Laura
    Division of Anatomy and Physiology, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Peterson, Erik
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agriculture.
    Winberg, Svante
    Locomotory activity is more consistent over trials than thigmotaxis and aggressive behaviour in sea-ranched Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study we examined the behavioural consistency over time of activity, boldness and aggressive behaviour in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L) parr. We performed a combined open field and mirror stimulation test on two test occasions, recording three behavioural variables: duration moving in the whole arena (activity), duration in centre zone (boldness) and distance between nose and mirror (aggression) during the mirror stimulation test. Of these behavioural variables activity proved the most consistent between trials. Moreover, the fish that displayed least aggressive behaviour in the first trial had the largest variance in their behavioural variables compared to highly aggressive fish, which showed more consistent levels of the behavioural variables. Overall, aggression level in the first test was a strong predictor of the other behavioural variables, in addition to significant effects of water temperature and body weight. In conclusion, our results show that juvenile Baltic salmon classified according to aggression level during the first test also differ in other aspects of their behavioural profile, and highly aggressive salmon are less phenotypically plastic compared to low aggressive fish. 

  • 6.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Can the song of male birds attract other males? An experiment with the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca1982In: Bird Behavior, ISSN 0156-1383, Vol. 4, p. 42-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Male contests in the Scarlet rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus) in relation to asymmetries in resource holding power and pairing status1989In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 25, p. 137-140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mate choice is not important for female reproductive success in the common rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus)1990In: The AUK: A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 0004-8038, E-ISSN 1938-4254, Vol. 107, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Microgeographic variation in the song of the Scarlet rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus1989In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 20, p. 255-264Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Möller, Anders Pape
    Sundberg, Jan
    Westman, Björn
    Female great tits, Parus major, avoid extra-pair copulation attempts1992In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 43, p. 691-693Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Westman, Björn
    Extra-pair copulations in the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca. A removal experiment1983In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 13, p. 271-275Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Westman, Björn
    Allander, Klas
    Song in the Swedish great tit - intrasexual or intersexual communication?1989In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 111, p. 257-269Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bliard, Louis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Zurich Univ, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Wheatcroft, David
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The role of introductory alarm calls for song discrimination in Ficedula flycatchers2021In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 177, p. 241-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assortative mating depends on species distinctiveness in mating traits and preferences, which can be challenging to maintain when traits and/or preferences are learned. This is because learning may cause individuals to copy heterospecific signals. Juvenile songbirds possess innate sensory biases favouring them to learn and to prefer conspecific songs, but the effectiveness of these biases relies on consistent and sufficient differences between the songs produced by different species. However, mating signals, including learned songs, sometimes converge in sympatry, and the species-specific cues that individuals use to shape their preferences are often unknown. In Ficedula flycatchers, a stereotyped and highly species-specific alarm call is often incorporated as the first syllable of their songs. However, where the two species co-occur, pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, learn to incorporate the introductory calls of the closely related collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis, into their songs. In this study, we investigated the role of introductory alarm calls for song discrimination in collared flycatchers, using playback experiments of both manipulated and unmanipulated songs on adults and nestlings within the hybrid zone of Oland, Sweden. We predicted that the introductory alarm call would be sufficient to trigger song responses, such that adults and nestlings would respond similarly to song phrases including the call, whether it is followed by conspecific or heterospecific notes. Our results provide evidence that the introductory alarm call is sufficient to trigger song discrimination in nestlings, but not in adult males, potentially due to their greater experience with songs and, therefore, subtler discrimination. Altogether, this study highlights the often-overlooked importance of calls within or associated with songs.

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  • 14.
    Cauchard, Laure
    et al.
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Biol Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland.;Swiss Ornithol Inst, Anthropogen Effects Res Grp, CH-62024 Sempach, Switzerland..
    Bize, Pierre
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Biol Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland.;Swiss Ornithol Inst, Anthropogen Effects Res Grp, CH-62024 Sempach, Switzerland..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, CNRS,UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France..
    How to solve novel problems: the role of associative learning in problem-solving performance in wild great tits Parus major2024In: Animal Cognition, ISSN 1435-9448, E-ISSN 1435-9456, Vol. 27, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although problem-solving tasks are frequently used to assess innovative ability, the extent to which problem-solving performance reflects variation in cognitive skills has been rarely formally investigated. Using wild breeding great tits facing a new non-food motivated problem-solving task, we investigated the role of associative learning in finding the solution, compared to multiple other non-cognitive factors. We first examined the role of accuracy (the proportion of contacts made with the opening part of a string-pulling task), neophobia, exploration, activity, age, sex, body condition and participation time on the ability to solve the task. To highlight the effect of associative learning, we then compared accuracy between solvers and non-solvers, before and after the first cue to the solution (i.e., the first time they pulled the string opening the door). We finally compared accuracy over consecutive entrances for solvers. Using 884 observations from 788 great tits tested from 2010 to 2015, we showed that, prior to initial successful entrance, solvers were more accurate and more explorative than non-solvers, and that females were more likely to solve the task than males. The accuracy of solvers, but not of non-solvers, increased significantly after they had the opportunity to associate string pulling with the movement of the door, giving them a first cue to the task solution. The accuracy of solvers also increased over successive entrances. Our results demonstrate that variations in problem-solving performance primarily reflect inherent individual differences in associative learning, and are also to a lesser extent shaped by sex and exploratory behaviour.

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  • 15.
    Checknita, Dave
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Psychiatry Building R5:00 c/o Jari Tiihonen, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tiihonen, Jari
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Associations of Age, Sex, Sexual Abuse, and Genotype with Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Methylation2021In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 128, no 11, p. 1721-1739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenome-wide studies report higher methylation among women than men with decreasing levels with age. Little is known about associations of sex and age with methylation of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Methylation of the first exonic and partial first intronic region of MAOA has been shown to strengthen associations of interactions of MAOA-uVNTR genotypes and adversity with aggression and substance misuse. Our study examined associations of sex and age with MAOA first exon and intron methylation levels in 252 women and 157 men aged 14–73 years. Participants included adolescents recruited at a substance misuse clinic, their siblings and parents, and healthy women. Women showed ~ 50% higher levels of exonic, and ~ 15% higher intronic, methylation than men. Methylation levels were similar between younger (M = 22.7 years) and older (M = 46.1 years) participants, and stable across age. Age modified few associations of methylation levels with sex. MAOA genotypes modified few associations of methylation with sex and age. Higher methylation levels among women were not explained by genotype, nor interaction of genotype and sexual abuse. Findings were similar after adjusting for lifetime diagnoses of substance dependence (women = 24.3%; men = 34.2%). Methylation levels were higher among women who experienced sexual abuse than women who did not. Results extend on prior studies by showing that women display higher levels of methylation than men within first intronic/exonic regions of MAOA, which did not decrease with age in either sex. Findings were not conditioned by genotype nor interactions of genotype and trauma, and indicate X-chromosome inactivation.

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  • 16.
    Checknita, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    The Monoamine Oxidase A Gene and Antisocial Outcomes: An Examination of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Environmental Factors2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Antisocial behaviour involves violation of the basic rights of others or social norms or rules. Such behaviours are indexed in diagnoses such as conduct disorder (CD) in adolescence and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in adulthood, which are typified by comorbidity with mood, anxiety, and substance misuse disorders. Alcohol misuse is strongly associated with antisocial behaviour and persistent aggressive behaviours. How environmental and biological factors interface to modulate risk for these outcomes is not yet understood, however, the interaction of adversity with a variable number tandem repeat (uVNTR) polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase gene A (MAOA) gene associates with antisocial behaviour and mental disorders. Further, DNA methylation in a region of interest (ROI) spanning MAOA’s first exonic/intronic junction associates with ASPD in men as well as other mood, anxiety, and substance misuse disorders. 

    Aim and Methods. We characterized methylation of the MAOA ROI by sex and age and examined how negative and positive environmental factors interact with MAOA genotype and methylation on antisocial phenotypes and mental disorders. Participants included men and women from a clinical population of young adults recruited in adolescence at a substance misuse clinic and a community sample of adolescents. 

    Findings. (1) Sex but not age was associated with methylation levels such that high methylation levels among women likely represent X-chromosome inactivation, and sexual abuse was associated with hypermethylation of the MAOA first exon, (2) high methylation levels mediated associations between sexual abuse and current depression diagnosis in women, (3) the highest levels of aggressive behaviour were found among maltreat male carriers of the low-expressing MAOA-uVNTR allele and displayed high levels of exonic methylation, while no interactions were shown in women, and (4) among adolescent girls, but not boys, positive parent-child relationship attenuated the interaction of maltreatment and the high-expressing MAOA-uVNTR allele on alcohol consumption, though the interactions were not robust to adjustments for tobacco use, substance misuse, and delinquent behaviours.

    Conclusion. The findings presented here advance our understanding of how maltreatment interfaces with genotypic and epigenetic factors, in a sex-dependent manner, to promote aggressive behaviour and mental disorders among susceptible individuals.

