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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    Hamed, Sarah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Moberg, Cecilia
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    “Just Throw It Behind You and Just Keep Going”: Emotional Labor when Ethnic Minority Healthcare Staff Encounter Racism in Healthcare2022In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 6, article id 741202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Encountering racism is burdensome and meeting it in a healthcare setting is no exception. This paper is part of alarger study that focusedonunderstandingandaddressingracismin healthcare in Sweden. In the paper, we draw on interviews with 12 ethnic minority healthcare staff who described how they managed emotional labor in their encounters with racism at their workplace. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that experienced emotional labor arises from two main reasons. The first is the concern and fear that ethnic minority healthcare staff have of adverse consequences for their employment should they be seen engaged in discussing racism. The second concerns the ethical dilemmas when taking care of racist patients since healthcare staff are bound by a duty of providing equal care for all patients as expressed in healthcare institutional regulations. Strategies to manage emotional labor described by the staff include working harder to prove their competence and faking, blocking or hiding their emotions when they encounter racism. The emotional labor implied by these strategies could be intense or traumatizing as indicated by some staff members, and can therefore have negative effects on health. Given that discussions around racism are silenced, it is paramount to create space where racism can be safely discussed and to develop a safe healthcare environment for the benefit of staff and patients.

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  • 2.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    Hamed, Sarah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Invisibility of Racism in the Global Neoliberal Era: Implications for Researching Racism in Healthcare2019In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 4, article id 61Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the difficulties of researching racism in healthcare contexts as part of the wider issue of neoliberal reforms in welfare states in the age of global migration. In trying to understand the contradiction of a phenomenon that is historical and strongly felt by individuals and yet widely denied by both institutions and individuals, we consider the current political and socioeconomic context of healthcare provision. Despite decades of legislation against racism, its presence persists in healthcare settings, but data on these experiences is rarely gathered in Europe. National systems of healthcare provision have been subject to neoliberal reforms, where among others, cheaper forms of labor are sought to reduce the cost of producing healthcare, while the availability of services is rationed to contain demand. The restriction both on provision of and access to welfare, including healthcare, is unpopular among national populations. However, the explanations for restricted access to healthcare are assumed to be located outside the national context with immigrants being blamed. Even as migrants are used as a source of cheap labor in healthcare and other welfare sectors, the arrival of immigrants has been held responsible for restricted access to healthcare and welfare in general. One implication of (im)migration being blamed for healthcare restrictions, while racism is held to be a problem of the past, is the silencing of experiences of racism, which has dire consequences for ethnic minority populations. The implications of racism as a form of inequality within healthcare and the circumstances of researching racism in healthcare and its implication for the sociology of health in Sweden are described.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Department of Thematic Studies Linköping University.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Department of Thematic Studies Linköping University.
    Mediated Communications of Violence: The example of "Happy Slapping"2011In: Journal of Children and Media, ISSN 1748-2798, E-ISSN 1748-2801, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 230-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Binswanger, Christa
    et al.
    Centre for Gender Studies at the University of Basle.
    Samelius, Lotta
    National Swedish Police Academy, Linköping University.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Palimpsests of Sexuality and Intimate Violence: Turning Points as Transformative Scripts for Intervention2011In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore transdisciplinary understandings of scripts as transformative interventions. Script refers, on the one hand, to cognitive, routinized behavioural patterns; on the other hand, it is a multilayered process of enacting, interpreting, and rewriting interaction within a specific context. The metaphor of the palimpsest, embodying and provoking interdisciplinary encounters, links the various layers of practised and narrated scripts. The interrelation of the scripts of the palimpsest is marked by inextricability as they use the same space and create an illusionary intimacy. We develop our ideas about script as intervention, reflecting on scripts of violence and sexual experience. We make use of the psychoanalytic term “cryptic incorporation”. Cryptic incorporation entails the idea of an experience psychically “swallowed whole” by the subject and therefore not accessible to conscious reflection, once incorporated.

