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  • 1.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Forsgren, Elisabet
    Norsk institutt for naturforskning i Trondheim, Norway.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Enheten för biologisk mångfald och områdesskydd, Havs och Vattenmyndigheten, Göteborg.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Zoologi, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Fiskbiologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Umeå.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Etologi, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Östlund Nilsson, Sara
    Nasjonalbiblioteket, Oslo, Norway.
    En beteende-ekologisk forskningsperiod på Klubbans biologiska station: Rapport från återträff med Doktorer som disputerade (1983-2001) på avhandlingar med fältarbete på Klubbans Biologiska station. I en värld av kantnålar, stubbar, spiggar och nudingar.2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We had the fortune as PhD-students and scientists in Animal Ecology at Uppsala University, to spend joyful and creative field work summers at Klubban Biological Station, during the 1980-90’s. A reunion in June 2018 resulted in this report highlighting research on pipefishes, gobies, sticklebacks and nudibranchs. Our research on these animals have provided novel insights and knowledge of the process of sexual selection and paternal care. These animals have, in many aspects, now become model organisms in evolutionary behavioral ecology in marine environments. Our list of publications provides many examples of how environmental factors influence how sexual selection and mate choice operate, how predictors like potential reproductive rates, operational sex ratios work and how male parental care is prominent in influencing selection. This research, that started at Klubban, has broadened our understanding of the ecological importance of shallow marine areas. The evolutionary understanding of how males and females can behave and how adaptive traits are selected in interaction with social and an increasingly changing ambient environment is in focus in our continued scientific endeavors. We have happily compiled this report illustrating how science and scientist can stimulate each other at a wonderful place like Klubban Biological Station, with the access to amazing organisms like pipefishes, gobies, sticklebacks and nudibranchs.

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  • 2.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Blue Center Gotland, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Zuk, Marlene
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Ecol Evolut & Behav, St Paul, MN 55455 USA.
    Obituary: Staffan Ulfstrand2024In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 35, no 1, article id arad113Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Berdal Anderson, Monica
    et al.
    NTNU, department of Biology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. NTNU, department of Biology.
    Wright, Jonathan
    NTNU, Department of biology.
    Innovation as part of a wider behavioural syndrome in the guppy:: Theeffect of sex and body size2018In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work on animal personalities has shown that individuals within populations often differ consistently in various types of behaviour and that many of these behaviours correlate among individuals to form behavioural syndromes. Individuals of certain species have also been shown to differ in their rate of behavioural innovation in arriving at novel solutions to new and existing problems (e.g., mazes, novel foods). Here, we investigate whether behaviours traditionally studied in personality research are correlated with individual rates of innovation as part of a wider behavioural syndrome. Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) of both sexes from three different wild population sources were assessed: (a) exploration of an open area; (b) speed through a three‐dimensional maze; (c) investigation of a novel object; and (d) attraction to a novel food. The covariance structure (syndrome structure) was examined using structural equation modelling. The best model separated behaviours relating to activity in all contexts from rates of exploration/investigation and innovation. Innovative behaviour (utilizing new food and moving through a novel area) in these fish therefore forms part of the same syndrome as the traditional shy‐bold continuum (exploration of an open area and investigation of a novel object) found in many animal personality studies. There were no clear differences in innovation or syndrome structure between the sexes, or between the three different populations. However, body size was implicated as part of the behavioural syndrome structure, and because body size is highly correlated with age in guppies, this suggests that individual behavioural differences in personality/innovation in guppies may largely be driven by developmental state.

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  • 4.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sundin, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Baltic pipefish females need twice as many males as they get2017In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 827-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex role reversal in 2 pipefish species, Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion, is potentially explained by females reproducing twice as fast as males. Moreover, in oceanic populations from the Swedish west coast, females compete for males with males pre- ferring to mate with larger females. However, in a brackish Baltic population of S. typhle, males do not prefer larger mates, whereas choosiness remains in the local N. ophidion population. We explore whether this absence of male choice in brackish S. typhle can be explained by males and females having more similar potential reproductive rates here, whereas the sex difference may remain in the local N. ophidion population. Contrary to our expectations, in both species, females out-reproduced males by a factor of more than 2, just as in the oceanic populations. We measured this experimentally as the number of males a female potentially could fill with eggs within the time span of 1 male pregnancy, in relation to males available in nature. Thus, we conclude that sexual selection on females is as strong in brackish as in oceanic populations of both species but that targets of selection via male choice are shifted to traits other than body size in S. typhle. Hence, costs and benefits of choice are probably more important than potential reproductive rates to understand mate choice. We suggest that it may be misleading to use targets of sexual selection, such as choice for large body size, as an indicator of the strength of sexual selection. 