     

    List of papers
    1. Associations of Age, Sex, Sexual Abuse, and Genotype with Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Methylation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations of Age, Sex, Sexual Abuse, and Genotype with Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Methylation
    2021 (English)In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 128, no 11, p. 1721-1739Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenome-wide studies report higher methylation among women than men with decreasing levels with age. Little is known about associations of sex and age with methylation of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Methylation of the first exonic and partial first intronic region of MAOA has been shown to strengthen associations of interactions of MAOA-uVNTR genotypes and adversity with aggression and substance misuse. Our study examined associations of sex and age with MAOA first exon and intron methylation levels in 252 women and 157 men aged 14–73 years. Participants included adolescents recruited at a substance misuse clinic, their siblings and parents, and healthy women. Women showed ~ 50% higher levels of exonic, and ~ 15% higher intronic, methylation than men. Methylation levels were similar between younger (M = 22.7 years) and older (M = 46.1 years) participants, and stable across age. Age modified few associations of methylation levels with sex. MAOA genotypes modified few associations of methylation with sex and age. Higher methylation levels among women were not explained by genotype, nor interaction of genotype and sexual abuse. Findings were similar after adjusting for lifetime diagnoses of substance dependence (women = 24.3%; men = 34.2%). Methylation levels were higher among women who experienced sexual abuse than women who did not. Results extend on prior studies by showing that women display higher levels of methylation than men within first intronic/exonic regions of MAOA, which did not decrease with age in either sex. Findings were not conditioned by genotype nor interactions of genotype and trauma, and indicate X-chromosome inactivation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Nature, 2021
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology Neurology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-433655 (URN)10.1007/s00702-021-02403-2 (DOI)000687499400001 ()34424394 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2021-02-01 Created: 2021-02-01 Last updated: 2022-08-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Associations of monoamine oxidase A gene first exon methylation with sexual abuse and current depression in women
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations of monoamine oxidase A gene first exon methylation with sexual abuse and current depression in women
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    2018 (English)In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 125, no 7, p. 1053-1064Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA) interact with monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene polymorphism to modify risk for mental disorders. In addition, PA and SA may alter gene activity through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, thereby further modifying risk for disorders. We investigated whether methylation in a region spanning the MAOA first exon and part of the first intron was associated with PA and/or SA, MAOA genotype, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, depression disorders, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder. 114 Swedish women completed standardized diagnostic interviews and questionnaires to report PA and SA, and provided saliva samples for DNA extraction. DNA was genotyped for MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms, and methylation of a MAOA region of interest (chrX: 43,515,544-43,515,991) was measured. SA, not PA, was associated with hypermethylation of the MAOA first exon relative to no-abuse, and the association was robust to adjustment for psychoactive medication, alcohol and drug dependence, and current substance use. SA and MAOA-uVNTR genotype, but not their interaction, was associated with MAOA methylation. SA associated with all measured mental disorders. Hypermethylation of MAOA first exon mediated the association of SA with current depression, and both methylation levels and SA independently predicted lifetime depression. Much remains to be learned about the independent effects of SA and MAOA-uVNTR genotypes on methylation of the MAOA first exon.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SPRINGER WIEN, 2018
    Keywords
    Child abuse, Depression, Epigenetics, Gene-environment interaction methylation, Women
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358274 (URN)10.1007/s00702-018-1875-3 (DOI)000435405600006 ()29600412 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareStockholm County CouncilThe Karolinska Institutet's Research Foundation
    Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2021-02-03Bibliographically approved
    3. Monoamine oxidase A genotype and methylation moderate the association of maltreatment and aggressive behaviour
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monoamine oxidase A genotype and methylation moderate the association of maltreatment and aggressive behaviour
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    2020 (English)In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 382, article id 112476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between childhood maltreatment and subsequent aggressive behaviour is modified by monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) functional polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) genotype, MAOA-Long (MAOA-L) in females, MAOA-Short (MAOA-S) in males. Childhood maltreatment is associated with differential DNA methylation in several genes. Consistent with recent proposals, we hypothesized that the association of the interaction of MAOA genotype and maltreatment with aggressive behaviour is further moderated by methylation of a region of interest (ROI) spanning the first exon and partial first intron of MAOA.

    Method: The sample included 117 women and 77 men who completed interviews and questionnaires to report maltreatment and aggressive behaviour towards others and provided saliva samples for DNA extraction. The MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism was genotyped, and methylation of the MAOA ROI was assessed.

    Results: Following adjustment for substance misuse, psychoactive medication use, and in males tobacco use, the highest levels of aggressive behaviour were found among maltreated male carriers of MAOA-S with high levels of exonic methylation.

    Conclusion: Methylation levels within the MAOA ROI further contributed to the interaction of MAOA risk genotypes and maltreatment on aggressive behaviours among men.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER, 2020
    Keywords
    MAOA, Methylation, Genotype, Maltreatment, Aggression
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-410901 (URN)10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112476 (DOI)000526063300014 ()31931023 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Research Council, VR: 2015-00495EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, INCA 600398The Swedish Brain FoundationFredrik och Ingrid Thurings StiftelseStiftelsen Söderström - Königska sjukhemmetScience for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
    Note

    Correction in: BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH, Volume: 393, Article Number: 112721, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112721

    Available from: 2020-05-25 Created: 2020-05-25 Last updated: 2021-02-03
    4. The Interaction of MAOA-uVNTR Genotype, Maltreatment, and Positive Parent-child relationship Predicts Adolescent Alcohol Drinking in a Sex-Dependent Manner
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Interaction of MAOA-uVNTR Genotype, Maltreatment, and Positive Parent-child relationship Predicts Adolescent Alcohol Drinking in a Sex-Dependent Manner
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    MAOA, Maltreatment, Alcohol, Parent-child relationship
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393297 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2022-10-07
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  • 17.
    Cheng, Xi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Using zebrafish as a model organism to study winner and loser effect2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our past experiences influence the way we cope with things at present. Experience effect is that prior experience which affects the behaviour pattern later on. The outcome of prior agonistic confrontation decides the winner and loser in a sequential fight such that winners have higher probability to win again and losers have higher probability to lose again, which is called winner and loser effects. Winner and loser effects have been described in many animals and studied in detail with the established aggressive model in zebrafish. However, none of the studies considered of individual variation, the personality or behavioural syndromes especially different coping styles such as shy versus bold, proactive versus reactive in zebrafish. Genetic modulation provides us with an option:  spiegeldanio strain (spd) with aggression-boldness syndrome can be used to study the winner loser effect in lab. Pairing spd with wild-type strain (AB) to let them fight with each other and their own mirror images separately can help us understand better about the relationship between personality and winning/losing experience effect and contribute to decoding the molecular mechanism behind this.

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  • 18. Cunha, Mário
    et al.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Alves, T
    Monteiro, Nuno
    Reduced cannibalism during male pregnancy2016In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 153, no 1, p. 91-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cannibalism provides energetic benefits but is also potentially costly, especially when directed towards kin. Since fitness costs increase with time and energy invested in offspring, cannibalism should be infrequent when parental investment is high. Thus, filial cannibalism in male syngnathids, a group known for the occurrence of male pregnancy, should be rare. Using the pipefish (Syngnathus abaster) we aimed to investigate whether cannibalism does occur in both sexes and how it is affected by reproductive and nutritional states. Although rare, we witnessed cannibalism both in the wild and in the laboratory. Unlike non-pregnant males and females, pregnant and postpartum males largely refrained from cannibalising juveniles. Reproducing males decreased their feeding activity, thus rendering cannibalism, towards kin or non-kin, less likely to occur. However, if not continuously fed, all pipefish adopted a cannibal strategy, revealing that sex and life history stages influenced the ratio between the benefits and costs of cannibalism.

  • 19.
    de Abreu, Murilo S.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Santa Maria, Programa Posgrad Farmacol, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
    Messias, Joao P. M.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO, Porto, Portugal.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Soares, Marta C.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO, Porto, Portugal.
    The variable monoaminergic outcomes of cleaner fish brains when facing different social and mutualistic contexts2018In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, article id e4830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The monoamines serotonin and dopamine are important neuromodulators present in the central nervous system, known to be active regulators of social behaviour in fish as in other vertebrates. Our aim was to investigate the region-specific brain monoaminergic differences arising when individual cleaners face a client (mutualistic context) compared to when they are introduced to another conspecific (conspecific context), and to understand the relevance of visual assessment compared to the impact of physical contact with any partner. We demonstrated that serotoninergic activity at the diencephalon responds mostly to the absence of physical contact with clients whereas cerebellar dopaminergic activity responds to actual cleaning engagement. We provide first insights on the brain's monoaminergic (region-specific) response variations, involved in the expression of cleaner fishes' mutualistic and conspecific behaviour. These results contribute to a better understanding of the monoaminergic activity in accordance to different socio-behavioural contexts.

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  • 20.
    Donhoffner, Mary E.
    et al.
    Univ Southern Calif, Neurosci Grad Program, Los Angeles, CA 90033 USA..
    Al Saleh, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Integrat Anat Sci, 1333 San Pablo St,BMT 401, Los Angeles, CA 90033 USA..
    Schink, Olivia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Integrat Anat Sci, 1333 San Pablo St,BMT 401, Los Angeles, CA 90033 USA..
    Wood, Ruth I.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Integrat Anat Sci, 1333 San Pablo St,BMT 401, Los Angeles, CA 90033 USA..
    Prosocial effects of prolactin in male rats: Social recognition, social approach and social learning2017In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 96, p. 122-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) are pituitary hormones essential for lactation, but also promote sexual behavior. OT stimulates social behaviors, such as recognition, approach, and learning, but less is known about PRL in these behaviors. Since PRL and OT have complementary functions in reproduction, we hypothesized that PRL increases social recognition, approach, and learning. Male Long-Evans rats received ovine PRL (oPRL; 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0 mg/kg), the PRL antagonist bromocriptine (0.1, 3.0 or 5.0 mg/kg) or saline 20 mins before testing for recognition of familiar vs. unfamiliar stimulus males. Saline controls preferred the unfamiliar male (p < 0.05), while bromocriptine blocked this preference. oPRL did not increase preference. To measure social approach, we determined if PRL restores approach 2 h after defeat by an aggressive male. Defeated rats avoided the aggressive male. 2 mg/kg oPRL, before or after defeat, restored approach towards the aggressive male (p < 0.05). In non defeated rats, oPRL or 3 mg/kg bromocriptine had no effect. To determine if PRL increases social learning, we tested social transmission of food preference. Rats choose between two unfamiliar flavors, one of which they have previously been exposed to through interaction with a demonstrator rat. Vehicle controls preferred chow with the demonstrated flavor over the novel flavor. oPRL-treated rats were similar. Bromocriptine-treated rats failed to show a preference. When tested one week later, only oPRL-treated rats preferred the demonstrated flavor. The results suggest that PRL is required for social recognition and learning, and that increasing PRL enhances social memory and approach, similar to OT.