    Our methodological readings are both empirical and fictional. The empirical example is based on an interview with one respondent, who has experienced intimate violence during the course of her life. The autobiographical text of Shedding, written in 1975 by the Swiss author Verena Stefan, is an example of fiction. Both texts engage in the inextricability of vulnerability and intimacy. Analysing these narratives, we pay special attention to “turning-points”. As turning-points represent decisive changes within evolving life-stories, they are read as palimpsestuous scripts of a transformative process. Thus, we focus on the human ability to change scripts, to rewrite biographical events. We look for a productive entanglement of our scientific writing, understanding the writing process itself as a palimpsestuous layer of script as intervention.

  • 5.
    Bradby, Hannah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hamed, Sarah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Skaraborg Institut, Skövde, Sweden.
    Designing an education intervention for understanding racism in healthcare in Sweden: development and implementation of anti-racist strategies through shared knowledge production and evaluation2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 531-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An educational intervention, based on qualitative evidence of racism in healthcare, is described. Using vignettes from a previous project, interviews were conducted to gather qualitative evidence of racism in healthcare settings from a wide range of healthcare staff in Sweden. From this interview material, case studies were devised that were subsequently presented to trainee healthcare professionals, in a seminar discussion. After the seminar, trainees responded to reflective questions. The order of work, as well as the materials used, are described. This intervention was successful in facilitating discussion about racism in an educational context, despite the difficult nature of these conversations for some participants.

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  • 6.
    Bradby, Hannah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Hamed, Sarah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Skaraborg Institute, Skövde, Sweden.
    Undoing the unspeakable: researching racism in Swedish healthcare using a participatory process to build dialogue2019In: Health Research Policy and Systems, E-ISSN 1478-4505, Vol. 17, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Racism is difficult to discuss in the context of Swedish healthcare for various cultural and administrative reasons. Herein, we interpret the fragmentary nature of the evidence of racialising processes and the difficulty of reporting racist discrimination in terms of structural violence.

    Methods:

    In response to the unspeakable nature of racism in Swedish healthcare, we propose a phased participatory process to build a common vocabulary and grammar through a consultative framework involving healthcare providers and service users as well as policy-makers. These stakeholders will be involved in an educational intervention to facilitate discussion around and avoidance of racism in service provision.

    Discussion:

    Both the participatory process and outcomes of the process, e.g. educational interventions, will contribute to the social and political conversation about racism in healthcare settings. Creating new ways of discussing sensitive topics allows ameliorative actions to be taken, benefitting healthcare providers and users. The urgency of the project is underlined.

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  • 7.
    Bradby, Hannah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Hamed, Sarah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Skaraborg Institute, Skövde, Sweden.
    ‘You are Still a Guest in This Country!’: Understanding Racism through the Concepts of Hospitality and Hostility in Healthcare Encounters in Sweden2023In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, E-ISSN 1469-8684, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 957-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While regularly applied to globalized migration, conceptualizations of hospitality have rarely been used to understand healthcare settings. Drawing on interviews with healthcare staff in Sweden, our article contributes to the current conceptualization of hospitality accounting for: the internal contradictions of hospitality that racialized staff experience in their everyday interactions with patients and other staff; the shifting boundaries between host and guest in everyday healthcare practices, especially when examined through the lens of racialization and finally; the subtle though troubled coexistence of hostility and un(conditional) hospitality that weakens resistance against racism. The analysis maps the complex contingencies of professional, ethnic and national relations between staff and patients, in light of their racialized and gendered nature, to suggest that the ambivalences theorized as part of the concept of hospitality show how the hurts of racism are so hard to pinpoint.

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    Bradby et al 2022
  • 8.
    Dahlberg, Moa
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Luleå, Sweden.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Conceptualizing xenophobia as structural violence in the lives of refugee women in Gauteng, South Africa2023In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 2768-2790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights the embeddedness of xenophobia in institutions through a theoretical but empirically under-researched concept of structural violence. Drawing on in-depth qualitative interview data with refugee women in Gauteng, South Africa, we explore the empirical utility of the concept of structural violence in shaping refugee women's everyday experiences of xenophobia through three analytical themes: (a) unequal access to resources (b) constrained agency and (c) dehumanization. While keeping an empirical grip on experiential narratives on xenophobia, we draw attention to three public institutions that enhance the vulnerability of those already vulnerable: The Department of Home Affairs, The South African Police Service and Public Hospitals. Our paper elucidates how refugee women experience xenophobia and how they manage their "everyday" in these circumstances- an aspect that remains underdeveloped in existing research.