  • 5.
    Björk, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, Royale Inst Technol, KTH Teknikringen 10B, Stockholm, Sweden.;Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Methane emissions from macrophyte beach wrack on Baltic seashores2023In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 52, p. 171-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beach wrack of marine macrophytes is a natural component of many beaches. To test if such wrack emits the potent greenhouse gas methane, field measurements were made at different seasons on beach wrack depositions of different ages, exposure, and distance from the water. Methane emissions varied greatly, from 0 to 176 mg CH4-C m(-2) day(-1), with a clear positive correlation between emission and temperature. Dry wrack had lower emissions than wet. Using temperature data from 2016 to 2020, seasonal changes in fluxes were calculated for a natural wrack accumulation area. Such calculated average emissions were close to zero during winter, but peaked in summer, with very high emissions when daily temperatures exceeded 20 degrees C. We conclude that waterlogged beach wrack significantly contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and that emissions might drastically increase with increasing global temperatures. When beach wrack is collected into heaps away from the water, the emissions are however close to zero.

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  • 6.
    Cunha, Mario
    et al.
    CIBIO/InBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, Vairão, Portugal.
    Macedo, Nidia
    CIBIO/InBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, Vairão, Portugal.
    Wilson, Jonathan
    CIIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Department of Biology, CBD, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Monteiro, Nuno
    CIBIO/InBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, Vairão, Portugal; Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, CEBIMED, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal.
    Reduced sexual size dimorphism in a pipefish population where males do not prefer larger females2019In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 22, p. 12826-12835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a species' distribution, populations are often exposed to diverse environmentsand may thus experience different sources of both natural and sexual selection.These differences are likely to impact the balance between costs and benefits toindividuals seeking reproduction, thus entailing evolutionary repercussions. Here, welook into an unusual population (Baltic Sea) of the broadnosed pipefish, Syngnathustyphle, where males do not seem to select females based on size and hypothesizethat this pattern may derive from a reduction in direct benefits to the male. We furtherhypothesize that if larger females do not persistently secure a higher reproductivesuccess, either through pre‐ or postcopulatory sexual selection, a decrease insexual size dimorphism in the Baltic population should be apparent, especially whencontrasted with a well‐studied population, inhabiting similar latitudes (Swedish westcoast), where males prefer larger females. We found that, in the Baltic population,variation in female quality is low. We were unable to find differences in abortion ratesor protein concentration in oocytes produced by females of contrasting sizes. Directbenefits from mating with large partners seem, thus, reduced in the Baltic population.We also found no evidence of any postcopulatory mechanism that could favorlarger mothers as embryo development was unrelated to female size. While femalesize can still be selected through intrasexual competition or fecundity selection, thepressure for large female body size seems to be lower in the Baltic. Accordingly, wefound a noticeable decrease in sexual size dimorphism in the Baltic population. Weconclude that, although far from negating the significance of other selective processes,sexual selection seems to have a decisive role in supporting pipefish sexualsize asymmetries.

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  • 7.
    Dymek, Jakub
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Biol, Inst Zool & Biomed Res, Dept Comparat Anat, Gronostajowa 9, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Kuciel, Michal
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Med, Poison Informat Ctr, Dept Toxicol & Environm Dis, Krakow, Poland.
    Lauriano, Eugenia Rita
    Univ Messina, Dept Chem Biol Pharmaceut & Environm Sci, Messina, Italy.
    Capillo, Gioele
    Univ Messina, Dept Vet Sci, Messina, Italy.
    Zaccone, Giacomo
    Univ Messina, Dept Biomed & Dent Sci & Morphofunct Imaging, Messina, Italy.
    Zuwala, Krystyna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Biol, Inst Zool & Biomed Res, Dept Comparat Anat, Gronostajowa 9, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Micro- and macro-morphology of the olfactory organ of Syngnathus typhle (Syngnathidae, Actinopterygii)2021In: Acta Zoologica, ISSN 0001-7272, E-ISSN 1463-6395, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 206-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we describe the micro- and macro-morphology of the olfactory organ in broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) with a comparison of this organ between males and females during breeding season. With 8 adult males, 8 females, and 7 pregnant males collected during the breeding season from the Baltic sea as our samples, our research was conducted using light and electron (TEM, SEM) microscopes and immunohistochemistry methods to distinguish the olfactory sensory neurons. The interior of the olfactory chamber lacked an olfactory rosette. Instead, olfactory receptor epithelium covered the inner walls of the olfactory chamber and, to varying degrees, the inside of the anterior and posterior nostrils. All types of olfactory sensory neurons (ciliated, microvillus, and crypt) were present within the olfactory sensory epithelium, although the crypt sensory neurons were limited to the pregnant and non-pregnant males). The olfactory sensory neurons were present in the areas where the density of the non-sensory epithelium cells was reduced. No significant differences in morphology of the olfactory organ between sexes were found. Nevertheless, only in males crypt sensory neurons were presented in olfactory epithelium, which indicates that sense of smell could play a little role during mating.