  • 21.
    Dussutour, Audrey
    et al.
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Toulouse III.
    Ma, Qi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Vogel, David
    Department of Chemistry and of Animal Biology, Université libre de Bruxelles.
    Sumpter, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Speed-accuracy tradeoffs and the construction of transport netowrksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key challenges in the study of networks is linking structure to function. For example, how do design requirements about the speed and accuracy with which information is transferred through a network determine its form?  We show that different strains of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum form different network structures, ranging from a diffuse network of thin links to a tree-like branching structure.  Using a current-reinforced random walk model, we explain these different structures in terms of two model parameters: the strength and the degree of non-linearity in the reinforcement. These parameters are further shown to tune the speed and accuracy with which the network can detect resource gradients. We use a battery of experimental tests to show that Physarum strains with diffuse networks make more accurate but slower decisions and those with thick, trunk branches make faster less accurate decisions. Intermediate structures can also be found which are relatively fast and accurate. The current reinforced random walk employed by the slime mould provides a tunable algorithm for decision-making, which may also apply in other systems where transport networks are constructed.

  • 22.
    Fahlman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, SLU Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Dept Urban & Rural Dev, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindsjö, Johan
    SLU, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Arvén Norling, Therese
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kjellander, Petter
    SLU, Dept Ecol, Grimsö Wildlife Res Stn, S-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Ågren, Erik Olof
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Pathol & Wildlife Dis, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alm Bergvall, Ulrika
    SLU, Dept Ecol, Grimsö Wildlife Res Stn, S-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Wild boar behaviour during live-trap capture in a corral-style trap: implications for animal welfare2020In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 62, no 1, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Wildlife traps are used in many countries without evaluation of their effect on animal welfare. Trap-capture of wild animals should minimise negative effects on animal welfare, irrespective of whether the animals are trapped for hunting, research, or management purposes. Live-trap capture of wild boar (Sus scrofa) followed by killing inside the trap by gunshot is a recently introduced but disputed hunting method in Sweden. Approval of trap constructions is based on gross necropsy findings of 20 trapped and shot wild boars. For improved animal welfare evaluation, our aim was to study wild boar behaviour during live-trapping in a 16 m2 square corral-style trap. Behavioural assessments were conducted after filming 12 capture events of in total 38 wild boars (five adults, 20 subadults, 13 piglets). Selected behavioural traits were compared with pathological changes (trap-related lesions) found at necropsy of the 20 subadults, to determine if these variables were useful proxies of capture-induced stress in wild boar.

    Results

    The wild boars spent less time resting in the evening than in the night and morning. Using Friedman’s ANOVA, there was an overall difference in the time spent foraging. However, we only found a difference between the evening and morning in the Wilcoxon matched pairs test after the Sequential Bonferroni correction, where the wild boars spent more time foraging in the evening than in the morning. Single captured individuals showed more escape behaviours and reacted more strongly to external stimuli than individuals captured in a group. It was more common for animals to charge against the mesh walls of the trap upon human approach compared to upon initial capture when the trap door closed. Trap-related pathological findings due to trauma were documented in 13 of the 20 subadults that were necropsied. Behavioural alterations indicative of capture-induced stress (e.g. charging into the trap walls) were documented in trapped wild boars with no or minor physical injuries (e.g. skin abrasions, subcutaneous haemorrhage).

    Conclusions

    Behavioural assessment provided valuable information for determination of capture-induced stress in wild boar when evaluating live-trapping in a corral-style trap, whereas pathological evaluation through necropsy did not fully reflect the animal welfare aspects of live-trapping. We emphasize the inclusion of species-specific behavioural data assessment for evaluation of capture-related stress during live-trapping and for testing of new trap constructions before approval.

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  • 23.
    Falck, Julius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    The unique singing behaviour of an African lark: song variation in the Monotonous Lark Mirafra passerina2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bird song can teach us much about animal behaviour and evolution. This study presents a type of song variation that has yet to be extensively studied. The Monotonous Lark Mirafra passerina is a nomadic lark with an iconic, simple and repetitive song. It has been noted to have a large song variation between irruptions, but limited variation in the same irruption, a behaviour previously, to my knowledge, unknown in the avian world. This study aims to describe the song and analyse the variation within and between irruptions, and try to explain the underlying mechanisms behind the variation. This article studies the song by analysing song material spanning 30 years with 140 samples, most from South Africa. The whole song and the syllables were measured. A custom edit distance and Euclidean distance were used to quantify song differences. Principal component analysis was performed on both syllable measurements and the whole song. The results showed a larger song variation between irruptions compared to within irruptions. It also showed that the song varies greatly between irruptions; however, a general pattern of how the song is structured was found. In addition, some indications of song retention between years were noticed. This study describes a unique example of avian behaviour that can broaden our knowledge of animal communication and its evolution and development.

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  • 24.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Folkesson, Lisa
    Bergstrom, Malin
    Östberg, Viveca
    Lindfors, Petra
    EXPLORING SALIVARY CORTISOL AND RECURRENT PAIN IN MID-ADOLESCENTS LIVING IN TWO HOMES2014In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 21, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Gallego-Abenza, Mario
    et al.
    Univ Vienna, Core Facil Behav & Cognit, Konrad Lorenz Forschungsstelle, Grunau Im Almtal, Austria;Univ Vienna, Dept Cognit Biol, Vienna, Austria.
    Mathevon, Nicolas
    Univ Lyon, UMR9197, CNRS, ENES NeuroPSI,Equipe Neuroethol Sensorielle, St Etienne, France.
    Wheatcroft, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Experience modulates an insect's response to anthropogenic noise2020In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to anthropogenic noise, vertebrates express modified acoustic communication signals either through individual plasticity or local population adaptation. In contrast, how insects respond to this stressor is poorly studied. Field crickets Gryllus bimaculatus use acoustic signals to attract and locate mates and are commonly found in noisy roadside environments, offering a powerful system to study the effects of anthropogenic noise on insect communication. Rapid repetition of sexual calls (chirps) is essential to attract females, but calling incurs energetic costs and attracts predators. As a result, males are predicted to reduce calling rates when background noise is high. Here, we combine observations and experimental playbacks to show that the responses of field cricket males to anthropogenic noise also depend on their previous experience with passing cars. First, we show that males living on highway edges decrease their chirp rate in response to passing cars. To assess whether this behavioral response depends on previous exposure to car noise, we then broadcast recordings of car noise to males located at different distances from the road and, therefore, with different previous exposure to car noise. Although all tested individuals responded to broadcasted traffic noise, males closest to the road decreased their chirp rate less than individuals calling further from the road. These results suggest that regular exposure to anthropogenic noise may decrease individuals' sensitivity and behavioral responses to noise, allowing them to maintain effective signaling rates. Behavioral plasticity modulated by experience may thus allow some insect species to cope with human-induced environmental stressors.

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  • 26.
    González Gozalo, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Flexible invaders: a study into aggressive behaviour in Öland's range expanding collared flycatchers2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioural shifts, or changes in behaviour patterns, are an often-overlooked aspect of ecological invasions and range expansions, that can nevertheless be key in determining how and why a species may or may not succeed in their expansion process. We looked at aggressive behaviour in a small insectivore passerine species, the collared flycatcher, on the island of Öland, where it is undergoing a range expansion to the detriment of the native, ecologically similar, pied flycatcher. We found collareds to react more aggressively to simulated intrusions by conspecifics rather than heterospecifics, consistent with previous research on the matter, as well as an increased aggressiveness on later days in the season. We also found a pattern hinting towards an effect of habitat quality on territory defence, with increased aggression on higher quality patches. There was no simple geographic signal in levels of aggression within this population, and we discuss the complex factors interacting to determine aggressive behaviour in this species, including the invasion front itself.

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  • 27.
    Granovskiy, Boris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Modeling Collective Decision-Making in Animal Groups2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many animal groups benefit from making decisions collectively. For example, colonies of many ant species are able to select the best possible nest to move into without every ant needing to visit each available nest site. Similarly, honey bee colonies can focus their foraging resources on the best possible food sources in their environment by sharing information with each other. In the same way, groups of human individuals are often able to make better decisions together than each individual group member can on his or her own. This phenomenon is known as "collective intelligence", or "wisdom of crowds." What unites all these examples is the fact that there is no centralized organization dictating how animal groups make their decisions. Instead, these successful decisions emerge from interactions and information transfer between individual members of the group and between individuals and their environment. In this thesis, I apply mathematical modeling techniques in order to better understand how groups of social animals make important decisions in situations where no single individual has complete information. This thesis consists of five papers, in which I collaborate with biologists and sociologists to simulate the results of their experiments on group decision-making in animals. The goal of the modeling process is to better understand the underlying mechanisms of interaction that allow animal groups to make accurate decisions that are vital to their survival. Mathematical models also allow us to make predictions about collective decisions made by animal groups that have not yet been studied experimentally or that cannot be easily studied. The combination of mathematical modeling and experimentation gives us a better insight into the benefits and drawbacks of collective decision making, and into the variety of mechanisms that are responsible for collective intelligence in animals. The models that I use in the thesis include differential equation models, agent-based models, stochastic models, and spatially explicit models. The biological systems studied included foraging honey bee colonies, house-hunting ants, and humans answering trivia questions.