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  • 9.
    Dwyer, Claire
    et al.
    University College London.
    Modood, Tariq
    the University of Bristol.
    Sanghera, Gurchathen
    University of St Andrew.
    Shah, Bindi
    University of Southampton.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Educational Achievement and Career Aspiration for Young British Pakistanis2011In: Global migration, ethnicity and Britishness / [ed] Tariq Modood, John Salt, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, p. 177-204Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10. Farahani, Fataneh
    et al.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Postcolonial Masculinities: Diverse, Shifting and in Flux2019In: Routledge International Handbook of Masculinity Studies / [ed] Lucas Gottzén, Ulf Mellström & Tamara Shefer, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 92-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving beyond the seminal contributions of Beauvoir and Fanon on the discursive construction of Otherness, our chapter critically engages with the race-blindness of (western) feminist theories, the gender blindness and heteronormativity of (male) postcolonial theory and the ethnocentrism, race blindness and lack of historical specificity of Western (and white) masculinity studies. We draw on a postcolonial critical masculinities framework to examine the migratory and diasporic experiences of racialised men as gendered subjects in diverse contexts. We highlight how these masculinities are (re)articulated, contested and negotiated in and through specific historical moments, spatial and socio-political contexts, local/transnational discourses and in relation to other dominant/hegemonic (White) masculinities.

  • 11.
    Farahani, Fataneh
    et al.
    Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap Stockholms universitet.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Rasifiering av kunskapsproduktion: En epistemologisk resa genom processer av inkludering och exkludering i olika akademiska forum2018In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Gondouin, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Thematic Studies, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Rao, Mohan
    Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
    Dalit Feminist Voices on Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Justice2020In: Economic and Political Weekly, ISSN 0012-9976, Vol. LV, no 40, p. 38-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has addressed questions of reproductive justice and the stratifications of Indian women’s reproductive lives in terms of class position and economic status. However, the question of caste has received little attention in the literature and there has been a lack of research on assisted reproductive technologies and caste along with the absence of Dalit feminists speaking out on reproductive technologies. This paper attempts to begin exploring the significance of caste by drawing on in-depth interviews with Dalit feminists who challenge dominant understandings of surrogacy in both international and national debates on reproductive technologies. It highlights how an insistence on the wider socio-economic context of women’s lives challenges notions of reproductive rights, replacing them by reproductive justice.

  • 13.
    Gondouin, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Stockholm University.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Ryberg, Ingrid
    White vulnerability and the Politics of Reproduction in Top of the Lake, China Girl2018In: The Power of Vulnerability: Mobilising affect in feminist, queer and anti-racist media cultures / [ed] Anu Koivunen, Katariina Kyrölä and Ingrid Ryberg, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Gurchathen, Sanghera
    et al.
    School of International Relations, University of St. Andrews, UK.
    Suruchi, Thapar-Björkert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Imagination and Social Capital: Transnational agency and practices among Pakistani Muslims in the UK2012In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 141-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we argue that "imagination" is an important tool in the formation of social capital for young Pakistani Muslim men and women in the city of Bradford, UK. The desire for social mobility and the ambition to overcome disadvantage becomes the drivers for change. These aspirations are supported by the transnational habitus, which acts as an important resource and encourages young people to imagine change in their everyday lives and situations. Unprecedented access to electronic media and new information and communications technologies not only assists the imagination but also invests agency in people's everyday lives.

  • 15.
    Hamed, Sarah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Healthcare staff's racialized talk: The perpetuation of racism in healthcareIn: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Hamed, Sarah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Racism in healthcare: a scoping review2022In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, article id 988Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Racism constitutes a barrier towards achieving equitable healthcare as documented in research showing unequal processes of delivering, accessing, and receiving healthcare across countries and healthcare indicators. This review summarizes studies examining how racism is discussed and produced in the process of delivering, accessing and receiving healthcare across various national contexts.

    Method

    The PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews were followed and databases were searched for peer reviewed empirical articles in English across national contexts. No starting date limitation was applied for this review. The end date was December 1, 2020. The review scoped 213 articles. The results were summarized, coded and thematically categorized in regards to the aim.