  • 8.
    Flanagan, Sarah P.
    et al.
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Biol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.;Univ Tennessee, Natl Inst Math & Biol Synth, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA..
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology. Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, Ctr Biodivers Dynam, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Jones, Adam G.
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Biol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA..
    Mate quality and the temporal dynamics of breeding in a sex-role-reversed pipefish, S. typhle2017In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 71, no 1, article id UNSP 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of receptivity and breeding date, coupled with individual-level quality and attractiveness, are centrally important to mating system dynamics. These topics have been investigated in some detail in birds, but much less work has been devoted to other taxonomic groups, and almost no work has addressed spatiotemporal factors and individual quality in sex-role-reversed taxa. The broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, provides an excellent opportunity to investigate these ideas in a sex-role-reversed fish. Here, we addressed three questions related to mating dynamics in S. typhle: (1) Do higher-quality males arrive earlier on the breeding grounds and mate first? (2) Are early-breeding males in better condition than later-breeding males? And (3) do mating events involving higher-quality males produce better clutches than mating events involving lower-quality males? We collected data from a field study and a laboratory breeding experiment to address our hypotheses. Our results show that larger males mate earlier than smaller males and that pregnant males have higher measures of condition compared to non-pregnant males. Moreover, our laboratory results demonstrate that pairings between larger males and preferred females yielded more offspring than pairings involving smaller males. In summary, the spatiotemporal dynamics of S. typhle breeding patterns, combined with variation in individual quality, play an important role in shaping mating systems and should be incorporated in future analyses of mating behavior and sexual selection in this interesting sex-role-reversed pipefish. Significance statement The breeding patterns of a species can fluctuate over time due to a number of factors, one of which is individual quality. Although the effects of both the timing of reproduction and female quality on mating systems have been studied in some species, they have been investigated primarily in isolation. Here, we demonstrate that individual quality and the timing of reproduction interact to affect reproductive success in a wild population of sex-role-reversed fish.

  • 9.
    Landis, Susanne H.
    et al.
    Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel GEOMAR, Evolutionary Ecol Marine Fishes, D-24105 Kiel, Germany..
    Sundin, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, Ctr Biodivers Dynam, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Poirier, Maude
    Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel GEOMAR, Evolutionary Ecol Marine Fishes, D-24105 Kiel, Germany..
    Jorgensen, Guro Oistensen
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, Ctr Biodivers Dynam, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Roth, Olivia
    Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel GEOMAR, Evolutionary Ecol Marine Fishes, D-24105 Kiel, Germany..
    Female pipefish can detect the immune status of their mates2015In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 69, no 12, p. 1917-1923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the ubiquity of the parasites and their important fitness consequences on mate and offspring condition, selection for the ability to distinguish healthy from parasitized potential mates is a key process to enhance Darwinian fitness. In this study, we experimentally evaluated how the immunological experience of two potential partners influences mate choice, using the sex-role-reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. We exposed S. typhle to immune challenges with heat-killed Vibrio bacteria and investigated whether the activation of the immune system determined mate preferences. Our results demonstrate that the immune status of the potential partners influenced female mate preference, such that females that were exposed to an immune challenge became choosy and favored unchallenged males. Males, however, did not show any preferences for female immune status. In this context, we discuss mate choice decisions and behavioral plasticity as a complex result of immune challenge, severity of infection, as well as trans-generational effects.