    List of papers
    1. How dancing honey bees keep track of changes: the role of inspector bees
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How dancing honey bees keep track of changes: the role of inspector bees
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    2012 (English)In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 588-596Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    How do honey bees track changes in their foraging environment? Previously, 2 complementary mechanisms have been identified by which bees can effectively switch between food sources when their relative quality changes. First, an increase in profitability of a food source elicits an increase in waggle dances (the bees' recruitment mechanism) for that source. Second, bees that have retired from foraging at a food source make occasional inspection visits to that food source and resume foraging if its quality improves. Here, we investigate, using both field experiments and a mathematical model, the relative importance of these 2 mechanisms. By manipulating dance information available to the bees, we find that when food sources change quality frequently, inspector bees provide a rapid response to changes, whereas the waggle dance contributes to a response over a longer time period. The bees' ability to switch feeders without dance language information was found to be robust with respect to the spatial configuration of the feeders. Our results show that individual memory, in the form of inspector bees, and collective communication can interact to allow an insect colony to adapt to changes on both short and long timescales.

    Keywords
    Apis mellifera, collective memory, dynamic environment, foraging, honey bee, mathematical modeling
    National Category
    Mathematics Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-173619 (URN)10.1093/beheco/ars002 (DOI)000302485200017 ()
    Available from: 2012-05-09 Created: 2012-05-02 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Integration of Social Information by Human Groups
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of Social Information by Human Groups
    2015 (English)In: Topics in Cognitive Science, ISSN 1756-8757, E-ISSN 1756-8765, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 469-493Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy, but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The wisdom of crowds hypothesis states that the average judgment of many individuals can give a good estimate of, for example, the outcomes of sporting events and the answers to trivia questions. Two conditions for the application of wisdom of crowds are that estimates should be independent and unbiased. Here, we study how individuals integrate social information when answering trivia questions with answers that range between 0% and 100% (e.g., What percentage of Americans are left-handed?). We find that, consistent with the wisdom of crowds hypothesis, average performance improves with group size. However, individuals show a consistent bias to produce estimates that are insufficiently extreme. We find that social information provides significant, albeit small, improvement to group performance. Outliers with answers far from the correct answer move toward the position of the group mean. Given that these outliers also tend to be nearer to 50% than do the answers of other group members, this move creates group polarization away from 50%. By looking at individual performance over different questions we find that some people are more likely to be affected by social influence than others. There is also evidence that people differ in their competence in answering questions, but lack of competence is not significantly correlated with willingness to change guesses. We develop a mathematical model based on these results that postulates a cognitive process in which people first decide whether to take into account peer guesses, and if so, to move in the direction of these guesses. The size of the move is proportional to the distance between their own guess and the average guess of the group. This model closely approximates the distribution of guess movements and shows how outlying incorrect opinions can be systematically removed from a group resulting, in some situations, in improved group performance. However, improvement is only predicted for cases in which the initial guesses of individuals in the group are biased.

    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-180969 (URN)10.1111/tops.12150 (DOI)000359784900007 ()26189568 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Task difficulty  determines whether or not a crowd is wise.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Task difficulty  determines whether or not a crowd is wise.
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-180970 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-09-14
    4. Testing an agent-based model of nest emigration in Temnothorax ants against new experimental data.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing an agent-based model of nest emigration in Temnothorax ants against new experimental data.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-180971 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-09-14
    5. Individual Rules for Trail Pattern Formation in Argentine Ants (Linepithema humile)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual Rules for Trail Pattern Formation in Argentine Ants (Linepithema humile)
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 8, no 7, p. e1002592-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many ant species produce large dendritic networks of trails around their nest. These networks result from self-organized feedback mechanisms: ants leave small amounts of a chemical -a pheromone- as they move across space. In turn, they are attracted by this same pheromone so that eventually a trail is formed. In our study, we introduce a new image analysis technique to estimate the concentrations of pheromone directly on the trails. In this way, we can characterise the ingredients of the feedback loop that ultimately leads to the formation of trails. We show that the response to pheromone concentrations is linear: an ant will turn to the left with frequency proportional to the difference between the pheromone concentrations on its left and right sides. Such a linear individual response was rejected by previous literature, as it would be incompatible with the results of a large number of experiments: trails can only be reinforced if the ants have a disproportionally higher probability to select the trail with higher pheromone concentration. However, we show that the required non-linearity does not reside in the perceptual response of the ants, but in the noise associated with their movement.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-180968 (URN)10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002592 (DOI)000306842200017 ()
    Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Guillaumin, Adriane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    The subthalamic nucleus in motor and affective functions: An optogenetic in vivo-investigation2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The basal ganglia form a group of subcortical interconnected nuclei involved in motor, limbic and cognitive functions. According to the classical model of the basal ganglia, two main pathways exert opposing control over movement, one facilitating movement and the other suppressing movement. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a critical role in this function, and has also been implicated in reward processing. Despite ample knowledge of the role of the STN in motor dysfunctions in relation to Parkinson’s disease, less is known about STN’s natural role in healthy subjects.

    The studies described in this thesis aimed to address the functional role of the STN in its natural neurocircuitry by using a transgenic mouse line which expresses Cre recombinase under the Pitx2 promoter. The Pitx2 gene is restricted to the STN and the use of Pitx2-Cre mice thereby allows selective manipulation of STN neurons by using optogenetics. By expressing Channelrhodopsin (ChR2) or Archaerhodopsin (Arch) in Pitx2-Cre neurons, we could optogenetically excite or inhibit STN Pitx2-Cre neurons and investigate the role of the STN in motor and affective functions. We showed that optogenetic inhibition and excitation of the STN induce opposite effects on motor activity. STN excitation reduced locomotion while STN inhibition enhanced locomotion, thereby providing experimental evidence to classical motor models postulating this role. We also showed that optogenetic excitation of the STN induces potent place avoidance, a behaviour relevant to aversion. Projections from the STN to the ventral pallidum (VP) exist that when excited induced the same behaviour. The VP projects to the lateral habenula (LHb), a structure known for its role in aversion. A glutamatergic multi-synaptic connection between the STN and the LHb was confirmed.

    Aversive behaviour is also mediated by the hypothalamic-mesencephalic area. The Trpv1 gene is expressed within the posterior hypothalamus. By applying optogenetics in a Trpv1-Cre mouse line, projection patterns to limbic brain areas were identified, and optogenetic excitation of Trpv1-Cre neurons was found to induce place avoidance.

    The STN and posterior hypothalamus are thereby demonstrated as new players in the aversion neurocircuitry, while the long-assumed role of the STN in motor behaviour is confirmed. To enable future analyses of how STN manipulation might rescue motor and affective deficiency relevant to human disorders, a neuronal degeneration mouse model was generated.

    To conclude, the results presented in this thesis contribute to enhanced neurobiological understanding of the role played by the STN in motor and affective functions.

    List of papers
    1. Optogenetic investigation into the role of the subthalamic nucleus in motor control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optogenetic investigation into the role of the subthalamic nucleus in motor control
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subthalamic nucleus is important achieve intended movements. Loss of its normal function is strongly associated with several movement disorders. Classical basal ganglia models postulate that two parallel pathways, the direct and indirect pathways, exert opposing control over movement, with the subthalamic nucleus part of the indirect pathway through which competing motor programs are prevented. The subthalamic nucleus is regulated by both inhibitory and excitatory projections but experimental evidence for its role in motor control has remained sparse. The objective here was to tease out the selective impact of the subthalamic nucleus on several motor parameters required to achieve intended movement, including locomotion, balance and motor coordination. Optogenetic excitation and inhibition using both bilateral and unilateral stimulations of the subthalamic nucleus were implemented in freely-moving mice. The results demonstrate that selective optogenetic inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus enhances locomotion while its excitation reduces locomotion. These findings lend experimental support to basal ganglia models in terms of locomotion. However, further analysis of subthalamic nucleus excitation revealed grooming and disturbed gait. Selective excitation also caused reduced motor coordination, independent of grooming, in advanced motor tasks.  This study contributes experimental evidence for a regulatory role of the subthalamic nucleus in motor control.

    Keywords
    basal ganglia, coordination, locomotion, movement, optogenetics, subthalamus
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Research subject
    Neuroscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-417731 (URN)10.1101/2020.07.08.193359 (DOI)
    Available from: 2020-08-24 Created: 2020-08-24 Last updated: 2020-08-24
    2. Anatomical-functional analysis of the spatially restricted Transient receptor vanilloid-1 (Trpv1)-positive domain within the medial hypothalamic-mesencephalic area
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anatomical-functional analysis of the spatially restricted Transient receptor vanilloid-1 (Trpv1)-positive domain within the medial hypothalamic-mesencephalic area
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution pattern and functional role of brain neurons expressing the Transient receptor vanilloid-1 (Trpv1) gene, which in the sensory nervous system regulates body temperature, heat and pain, have remained obscure. Two studies using both in situ hybridization to detect endogenous Trpv1 mRNA and a floxed reporter allel in Trpv1-Cre mice, have detected sparse expression in the caudal aspect of the hypothalamus and the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain. This area has during recent years been associated with aversion processing via glutamatergic neurons expressing the Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) gene. Glutamatergic neurons of this area thus seem to be selectively correlated with aversion, while dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain have long been associated with reward processing. A previous study from our laboratory found that the Trpv1-positive neuronal population consisted of both glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons. It was therefore of particular interest to study this population further. Would this small but distinct hypothalamic-mesencephalic neuronal group of neurons regulate any specific type of behaviour if selectively activated? The results presented show that Trpv1 mRNA is primarily detected at the perinatal stage forming a band of neurons stretching from the posterior hypothalamus through to, and including, the ventral tegmental area. In the mature mouse, application of optogenetic constructs to the Trpv1-Cre-positive population enabled the analysis of both projection pattern and behavioural role of the Trpv1 neurons. These rare neurons, forming a hypothalamic-mesenecphalic continuum, project to several areas of the limbic system including the hippocampus, septum, nucleus accumbens and the preoptic area. When optogenetically activated, Trpv1-Cre mice show normal movements in the open field test, but display progressive avoidance behaviour in an optogenetic real-time place preference test. The results identify a new neuronal population tentatively involved in the complex network of aversive behaviour.