    Results

    The review yielded the following categories: healthcare users’ experiences of racism in healthcare; healthcare staff’s experiences of racism; healthcare staff’s racial attitudes and beliefs; effects of racism in healthcare on various treatment choices; healthcare staff’s reflections on racism in healthcare and; antiracist training in healthcare. Racialized minorities experience inadequate healthcare and being dismissed in healthcare interactions. Experiences of racism are associated with lack of trust and delay in seeking healthcare. Racialized minority healthcare staff experience racism in their workplace from healthcare users and colleagues and lack of organizational support in managing racism. Research on healthcare staff’s racial attitudes and beliefs demonstrate a range of negative stereotypes regarding racialized minority healthcare users who are viewed as difficult. Research on implicit racial bias illustrates that healthcare staff exhibit racial bias in favor of majority group. Healthcare staff’s racial bias may influence medical decisions negatively. Studies examining healthcare staff’s reflections on racism and antiracist training show that healthcare staff tend to construct healthcare as impartial and that healthcare staff do not readily discuss racism in their workplace.

    Conclusions

    The USA dominates the research. It is imperative that research covers other geo-political contexts. Research on racism in healthcare is mainly descriptive, atheoretical, uses racial categories uncritically and tends to ignore racialization processes making it difficult to conceptualize racism. Sociological research on racism could inform research on racism as it theoretically explains racism’s structural embeddedness, which could aid in tackling racism to provide good quality care.

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  • 17.
    Hamed, Sarah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    ”Racism without racists”: How health care staff obfuscate racism in health careIn: Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, ISSN 2159-676X, E-ISSN 2159-6778Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Hamed, Sarah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Racism in European Health Care: Structural Violence and Beyond2020In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 1662-1673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows how racism can negatively affect access to health care and treatment. However, limited theoretical research exists on conceptualizing racism in health care. In this article, we use structural violence as a theoretical tool to understand how racism as an institutionalized social structure is enacted in subtle ways and how the “violence” built into forms of social organization is rendered invisible through repetition and routinization. We draw on interviews with health care users from three European countries, namely, Sweden, Germany, and Portugal to demonstrate how two interrelated processes of unequal access to resources and inequalities in power can lead to the silencing of suffering and erosion of dignity, respectively. The strength of this article lies in illuminating the mechanisms of subtle racism that damages individuals and leads to loss of trust in health care. It is imperative to address these issues to ensure a responsive and equal health care for all users.

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  • 19. Koobak, Redi
    et al.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Becoming non-Swedish: locating the paradoxes of in/visible identities2012In: Feminist review (Print), ISSN 0141-7789, E-ISSN 1466-4380, no 102, p. 125-134Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Koobak, Redi
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Tlostanova, MadinaLinköping University, Sweden.Thapar-Björkert, SuruchiUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Postcolonial and Postsocialist Dialogues: Intersections, Opacities, Challenges in Feminist Theorizing and Practice2021Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Maiorano, Diego
    et al.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Inst South Asian Studies, Singapore, Singapore.
    Shrimankar, Dishil
    Royal Holloway Univ London, Dept Polit Int Relat & Philosophy, London, England.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Blomkvist, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Measuring empowerment: Choices, values and norms2021In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 138, article id 105220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a novel, survey-based method to measure people's empowerment, across different domains of their lives. The method includes three elements: (i) a direct measurement of decision-making, defined as the ability to make choices; (ii) a measure of whether people have reasons to value those choices; and (iii) a measure of the role that prevailing social norms play in determining people's ability to make strategic life choices. We build an Empowerment score that is computed using these three elements. In the second part of the paper we, first, evaluate the effectiveness of the tool, using original survey data from India. We show that using the Empowerment score makes a substantial difference compared to a simpler (and less theoretically rigorous) score based on direct measurement of decision-making only. Second, we apply the Alkire-Foster method to compute an Empowerment index that allows for comparisons of empowerment levels across locations, contexts, social groups and time. The Empowerment score has important policy applications. It can be used as a variable in policy and programme evaluations and to identify not only those who make or do not make a certain choice, but also individuals who do not value making those choices and if they might be conforming to social norms. In this way, the tool can assist in directing government attention to work with marginalised groups in making choices they want to make rather than pressing them into making choices that they do not value.