  • 10.
    Landis, Susanne H.
    et al.
    Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Fishes, Helmholtz Centre of Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR).
    Sundin, Josefin
    Department of Animal Ecology, Evolutionary Biology Centre (EBC), Uppsala University.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Roth, Olivia
    Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Fishes, Helmholtz Centre of Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR).
    Behavioral adjustments of a pipefish to bacterial Vibrio challenge2012In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 66, no 10, p. 1399-1405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animals can profit from increasing temperatures by prolonged breeding seasons and faster growth rates. However, these fitness benefits are traded off against higher parasite load and increased virulence of temperature-sensitive pathogens. In thermally stratified habitats, behavioral plasticity can allow hosts to choose the optimal temperature to enhance individual fitness and to escape parasite pressure. To test this idea, we performed a temperature choice experiment with the host–parasite system of the sex-role reversed broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) and its bacterial pathogen Vibrio spp. In this species, pregnant males are expected to face a trade-off between shortening their brooding period in warm water and decreasing the effect of the infection in cold water. We found that exposure to Vibrio changed the temperature preference for both pregnant and nonpregnant males, as well as females compared to nonchallenged fish that tended to prefer warm water. This study shows that behavioral plasticity is one option for avoidance of higher bacterial prevalence, as expected due to rising ocean temperatures.

  • 11.
    Langhamar, Olivia
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Dahlgren, Thomas Gunnar
    Department of Marine Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Uni Research, Bergen, Norway.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Effect of an offshore wind farm on the viviparous eelpout: Biometrics, brood development and population studies in Lillgrund, Sweden2017In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 84, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sufficient, clean and secure energy is the main driver for a worldwide growing welfare and economic development of a society. Environmental concerns on the expansion of offshore renewable energy and its impact on marine organisms need to be scientifically assessed for risks and consequences. In order to observe the effects of an operating wind farm on fish, we studied the rather stationary and benthic-living fish species viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparous) as model indicator organisms. We compared local populations of viviparous eelpout in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) with natural sites in the Öresund strait in Sweden. Eelpout studies on population dynamics, biometrics, reproductive success and fry development were conducted in 2011 and 2012. Condition index, histosomatic index, gonadosomatic index were measured additionally. Our findings showed that Lillgrund OWF neither had an impact on the condition index (CI), nor on brood development of female viviparous eelpout. Furthermore, populations size estimates in Lillgrund indicated that eelpout neither specifically aggregated in nor avoided the offshore wind farm, and no clear reef effect attracting eelpout to the foundations and scour protections of the OWF was observed. Our conclusion is that the operating wind farm did not have any potentially negative effects, since we did not observe any negative effects neither on the individual health of eelpout nor of the reproductive performance. We suggest that eelpout which may also be used as an indicator species for the environmental status of Lillgrund, as well as for other offshore wind farms and marine renewable energy installations, both in the Baltic and coastal waters in northern Europe.

  • 12.
    Lindqvist, Charlotte
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Sundin, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Male broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle do not locate females by smell2011In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 1861-1867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle were used to investigate whether males used scent in their search for mates. When the males in an experiment had access to olfactory cues only, they did not locate females better than they located males. Thus, S. typhle, was less successful in mate search when visual cues were absent.

  • 13.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Sexual signals and mating patterns in Syngnathidae2011In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 1647-1661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male pregnancy in the family Syngnathidae (pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons) predisposes males to limit female reproductive success and sexual selection may then operate more strongly on females and female sexual signals may evolve (“sex role reversal”).  A bewildering array of female signals have evolved in Syngnathids, e.g. skin folds, large body size, colouration, markings on the body and elaborate courtship.These female sexual signals do not seem quantitatively or qualitatively different from those that evolve in males in species with conventional sex roles where males provide females or offspring with direct benefits. In several syngnathid species also males evolve ornaments, females are choosy in addition to being competitive, and males compete as well as chose partners. Thus, sex roles form a continuum, spanning from conventional to reversed within this group of fishes. Cases are here presented suggesting that stronger sexual selection on females may be most extreme in species showing classical polyandry (one male mates with several females, such as many species where males brood their eggs on the trunk), intermediate in polygynandrous species (males and females both mate multiply, as in many species where males brood their eggs on the tail), and least extreme, even exhibiting conventional sex roles, in monogamous species (one male mates solely with one female, as in many seahorses and tropical pipefish). At the same time caution is needed before unanimously establishing this pattern: first, the connection between mating patterns, strength of sexual selection, sex roles and ornament expression is far from simple and straight-forward, and second, knowledge of the actual morphology, ecology and behavior of most syngnathid species is scanty: basically only a few Nerophis, Syngnathus and Hippocampus species have been studied in any detail. It is known, however, that this group of fish exhibits a remarkable variation in sex roles and ornamentation, making them an ideal group for the study of mating patterns, sexual selection and sexually selected signals.   