    Keywords
    hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, hypothalamic-mesencephalic area, subpopulation, Trpv1
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Research subject
    Neuroscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-417745 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-08-24 Created: 2020-08-24 Last updated: 2020-08-24
    3. Optimization protocol for the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson´s disease in wildtype mice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization protocol for the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson´s disease in wildtype mice
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease is a severe progressive neurodegenerative disease which usually appears in patients above 60 years old. The main motor symptoms are bradykinesia, akinesia, rigidity and tremor. The cause of the disease is still unknown but the consequence is a degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Current treatments for PD focus on replacing the loss of dopamine or to stimulate at high frequency the subthalamic nucleus. In order to improve treatments for PD, researchers use parkinsonian animal models. Among those, the neurotoxin-based models are commonly used, in particular the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model. The 6-OHDA is a neurotoxin which, when injected intracerebrally, selectively destroys catecholaminergic neurons. The 6-OHDA model reproduces several features of PD including motor impairments and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons of the SNc and partially in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In this study we optimized the 6-OHDA model in mice to increase the survival rate and well-being of the mice while inducing parkinsonian symptoms.

    Keywords
    parkinsonian mouse model, 6-OHDA, midbrain, dopamine
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Research subject
    Neuroscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-417744 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-08-24 Created: 2020-08-24 Last updated: 2020-08-24
    4. Aversion encoded in the subthalamic nucleus
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aversion encoded in the subthalamic nucleus
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is associated with the stopping of ongoing behavior via the basal ganglia. However, we recently observed that optogenetic STN excitation induced a strong jumping/escaping behavior. We hypothesized that STN activation is aversive. To test this, place preference was assessed. Optogenetic excitation of the STN caused potent place aversion. Causality between STN activation and aversion has not been demonstrated previously. The lateral habenula (LHb) is a critical hub for aversion. Optogenetic stimulation of the STN indeed caused firing of LHb neurons, but with delay, suggesting the involvement of a polysynaptic circuit. To unravel a putative pathway, the ventral pallidum (VP) was investigated. VP receives projections from the STN and in turn projects to the LHb. Optogenetic excitation of STN-VP terminals caused firing of VP neurons and induced aversive behavior. This study identifies the STN as critical hub for aversion, potentially mediated via an STN-VP-LHb pathway.

    Keywords
    basal ganglia, subthalamus, optogenetics, lateral habenual, ventral pallidum, aversion
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Research subject
    Neuroscience; Neuroscience; Neuroscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-417733 (URN)10.1101/2020.07.09.195610 (DOI)
    Available from: 2020-08-24 Created: 2020-08-24 Last updated: 2020-08-24
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    presentationsbild
  • 29.
    Guillaumin, Adriane
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Serra, Gian Pietro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Georges, Francois
    Institute of neurodegenerative diseases - University of Bordeaux.
    Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Optogenetic investigation into the role of the subthalamic nucleus in motor controlManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subthalamic nucleus is important achieve intended movements. Loss of its normal function is strongly associated with several movement disorders. Classical basal ganglia models postulate that two parallel pathways, the direct and indirect pathways, exert opposing control over movement, with the subthalamic nucleus part of the indirect pathway through which competing motor programs are prevented. The subthalamic nucleus is regulated by both inhibitory and excitatory projections but experimental evidence for its role in motor control has remained sparse. The objective here was to tease out the selective impact of the subthalamic nucleus on several motor parameters required to achieve intended movement, including locomotion, balance and motor coordination. Optogenetic excitation and inhibition using both bilateral and unilateral stimulations of the subthalamic nucleus were implemented in freely-moving mice. The results demonstrate that selective optogenetic inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus enhances locomotion while its excitation reduces locomotion. These findings lend experimental support to basal ganglia models in terms of locomotion. However, further analysis of subthalamic nucleus excitation revealed grooming and disturbed gait. Selective excitation also caused reduced motor coordination, independent of grooming, in advanced motor tasks.  This study contributes experimental evidence for a regulatory role of the subthalamic nucleus in motor control.

  • 30.
    Guillaumin, Adriane
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Vlcek, Bianca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Dumas, Sylvie
    Oramacell.
    Serra, Gian Pietro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Anatomical-functional analysis of the spatially restricted Transient receptor vanilloid-1 (Trpv1)-positive domain within the medial hypothalamic-mesencephalic areaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution pattern and functional role of brain neurons expressing the Transient receptor vanilloid-1 (Trpv1) gene, which in the sensory nervous system regulates body temperature, heat and pain, have remained obscure. Two studies using both in situ hybridization to detect endogenous Trpv1 mRNA and a floxed reporter allel in Trpv1-Cre mice, have detected sparse expression in the caudal aspect of the hypothalamus and the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain. This area has during recent years been associated with aversion processing via glutamatergic neurons expressing the Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) gene. Glutamatergic neurons of this area thus seem to be selectively correlated with aversion, while dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain have long been associated with reward processing. A previous study from our laboratory found that the Trpv1-positive neuronal population consisted of both glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons. It was therefore of particular interest to study this population further. Would this small but distinct hypothalamic-mesencephalic neuronal group of neurons regulate any specific type of behaviour if selectively activated? The results presented show that Trpv1 mRNA is primarily detected at the perinatal stage forming a band of neurons stretching from the posterior hypothalamus through to, and including, the ventral tegmental area. In the mature mouse, application of optogenetic constructs to the Trpv1-Cre-positive population enabled the analysis of both projection pattern and behavioural role of the Trpv1 neurons. These rare neurons, forming a hypothalamic-mesenecphalic continuum, project to several areas of the limbic system including the hippocampus, septum, nucleus accumbens and the preoptic area. When optogenetically activated, Trpv1-Cre mice show normal movements in the open field test, but display progressive avoidance behaviour in an optogenetic real-time place preference test. The results identify a new neuronal population tentatively involved in the complex network of aversive behaviour.

  • 31.
    Guillaumin, Adriane
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Optimization protocol for the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson´s disease in wildtype miceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease is a severe progressive neurodegenerative disease which usually appears in patients above 60 years old. The main motor symptoms are bradykinesia, akinesia, rigidity and tremor. The cause of the disease is still unknown but the consequence is a degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Current treatments for PD focus on replacing the loss of dopamine or to stimulate at high frequency the subthalamic nucleus. In order to improve treatments for PD, researchers use parkinsonian animal models. Among those, the neurotoxin-based models are commonly used, in particular the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model. The 6-OHDA is a neurotoxin which, when injected intracerebrally, selectively destroys catecholaminergic neurons. The 6-OHDA model reproduces several features of PD including motor impairments and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons of the SNc and partially in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In this study we optimized the 6-OHDA model in mice to increase the survival rate and well-being of the mice while inducing parkinsonian symptoms.

  • 32.
    Holtmann, Benedikt
    et al.
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Biol, Div Evolutionary Biol, Planegg Martinsried, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Biol, Behav Ecol Grp, Planegg Martinsried, Germany.
    Buskas, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Steele, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Solokovskis, Kristaps
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Biol, Div Evolutionary Biol, Planegg Martinsried, Germany.
    Dominance relationships and coalitionary aggression against conspecifics in female carrion crows2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 15922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation is a prevailing feature of many animal systems. Coalitionary aggression, where a group of individuals engages in coordinated behaviour to the detriment of conspecific targets, is a form of cooperation involving complex social interactions. To date, evidence has been dominated by studies in humans and other primates with a clear bias towards studies of male-male coalitions. We here characterize coalitionary aggression behaviour in a group of female carrion crows consisting of recruitment, coordinated chase, and attack. The individual of highest social rank liaised with the second most dominant individual to engage in coordinated chase and attack of a lower ranked crow on several occasions. Despite active intervention by the third most highly ranked individual opposing the offenders, the attack finally resulted in the death of the victim. All individuals were unrelated, of the same sex, and naive to the behaviour excluding kinship, reproduction, and social learning as possible drivers. Instead, the coalition may reflect a strategy of the dominant individual to secure long-term social benefits. Overall, the study provides evidence that members of the crow family engage in coordinated alliances directed against conspecifics as a possible means to manipulate their social environment.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 33. Kaiser, Kristine
    et al.
    Scofield, Douglas G.
    Alloush, Menemsha
    Jones, Robin M.
    Marczak, Susanne
    Martineau, Katherine
    Oliva, Mark A.
    Narins, Peter M.
    When sounds collide: the effect of anthropogenic noise on a breeding assemblage of frogs in Belize, Central America2011In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 148, no 2, p. 215-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organisms depend on acoustic communication for myriad functions, and have evolved behaviours to minimize effects of naturally occurring acoustic interference. However, as habitats are subject to increased alteration, anthropogenic noise becomes unavoidable, and how animals overcome such interference is not well understood. In most ecosystems, only a subset of frog species is associated with disturbed habitats; the ability of these species to overcome exogenous noise suggests that habitat associations may be related to species' response to noise. We tested the hypothesis that frogs associated with largely undisturbed forest habitat would be less likely to increase call output in response to exogenous noise than would those associated with disturbed or open habitat. While this relationship was not significant, we found a slight trend supporting the hypothesis. We then asked whether anthropogenic noise affects chorus tenure at individual- or at chorus-levels. Male frogs exposed to anthropogenic noise decreased both the number of days present at the chorus and the nightly chorus duration relative to controls. Because females generally join choruses late at night to breed, the effects of noise shown here are likely to substantially decrease frog reproductive success; thus, the acoustic environment may play an important role in shaping population dynamics and in amphibian declines.