  • 22.
    Maiorano, Diego
    et al.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Inst South Asian Studies, Singapore, Singapore..
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Blomkvist, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Politics as Negotiation: Changing Caste Norms in Rural India2022In: Development and Change, ISSN 0012-155X, E-ISSN 1467-7660, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 217-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses processes of social change in rural India through an ethnographic analysis of everyday politics in two Indian states, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Its main argument is that even if overt resistance or 'noisy' collective action by the poor is rarely seen, a great deal of social change is occurring through a subtle 'politics of negotiation' whereby poor, low-caste agricultural labourers are questioning social norms that underpin their oppression. These negotiations are structured around labour relations and caste norms, which are so inextricably intertwined that a modification of one set of 'rules' necessarily has an impact on the other. The processes of democratization, the erosion of patron-client relations, the spread of education, an enduring agrarian crisis aggravated by climate change and the availability of alternative employment opportunities for the poor are chipping away at the dominance of India's rural elite. This continuous negotiating process between the (upper-caste) landed elite and the (lower-caste) labouring classes is non-confrontational and while it would be ambitious to suggest that it overturns the existing power relations, it nonetheless challenges and modifies them in a way that results in progressive social change.

  • 23.
    Maiorano, Diego
    et al.
    Univ Nottingham, Sch Polit & Int Relat, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Blomkvist, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The paradoxes of empowerment: gendering NREGA in the rural landscape of India2016In: Development in Practice, ISSN 0961-4524, E-ISSN 1364-9213, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing importance of public works programmes (PWPs) as a social protection tool has attracted significant scholarly attention. However, despite the fact that the empowerment of marginalised communities is one of the key objectives of most PWPs, scant attention has been dedicated to this crucial issue. We contextualise these concerns in relation to India's Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA). In particular, we propose two areas which are relatively unexplored. First, the methodologies currently used to research NREGA and PWP, more generally, need to be broadened. Second, the processes that lead to empowerment need to be researched empirically.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    ‘People Constantly Remind Me of My Past … and Make Me Look Like a Monster’: Re-visiting DDR Through a Conversation With Black Diamond2013In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 110-118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Odzakovic, Elzana
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare Jönköping University Jönköping Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    CHILD Research Group, School of Health and Welfare Jönköping University Jönköping Sweden.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development Skövde Sweden.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hamed, Sarah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Björk, Maria
    Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare Jönköping University Jönköping Sweden;CHILD Research Group, School of Health and Welfare Jönköping University Jönköping Sweden.
    Discussing racism in healthcare: A qualitative study of reflections by graduate nursing students2023In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 3677-3686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim is to illustrate and analyse reflections from graduate nursing studentsover their experience of discussing racism in healthcare in an educational intervention.Design: A qualitative, descriptive design was adopted.Methods: Data were collected through written reflections and analysed through con-tent analysis. In total, 81 students participated in the intervention; 39 paediatric and42 public health care nursing students. Of those, 27 participants gave consent to havetheir written reflections included in the study.Results: Three main categories were developed in the content analysis of studentreflections: (a) the implicit embeddedness of racism in healthcare organization; (b) theeffect of racism on interactions with patients; and (c) a growing awareness of one'sown understanding of racism. This study indicates that student nurses discussed rac-ism as relevant to understanding good clinical practice for the benefit of patients andwork-based wellbeing of staff. This recognition of the organizational nature of racismwarrants nursing leaders and managers to include racism as a social determinant ofhealth in the undergraduate and graduate curricula to educate the next generation ofnursing about racism.

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  • 26.
    Reuterswärd, Camilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Molyneux, Maxine
    University of London, Institute for the Study of the Americas.
    Abortion Law Reforms in Colombia and Nicaragua: Issue Networks and Opportunity Contexts2011In: Development and Change, ISSN 0012-155X, E-ISSN 1467-7660, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 805-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses two instances of abortion law reform in Latin America. In 2006, after a decades-long impasse, the highly controversial issue of abortion came to dominate the political agenda when Colombia liberalized its abortion law and Nicaragua adopted a total ban on abortion. The article analyses the central actors in the reform processes, their strategies and the opportunity contexts. Drawing on Htun’s (2003) framework, it examines why these processes concluded with opposing legislative outcomes. The authors argue for the need to understand the state as a non-unitary site of politics and policy, and for judicial processes to be seen as a key variable in facilitating gender policy reforms in Latin America. In addition, they argue that ‘windows of opportunity’ such as the timing of elections can be critically important in legislative change processes.