     

  • 14.
    Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Aronsen, Tonje
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, Ctr Biodivers Dynam, Trondheim, Norway.; Norwegian Inst Nat Res NINA, Trondheim, Norway.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, Ctr Biodivers Dynam, Trondheim, Norway.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sex in murky waters: algal induced turbidity increases sexual selection in pipefish2017In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 71, no 5, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Algal induced turbidity has been shown to alter several important aspects of reproduction and sexual selection. However, while turbidity has been shown to negatively affect reproduction and sexually selected traits in some species, it may instead enhance reproductive success in others, implying that the impact of eutrophication is far more complex than originally believed. In this study, we aimed to provide more insight into these inconsistent findings. We used molecular tools to investigate the impact of algal turbidity on reproductive success and sexual selection on males in controlled laboratory experiments, allowing mate choice, mating competition and mate encounter rates to affect reproduction. As study species we used the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, a species practicing male pregnancy and where we have previously shown that male mate choice is impaired by turbidity. Here, turbidity instead enhanced sexual selection on male size and mating success as well as reproductive success. Effects from mating competition and mate encounter rates may thus override effects from mate choice based on visual cues, producing an overall stronger sexual selection in turbid waters. Hence, seemingly inconsistent effects of turbidity on sexual selection may depend on which mechanisms of sexual selection that have been under study.

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  • 15.
    Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Turbidity hampers mate choice in a pipefish2010In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 116, no 8, p. 713-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European coastal waters have in recent years become more turbid as algal growth has increased, probably due to eutrophication, global warming and changes in fish communities. Turbidity reduces visibility, and such changes may in turn affect animal behaviour as well as evolutionary processes that are dependent on visual stimuli. In this study we experimentally manipulated water visibility and olfactory cues to investigate mate choice using the sex role-reversed broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle as our study organism. We show that males spent significantly longer time assessing females when they had access to full visual cues, compared to when visibility was reduced. Presence or absence of olfactory cues from females did not affect mate choice, suggesting that the possible use of smell could not make up for a reduction in visibility. This implies that mate choice is environmentally dependent and that an increased turbidity may affect processes of sexual selection through an impaired possibility for visually based mate choice.

  • 16.
    Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Gotland University.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hypoxia delays mating in the broad-nosed pipefish2015In: Marine Biology Research, ISSN 1745-1000, E-ISSN 1745-1019, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 747-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Courtship is an important part of the reproductive process, ensuring reproductive compatibility and conveying individual quality. One factor in aquatic environments that has the potential to influence courtship behaviours and mating propensity is the level of dissolved oxygen. Furthermore, hypoxic areas are currently spreading due to anthropogenic disturbance, such as eutrophication. In marine environments, hypoxia often occurs in shallow coastal regions that are particularly important areas for reproduction. Here, we investigated how types of reproductive behaviour were affected by mild hypoxia using the well-studied broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle. More precisely, we investigated the impact of acute hypoxia on the reproductive behaviour preceding mating, and on the probability of mating, as well as on the latency until these occurred. We found that the latency period to courting and copulation occurring was prolonged in the low-oxygen environment. However, the total time spent courting as well as the probability of mating was unaffected by hypoxia. Other types of reproductive behaviour found in this species, such as dancing, and the unique male pouch-flap behaviour, were also unaffected by the low-oxygen treatment. We conclude that although latency to courting and copulating was prolonged in the hypoxic environment, most reproductive behaviour investigated was unaffected by hypoxia. Thus, hypoxia commonly occurring in shallow coastal regions has the potential to delay certain components of reproduction, but overall the broad-nosed pipefish shows robustness to hypoxic conditions.

  • 17.
    Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Myhren, Siri
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Algal Turbidity Hampers Ornament Perception, but Not Expression, in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish2016In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 215-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual ornaments are used both in intra- and intersexual contexts, and these signals have evolved to function in the particular habitat the animal is adapted to. Habitat characteristics may, however, change rapidly due to anthropogenic effects, sometimes at rates too fast for many organisms to adaptively respond. In aquatic ecosystems, eutrophication is currently changing chemical as well as visual properties of the environment. Algae blooms increase water turbidity, and the reduction of water transparency thus has the potential to alter visual ornaments and their perception. However, results are not congruent. Rather, algae turbidity may decrease, increase, or leave ornaments unaffected. The effect seems to depend on exposure time, condition, population and species. Here, we found that the perception of sexual signals, but not their expression, was hampered by turbidity in the sex-role-reversed pipefish Nerophis ophidion. In a laboratory experiment we found that female sexual ornaments (i.e., blue color markings and a skinfold) and fecundity was unaffected by turbidity. Male adaptive mate choice for larger females with large ornament was, however, hampered under turbid conditions, whereas in clear water males choose larger, more ornamented females. Thus, we show that water turbidity had no effect on signal expression but did hamper ornament perception and consequently randomized mate choice.

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