  • 34.
    Kuehrer, Lukas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Exposure to the antihistamine diphenhydramine affects thermoregulation and increases righting time in the freshwater snail Planorbarius corneus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Antihistamines have been shown to degrade poorly, and should be considered as contaminants that may pose risks to the aquatic ecosystem. Diphenhydramine (DPH) is a first generation antihistamine detected up to lower micrograms per litre downstream of wastewater treatment facilities. Freshwater snails like Planorbis corneus are ectotherms and behaviour plays an important role for the regulation of snail body temperature. In a laboratory experiment, it was tested if DPH affects the behavioural traits thermoregulation and righting time in P. corneus. Righting time was measured as the time snails took to right themselves from an upside down position. After a 24 hour exposure to three different sublethal concentrations (nominal concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 µg/L) of DPH two thermoregulatory experiments (thermal preference (TPref) and maximum critical temperature (CTmax)) and one righting time experiment were performed. CTmax increased significantly from 37.5 °C to 39.7°C after exposure to 949 µg/L DPH. Minimal righting time was significantly increased in the lowest exposure concentration (8.21 µg/L DPH). No significant results were found in the TPref analyses. Collectively these results suggest that exposure to non-lethal concentrations of DPH affect behavioral traits like thermoregulation and righting time in freshwater snails. 

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    Master thesis Kuehrer Lukas
  • 35.
    Lagunas-Rangel, Francisco Alejandro
    Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Mexico City Mexico.
    Pan‐neuronal knockdown of Ras GTPase‐activating protein 1 alters Drosophila activity and sleep behavior2023In: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, ISSN 0739-4462, E-ISSN 1520-6327, article id e22001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ras signaling pathways are involved in numerous cellular functions and, for this reason, are highly regulated. In addition to alterations in the Ras proteins themselves, defects in Ras regulatory proteins, such as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), may be relevant to disease development. DrosophilaRasGAP1 is a protein with important physiological implications in flies due to its participation in the signaling of different pathways. In this work, the changes that occur in Drosophila behavior by reducing the pan-neuronal expression of RasGAP1 were investigated. Thus, RasGAP1 knockdown was found to cause a significant increase in total activity (p ≤ 0.001) and activity at 30 min (p ≤ 0.001). In contrast, total sleep duration (p ≤ 0.001), sleep within 30 min (p ≤ 0.001), and mean duration of sleep episodes (p ≤ 0.0001) were all reduced. Furthermore, circulating levels of glucose (p ≤ 0.05) and triacylglycerol (p ≤ 0.05) were found to be elevated. No significant changes were found in feeding behavior, food source selection, trehalose, or glycogen levels. All these results show new functions of RasGAP1 in Drosophila physiology and may also serve to explain some functions of human orthologs (RasGAP2/3 [RASA2/3]).

  • 36.
    Li, Daoyi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Effect of 6OHDA-induced dopaminergic neuron loss on level of astakine 1 cytokine in crayfish brain and blood cells2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prokineticin 2 has been recently discovered to be up regulated in the mice having the Parkinson's disease. The homologue protein of prokineticin 2 in the crayfish, named astatine 1, has been reported to be highly expressed in crayfish blood cells and have very similar functions with the prokineticin 2. However, the role of astakine 1 in the Parkinson's disease has never been researched. Therefore, in this study 6OHDA which is a compound widely used to induce Parkinson’s disease model organisms such as mice and rats was injected into crayfish. After injection, levels of astakine 1 in crayfish brain and blood cells were examined by the western blot. In addition, the number of blood cells was determined and movement of crayfish was observed.

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    fulltext
  • 37.
    Li, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    A behavioral assay for monitoring food self-administration and movement in real-time in fruit fly and its application in alcohol research2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Popular science summary-Lei Li
    The full text will be freely available from 2024-06-16 22:55
  • 38.
    Lönnstedt, Oona M.
    et al.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia .
    McCormick, Mark I.
    Chivers, Douglas P.
    Well-informed prey foraging: damage released alarm cues of injured prey signal quality and size to predators2012In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 168, no 3, p. 651-658Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    McKay, Kathryn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    A study of the behavioural responses in AB, Spd and selectively bred strains of zebrafish2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to determine if personality is inheritable through selection, to evaluate if discernable differences in behavioral profiles exist between strains and to gauge the effect that chronic stress has on personality development. This investigation was fundamentally a behavioral study, where three behavioral models were used to evaluate these parameters. Specifically, the open field shelter test, Scototaxis model as well the novel dive test were used to compare six lines of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The results from a comparative analysis of these different parameters show that there is a genetic aspect to personality, that variation does exist between the lines and that early life chronic stress may have an influence on personality development. 

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  • 40.
    Morinay, Jennifer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. University Claude Bernard Lyon 1.
    Sources of variability in heterospecific social information use for breeding habitat selection: Role of genetics and personality in collared flycatchers2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All their life, individuals have to make decisions that may strongly affect their fitness. To optimize their decisions, they can use personally acquired information but also information obtained from observing other individuals (“social information”). The propensity to gather and use social information and the information meaning might depend on both individual and environmental factors. Studying what drives within- and between-individual differences in social information use should help us understand the evolutionary potential of this supposedly adaptive behaviour. The aim of my PhD was to empirically investigate sources of variability in heterospecific social information use for breeding habitat selection. I worked on a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis, Gotland Island, Sweden), a passerine species shown to cue on the presence, density, reproductive investment and nest site preference of dominant titmice for settlement decisions. Using both long term and experimental data, I showed that the use of heterospecific social information, measured as the probability to copy tit nest preference, is not heritable but depends on male age and aggressiveness and on tit apparent breeding investment at the time of flycatcher settlement. Using a playback experiment, I also showed that female flycatchers can fine-tune nest site choice according to (i) song features supposedly reflecting great tit (Parus major) quality and (ii) their own aggressiveness level. This thesis highlights the importance of personality in the use of heterospecific social information for breeding site selection in this population, and broadens the traditionally known sources of heterospecific information to fine song characteristics reflecting heterospecifics’ quality. To fully understand the evolutionary mechanisms and consequences of heterospecific social information use, genetically based plasticity and fitness consequences remain to be explored.

    List of papers
    1. Heterospecific nest site copying behavior in a wild bird: assessing the influence of genetics and past experience on a joint breeding phenotype
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterospecific nest site copying behavior in a wild bird: assessing the influence of genetics and past experience on a joint breeding phenotype
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    2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 5, no 167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Breeding site selection is often a joint decision of pair members in species with biparental care and the experience of both pair members may influence the use of information for site selection. Nevertheless, quantitative genetics of joint information use for site selection remains unexplored so far. We used an experimental approach to quantify the relative importance of genetics (heritability) and past experience (age, familiarity with the environment, previous breeding success, previous information use) in heterospecific social information use for nest site selection in wild collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). Flycatchers collect social information from resident tits for nest site selection. We created an apparent preference of tits for a novel nest site feature and recorded choices of flycatchers (copying or rejecting the tit preference). Copying behavior was stronger for naive individuals but also differed between years, which could be explained by contrasting seasonality in the demonstrator species. Past experience as reflected by age affected subsequent use of social information: pairs with a yearling male were more likely to copy the heterospecific preference than pairs with older immigrant males. There was no general pattern in successive individual choices over the years. Accordingly, individual repeatability in copying tit preference was very low. At the pair level, we estimated sex-specific direct and indirect genetic effects on the joint nest site decision and found no sex-specific heritability and no cross-sex genetic correlation. Our results confirm the importance of past experience for social information use and suggest that social information use is highly plastic and most likely not genetically inherited in collared flycatchers. Whether individuals use social information should be related to environmentally-induced changes in the quality of information and thus be context-dependent. Selection may therefore act on the ability to optimally use social information in varying environments and on the processes underlying such adjustment, such as learning, rather than the use of information itself.