  • 27.
    Samelius, Lotta
    et al.
    Independent researcher.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Binswanger, Christa
    University of St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Turning points and the ‘everyday’: Exploring agency and violence in intimate relationships2014In: The European Journal of Women's Studies, ISSN 1350-5068, E-ISSN 1461-7420, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 264-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the authors approach material and symbolic violence through transdisciplinary readings of theoretical debates, fiction and empirical narratives. They make use of the concept of turning points which disrupt dichotomous and static categorizations of victim and survivor, and their association with passivity and agency respectively. In situations of violence, turning points represent temporality instead of timelessness, dialogism instead of monologism, multilayering rather than any fixed identity. The authors draw on the theorists Bakhtin and Certeau, whose work highlights the significance of meaning-making between self and other. They analyse empirical and fictional narratives to understand the creation of dialogic spaces, a space that both subordinates and subverts. Pointing to the procedural nature of turning points within the everyday, the authors argue that women, despite the pain and trauma, are neither just a victim nor just a survivor in a violent relationship.

  • 28. Sanghera, Gurchathen S.
    et al.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    'LET'S TALK ABOUT . . . MEN' Young British Pakistani Muslim Women's Narratives about Co-Ethnic Men in 'Postcolonial' Bradford2012In: Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, ISSN 1369-801X, E-ISSN 1469-929X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 591-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In media and political representations, Muslims have been constructed as 'ultimate Others' who pose a threat to western human rights, democracy and freedoms. These representations, however, are gendered. Muslim men and women are positioned in ambiguous and contradictory ways: Muslim men are often represented as embodying a masculinity that is inherently misogynistic, controlling and dangerous and, more recently, associated with radicalization and Islamic terrorism, while Muslim women are presented as victims of patriarchy, passive and voiceless. This essay explores the complexities of the gendered social worlds of Pakistani Muslim men and women, and provides an intimate analysis of urban lives in 'postcolonial' Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK, through the narratives of young British Pakistani Muslim women about co-ethnic men.(1) Situated in their everyday lives, the essay explores how young Pakistani Muslim women at times adopt methods of 'strategic essentialism' to critique and resist co-ethnic men and masculinities. Adopting an interpretivist approach, this essay draws on research conducted with young Pakistani Muslim women in Bradford.

  • 29.
    Sanghera, Gurchathen S.
    et al.
    Univ St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Transnationalism, social capital and gender - young Pakistani Muslim women in Bradford, UK2017In: Migration Letters, ISSN 1741-8984, E-ISSN 1741-8992, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 88-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers the relationship between transnationalism and social capital amongst young Pakistani Muslim women in Bradford, West Yorkshire. The central aim of the article is to explore how second generation Pakistani Muslim women accrue faith based social capital to negotiate and resist transnational gendered expectations, norms and practices. In particular, they use faith based social capital that is transnationally informed: to challenge the patriarchal expectations and norms of their families; to gain access to higher/further education and thereby improve their life opportunities; and to resist growing anti-Muslim sentiment. This paper draws on qualitative research (in-depth interviews) conducted in Bradford.

  • 30.
    Thapar-Bjorkert, Suruchi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Univ London London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, London WC2A 2AE, England.;Univ Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England.;Univ Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TH, Avon, England..
    Samelius, Lotta
    Sanghera, Gurchathen S.
    Univ Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TH, Avon, England.;Univ St Andrews, Sch Int Relat, St Andrews KY16 9AJ, Fife, Scotland..
    exploring symbolic violence in the everyday: misrecognition, condescension, consent and complicity2016In: Feminist review (Print), ISSN 0141-7789, E-ISSN 1466-4380, no 112, p. 144-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we draw on Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of 'misrecognition', 'condescension' and 'consent and complicity' to demonstrate how domination and violence are reproduced in everyday interactions, social practices, institutional processes and dispositions. Importantly, this constitutes symbolic violence, which removes the victim's agency and voice. Indeed, we argue that as symbolic violence is impervious, insidious and invisible, it also simultaneously legitimises and sustains other forms of violence as well. Understanding symbolic violence together with traditional discourses of violence is important because it provides a richer insight into the 'workings' of violence, and provides new ways of conceptualising violence across a number of social fields and new strategies for intervention. Symbolic violence is a valuable tool for understanding contentious debates on the disclosure of violence, women leaving or staying in abusive relationships or returning to their abusers. While we focus only on violence against women, we recognise that the gendered nature of violence produces its own sets of vulnerabilities against men and marginalised groups, such as LGBT. The paper draws on empirical research conducted in Sweden in 2003. Sweden is an interesting case study because despite its progressive gender equality policies, there has been no marked decrease in violence towards women by men.