    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-345984 (URN)10.3389/fevo.2017.00167 (DOI)000451611600001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Note

    Correction in: FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, Volume: 6, Article Number: UNSP 80, DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2018.00080

    Available from: 2018-03-13 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
    2. No evidence for behavioural syndrome and genetic basis for three personality traits in a wild bird population
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>No evidence for behavioural syndrome and genetic basis for three personality traits in a wild bird population
    2019 (English)In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 153, p. 69-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits and their correlations have been shown to be linked with life history strategies and fitness in various species. Among-individual correlations (i.e. behavioural syndromes) between personality traits can affect the evolutionary responses of these traits to environmental variation. Understanding the genetic and ecological determinants of personality traits and their interactions as behavioural syndromes in the wild is thus needed to shed light on the mechanisms shaping their evolution. Partitioning the observed (co)variance in these traits, however, requires large numbers of repeated behavioural measures on many individuals of known relatedness level. In the absence of such data, it is thus often assumed that phenotypic (co)variances inform about (i) underlying among-individual (co)variances (i.e. ignoring within-individual (co)variances) and (2) underlying genetic (co) variances. We tested these assumptions using three personality traits collected during 3 years on a long-term monitored breeding population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis. We partitioned the observed phenotypic (co)variance of aggressiveness, boldness and neophobia into genetic, permanent environment and parental components, and we estimated the repeatability, and heritability of these traits and their among-individual correlations. All three traits were repeatable between years (at least on the latent scale) but none were heritable. Permanent environment effects explained 15% of the phenotypic variance in aggressiveness, and parental effects explained 25% of the phenotypic variance in neophobia, in line with previous studies in wild populations. The three traits showed phenotypic correlations but no among-individual correlations and no additive genetic covariance. Thus, our results did not support the assumptions that phenotypic covariance reflects behavioural syndromes and genetic covariance. We discuss the reasons for the absence of heritability and among-individual and genetic covariance between these three personality traits in light of the possible selective pressures acting on this population.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Aggressiveness, among- and within-individual correlations, boldness, collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis, heritability, neophobia, parental effects, quantitative genetics, repeatability
    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364210 (URN)10.1016/j.anbehav.2019.05.001 (DOI)000474355600008 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Male aggressiveness predicts heterospecific social information use for breeding site selection: experimental evidence from a wild bird population
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Male aggressiveness predicts heterospecific social information use for breeding site selection: experimental evidence from a wild bird population
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Ficedula albicollis, collared flycatcher, copying, personality, boldness, aggressiveness, neophobia
    National Category
    Ecology
    Research subject
    Biopharmaceutics; Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364083 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2018-10-24
    4. Use of song traits associated to singer quality as heterospecific social information for nest site selection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of song traits associated to singer quality as heterospecific social information for nest site selection
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Ficedula albicollis, social information, signal, eavesdropping, bird song, heterospecific competition, individual quality, personality, personal information, Parus major
    National Category
    Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364084 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2018-10-30
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  • 41.
    Morinay, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, CNRS, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut,UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France.;Ist Super Protez Ric Ambientale ISPRA, Area Avifauna Migratrice, Ozzano Dellemilia, Italy..
    Cauchard, Laure
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Biol Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Bize, Pierre
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Biol Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, CNRS, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut,UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France..
    The Role of Cognition in Social Information Use for Breeding Site Selection: Experimental Evidence in a Wild Passerine Population2020In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 8, article id 559690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spatio-temporally variable environments, individuals are known to use information for making optimal decisions regarding where and when to breed. Optimal decision making can be complex when relying on multiple information sources with varying levels of reliability and accessibility. To deal with such complexity, different cognitive abilities such as learning and memory might enable individuals to optimally process and use these information sources. Yet, the link between information use and cognitive ability remains unexplored in natural populations. We investigated whether learning performance on a problem-solving task was related to the use of an experimentally manipulated source of social information for nest site selection in wild collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). Collared flycatchers are known to use heterospecific information from their main competitors, the great tits (Parus major). Here, we created a local apparent preference by tits for an artificial nest site feature (a geometric symbol attached to nest boxes occupied by tits) and recorded whether flycatcher pairs chose to settle in nest boxes displaying the same feature as tits (i.e., copied tit apparent preference). Using a problem-solving task requiring opening a door temporarily blocking the nest box entrance, we then measured flycatchers' learning performance during nestling rearing as the number of entrances required to solve the task and enter the nest box twice in a row below a given efficiency threshold. We found that the probability to copy tit preference decreased with decreasing learning performance in females, particularly yearling ones: fast learning females copied tit preference, while slow learning ones rejected it. Male learning performance did not affect copying behavior. Our results showed that learning performance might play an important role in the ability to optimally use information for nest site selection in females: both fast and slow learning females could process this heterospecific information source but used it differently. This could partly explain the link between cognitive abilities and reproductive success reported in previous studies. Whether cognitive abilities may modulate condition-dependent costs of using different information remains to be explored.

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  • 42.
    Morinay, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, CNRS, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol & Genet, Oulu, Finland;Univ Oulu, Nat Resources Inst Finland, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, CNRS, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France.
    Heterospecific song quality as social information for settlement decisions: an experimental approach in a wild bird2020In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 161, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing local habitat quality via social cues provided by conspecific or heterospecific individuals sharing the same needs is a widespread strategy of social information use for breeding habitat selection. However, gathering information about putative competitors may involve agonistic costs. The use of social cues reflecting local habitat quality acquired from a distance, such as acoustic cues, could therefore be favoured. Bird songs are conspicuous signals commonly assumed to reliably reflect producer quality, and thereby local site quality. Birds of various species have been shown to be attracted to breeding sites by conspecific and heterospecific songs, and to use conspecific song features as information on producer (and by extension habitat) quality. Whether they can do the same with heterospecific song features, and whether this depends on the individual's own phenotype and especially its competitive ability, remains unknown. We used a playback experiment in a wild population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, a species known to eavesdrop on the presence and performance of dominant great tits, Parus major. We tested whether flycatchers, whose aggressiveness was experimentally assessed, preferred to settle near playback of a high-quality great tit song (i.e. song with large repertoire size, long strophes, high song rate), a low-quality great tit song or a chaffinch song (control). Among old females, aggressive ones preferred to settle near playback of high-quality tit song and avoided playback of low-quality tit song, while less aggressive females preferred to settle near playback of low-quality tit song. Male personality or age did not influence settlement decisions. This shows that collared flycatcher females use great tit song quality features as information for settlement decisions, although this depended on their own competitive ability and/or previous experience with great tit songs. Our study therefore further illustrates the complex condition-dependent use of heterospecific social information for breeding habitat selection.

  • 43.
    Morinay, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut UMR 5558, CNRS, Univ Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France..
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol & Genet, Oulu, Finland.;Nat Resources Inst Finland Luke, Oulu, Finland..
    Germain, Marion
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut UMR 5558, CNRS, Univ Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France; Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut UMR 5558, CNRS, Univ Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France..
    Behavioural traits modulate the use of heterospecific social information for nest site selection: experimental evidence from a wild bird population2020In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 287, no 1925, article id 20200265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of social information for making decisions is common but can be constrained by behavioural traits via, for example, the ability to gather information. Such constrained information use has been described in foraging habitat selection; yet it remains unexplored in the breeding habitat selection context, despite potentially strong fitness consequences. We experimentally tested whether three behavioural traits (aggressiveness, boldness and neophobia) affected the use of heterospecific social information for nest site selection in wild collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis. Flycatchers have previously been found to copy or reject an artificial apparent preference of tits (their main competitors) for a nest site feature: they preferred nest-boxes with the same or a different feature, depending on tit early reproductive investment. Here, we confirmed this result and showed that shy individuals and less aggressive old males (i.e. 2 years old or older) copied tit apparent preference, while more aggressive old males rejected the tit preference. Aggressiveness and boldness may allow males to access more information sources or affect males' interactions with dominant tits when selecting a nest site. Our study highlights the links between variation in behaviours and social information use for breeding habitat selection and calls for further work to explore underlying mechanisms.

  • 44.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Neuromolecular and behavioural profile of teleosts: - effects of boldness, agonistic behaviour and reproductive status2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates if boldness is reflected in the function of brain histaminergic system in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Moreover, behavioural differences in AB line, spiegeldanio (spd) line and wild caught strain of zebrafish have also been explored apart from the winner-loser effect in AB and spd fish. This thesis also includes studies on the effect of progestins on reproductive behaviour in zebrafish and regulation of leptinergic system on sexual maturation in male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Boldness is reflected in higher expression of histamine receptor 1 (hrh1) in the telencephalon and diencephalon of male zebrafish and dominance by an elevated expression of hrh1 in the optic tectum. In female zebrafish boldness is also associated with lower expression of histamine receptor 3 (hrh3) in the optic tectum and dominance by lower expression of hrh3 in the telencephalon. Comparison of behavioural traits of zebrafish of AB, spd and wild type shows that wild type strain is most shy and shows no gender difference. AB is bolder than spd in the open field test while spd is bolder AB in the novel tank dive test. Similarly results for aggression are also test dependent since the spd is more aggressive than AB in the mirror test, however no difference is measured during dyadic fight test. A typical loser effect and activation of serotonergic system is observed in both AB and spd fish. Further, both levonorgestrel (LNG) and progesterone (P4) cause an early puberty in male zebrafish. However only levonorgestrel causes males biased population at environmental concentrations. In male Atlantic salmon, during early spring, both leptin paralogues, lepa1 and lepa2 in the liver and leptin receptor (lepr) in the brain are downregulated in non-maturing control group. At final maturational stage both hepatic lepa1 and lepa2 are upregulated 7.7 times and 49 times respectively in maturing control males. A significant upregulation of lepr is also measured from mid to late spermatogenesis.  

    This thesis elucidates that an elevated brain histaminergic tone is associated with boldness and dominance and in both sexes changes at gene level are orchestrated by different brain region. Boldness is a contextual trait as it depends on strain, line, sex and test. The loser effect after losing a fight is present in both AB and spd line, however it has been shown for the first time in spd line here. Only androgenic progestin causes male biased population but both androgenic and anti androgenic progestin cause early puberty in zebrafish. The expression of leptinergic system is significantly affected during early sexual maturation in parr stage of salmon. Moreover, depleted fat stores are associated with low leptin levels and feed restriction is association with an elevated leptinergic tone in liver and pituitary. This thesis not only emphasizes that strain vs line difference exists and should be an important criterion before designing any experiment, but it also indicates an important role histaminergic system, progestins and leptinergic system in divergent behaviour profiles, puberty and sexual maturation, respectively of teleosts and contributes to our understanding of it.

    List of papers
    1. A role of brain histaminergic system in shaping behavioural profiles in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Effect of boldness and social interaction on the histaminergic system in zebrafish
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A role of brain histaminergic system in shaping behavioural profiles in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Effect of boldness and social interaction on the histaminergic system in zebrafish
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Physiology Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369544 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-14
    2. The aggressive spiegeldanio has no advantage in dyadic fights with zebrafish of the AB strain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The aggressive spiegeldanio has no advantage in dyadic fights with zebrafish of the AB strain
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369563 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-14
    3. Developmental exposure to progestins causes male bias and precocious puberty in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental exposure to progestins causes male bias and precocious puberty in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
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    2016 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 177, p. 316-323Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Progestins are aquatic contaminants that in low concentrations can impair fish reproduction. The mechanisms are likely multiple since different progestins interact with other steroid receptors in addition to progesterone receptors. Puberty is the process when animals first acquire the capability to reproduce and it comprises maturation of sperm and eggs. In zebrafish, puberty is initiated around 45 days post fertilization (dpf) in females and around 53-55 dpf in males, and is marked by increased production of pituitary gonadotropins. We exposed juvenile zebrafish from 20 to 80 dpf to the androgenic progestin levonorgestrel at concentrations of 5.5, 79 and 834 ng L-1 and to the non-androgenic progestin progesterone at concentrations of 3.7, 77 and 1122 ng L-1, during sexual differentiation and puberty. Levonorgestrel exposure caused 100% males even at the lowest concentration tested whereas progesterone did not affect the sex ratio. Transcript levels of the gonadal genes amh, CYP11B and CYP19a1a indicated that the masculinizing effect of levonorgestrel occurred very rapidly. Transcript concentrations of gonadotropins in pituitaries were low in control fish at 44 dpf, but high at 55 dpf and onward. In fish exposed to levonorgestrel or progesterone gonadotropin transcript concentrations were high already at 44 dpf, indicating that both progestins caused precocious puberty. Gonad histology at 50 dpf confirmed a well advanced sexual maturation, but only in males. Our results show that progestins can affect sexual development in fish and that the androgenic progestin levonorgestrel induces a male phenotype at concentrations similar to those detected in aquatic environments.

    Keywords
    Progestins, Levonorgestrel, Progesterone, Zebrafish, Sex differentiation, Puberty
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284921 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.06.010 (DOI)000381529700031 ()27348263 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-04-19 Created: 2016-04-19 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Regulation of the seasonal leptin and leptin receptor expression profile during early sexual maturation and feed restriction in male Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., parr
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulation of the seasonal leptin and leptin receptor expression profile during early sexual maturation and feed restriction in male Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., parr
    2014 (English)In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 204, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In mammals, leptin acts as an adiposity signal and is a crucial link between nutritional status and the reproductive axis. So far the link between leptin and energy balance during sexual maturation in teleosts has been poorly investigated. In this study, seasonal gene expression changes in two leptin genes (lepa1 andlepa2) and the leptin receptor were investigated during early sexual maturation in male Atlantic salmon parr under fully fed (control) and feed restricted conditions from April through September. Both Atlantic salmonlepa1 and lepa2 in the liver and lepr in the brain were significantly down-regulated in non-maturing control males in early spring, coinciding with the start of the growth and fat accumulation. In maturing control males, hepatic leptin expression increased during mid-spermatogenesis and lepa1 and lepa2 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 7.7 and 49 times respectively during final maturation. For the first time in a fish species, a significant up-regulation of lepr expression was observed in the testis throughout mid to late spermatogenesis. Feed restriction decreased the incidence of sexual maturation by 53% and highly up-regulated both leptin genes in the liver and the leptin receptor in the pituitary. This study shows that hepaticlepa1 and lepa2 expression and lepr expression in the testis is affected by early sexual maturation in male Atlantic salmon parr. Fast growth and high fat stores are associated with low leptin levels while feed restriction has a stimulatory effect on hepatic leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in the pituitary, suggesting a role for leptin other than that as an adiposity signal.

    Keywords
    Leptin, leptin receptor, sexual maturation, restricted feeding, Atlantic salmon, teleost
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-223453 (URN)10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.04.033 (DOI)000341616200008 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-21 Created: 2014-04-20 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
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  • 45.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Uppsala University.
    André, Goncalo Igreja
    University of Western Australia.
    Koning, Harmen Kornelis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Thörnqvist, Per Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    A role of brain histaminergic system in shaping behavioural profiles in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Effect of boldness and social interaction on the histaminergic system in zebrafishManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Boldness in males and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) is dependent on strain, line and testManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Thörnqvist, Per Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    The aggressive spiegeldanio has no advantage in dyadic fights with zebrafish of the AB strainManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 48. Myrov, Vladislav O
    et al.
    Polovian, Aleksandr I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Functional Pharmacology and Neuroscience. ZebraML, Inc., Houston, TX 77043, USA.
    Kolchanova, Sofiia
    Galumov, Georgii K
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Functional Pharmacology and Neuroscience.
    Bozhko, Dmitrii V
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Functional Pharmacology and Neuroscience. ZebraML, Inc., Houston, TX 77043, USA.
    Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-Based Pattern Recognition Approach Illustrates a Biphasic Behavioral Effect of Ethanol in Zebrafish: A High-Throughput Method for Animal Locomotor Analysis2023In: Biomedicines, E-ISSN 2227-9059, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in stress responses between individuals are linked to factors ranging from stress coping styles to the sensitivity of neurotransmitter systems. Many anxiolytic compounds can increase stressor engagement through the modulation of neurotransmitter systems and are used to investigate stress response mechanisms. The effect of such modulation may vary in time depending on concentration or environment, but those effects are hard to dissect because of the slow transition. We investigated the temporal effect of ethanol and found that ethanol-treated individual zebrafish larvae showed altered behavior that is different between drug concentrations and decreases with time. We used an artificial neural network approach with a time-dependent method for analyzing long (90 min) experiments on zebrafish larvae and found that individuals from the 0.5% group begin to show locomotor activity corresponding to the control group starting from the 60th minute. The locomotor activity of individuals from the 2% group after the 80th minute is classified as the activity of individuals from the 1.5% group. Our method shows three clusters of different concentrations in comparison with two clusters, which were obtained with the usage of a statistical approach for analyzing just the speed of fish movements. In addition, we show that such changes are not explained by basic behavior statistics such as speed and are caused by shifts in locomotion patterns.

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  • 49.
    Nonaka, Yuki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Life-History Divergence and Relative Fitness of Nestling Ficedula Flycatcher Hybrids2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The typical intermediate morphology of hybrids may result in their failure to utilize the same niches as their parents. However, the fitness consequences of the potentially intermediate life-history traits of hybrids have been given less scientific attention. In this study I aimed to investigate how life-history divergence in parental species affects the relative fitness of nestling hybrids resulting from crosses between collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied flycatchers (F. hypoleuca). Previous studies showed that collared flycatcher nestlings beg more intensively and grow faster under good conditions, but are less robust against the seasonal decline in food availability compared to pied flycatcher nestlings. This life-history divergence between the species allows regional coexistence. To investigate whether the life-history divergence in flycatchers influences the relative fitness of nestling hybrids, I cross-fostered hybrid nestlings in aviaries into the nests of conspecific pairs and compared their performance. I found that the hybrids displayed intermediate growth rates between collared and pied flycatchers across the season. There might therefore be environmental conditions when hybrids perform better than purebred offspring with respect to growth and survival.

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  • 50.
    Nordström, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Flinders University, Centre for Neuroscience, Adelaide.
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Pragadheesh, V.S.
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Naturalist-Inspired Chemical Ecology, Bangalore.
    Ghosh, Suhrid
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Naturalist-Inspired Chemical Ecology, Bangalore; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Suzanne Eaton Group, Dresden.
    Olsson, Amadeus
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Naturalist-Inspired Chemical Ecology, Bangalore.
    Dyakova, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Krishna Suresh, Shravanti
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Naturalist-Inspired Chemical Ecology, Bangalore; Iowa State University, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Ames.
    Olsson, Shannon B.
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Naturalist-Inspired Chemical Ecology, Bangalore.
    In situ modeling of multimodal floral cues attracting wild pollinators across environments2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 50, p. 13218-13223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With more than 80% of flowering plant species specialized for animal pollination, understanding how wild pollinators utilize resources across environments can encourage efficient planting and maintenance strategies to maximize pollination and establish resilience in the face of environmental change. A fundamental question is how generalist pollinators recognize “flower objects” in vastly different ecologies and environments. On one hand, pollinators could employ a specific set of floral cues regardless of environment. Alternatively, wild pollinators could recognize an exclusive signature of cues unique to each environment or flower species. Hoverflies, which are found across the globe, are one of the most ecologically important alternative pollinators after bees and bumblebees. Here, we have exploited their cosmopolitan status to understand how wild pollinator preferences change across different continents. Without employing any a priori assumptions concerning the floral cues, we measured, predicted, and finally artificially recreated multimodal cues from individual flowers visited by hoverflies in three different environments (hemiboreal, alpine, and tropical) using a field-based methodology. We found that although “flower signatures” were unique for each environment, some multimodal lures were ubiquitously attractive, despite not carrying any reward, or resembling real flowers. While it was unexpected that cue combinations found in real flowers were not necessary, the robustness of our lures across insect species and ecologies could reflect a general strategy of resource identification for generalist pollinators. Our results provide insights into how cosmopolitan pollinators such as hoverflies identify flowers and offer specific ecologically based cues and strategies for attracting pollinators across diverse environments.

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