  • 31.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Conversations across Borders: Men and Honour Related Violence in U.K. and Sweden2009In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 47-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper engages with debates on honour related violence (HRV) in the U.K. and Sweden and positions these debates within the broader context of media representations and multiculturalism. The paper highlights two interrelated arguments. First, though academic and policy interventions have made HRV more visible, they have inadvertently reproduced an anti-male rhetoric that fails to expose the vulnerability of men and the shifting subject positions that men can occupy in relation to HRV; as perpetrators, as victims, as observers or as agents of change. Second, these interventions fail to acknowledge that male initiatives to challenge practices of HRV are extremely important to break cycles of gendered violence. In relation to the latter, the paper critically engages with the Sharaf Heroes Project, a unique male intervention in Sweden that works preventively with young boys and men towards challenging and changing attitudes on honour-related violence.

  • 32.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Culture Shock1996Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33. Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Entries to the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics1996In: Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics / [ed] Iain McLean, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 1996, 1, p. 20-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34. Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Förtryckta flickor i patriarkala miljöer. Insatser mot hedersrelaterat våld i tre länder2007Report (Other academic)
  • 35. Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Gender, Colonialism and Nationalism: Women Activists in Uttar Pradesh, India1996In: New frontiers in women's studies: knowledge, identity and nationalism / [ed] Mary Maynard and June Purvis, London: Taylor and Francis , 1996, p. 203-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    London School of Economics , United Kingdom.
    Gender, Nationalism and the Colonial Jail: a study of women activists in Uttar Pradesh1998In: Women's History Review, ISSN 0961-2025, E-ISSN 1747-583X, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 583-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important aspect of Indian women's political participation in the nationalist struggle against colonial rule was their imprisonment and confinement within the walls of the prison. To counter the difficulty and monotony of their prison existence, women developed strong solidarity networks which not only helped them to adjust to the temporary upheaval in their lives but also resulted in their becoming strong and determined individuals with a nationalist consciousness. These women resisted colonial rule through imprisonment and activities in the jail (such as writing poetry) just as they did through nationalist activities within the domestic sphere (such as spinning and weaving). The jail became a site where identities were continuously shaped and restructured. Feelings of pride, resentment, honour and humiliation were all experienced by women prisoners and were continuously sharpened. Women's entry into male dominated spaces dispelled the British stereotypes about Indian women as subordinate, weak and docile. Women were also aware that by endangering their womanhood on the streets and putting their bodies under risk of attack, they proved that they could share common experiences with their fellow men in the public sphere.

  • 37. Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Gender, Nations and Nationalism2013In: The Oxford Handbook on Gender and Politics / [ed] Georgina Waylen, Oxford University Press, 2013, 1, p. 803-828Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    'If there were no khaps [...] everything will go haywire [...] young boys and girls will start marrying into the same gotra' Understanding khap-Directed 'Honour Killings' in Northern India2014In: 'Honour' Killing and Violence: Theory, Policy and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, p. 156-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39. Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Nationalist Memories: Interviewing Indian Middle Class Nationalist Women1999In: Oral history, ISSN 0143-0955, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 35-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the difficult terrain of documenting personal testimonies as a non-western researcher. My respondents were ordinary middle class women whose nationalist activities had not been documented before. The process of conducting the interviews made me aware of the significance of the family context, where my identity was continuously negotiated both by the respondents and their extended family. I was simultaneously positioned both as an 'outsider' and an 'insider' in these interviews. I also realised that recovering and interpreting respondent's memories of the nationalist movement raised issues of the construction of self and subjectivity. The ways in which respondents perceived their activities within the domestic sphere challenged the constructed historical knowledge, which associated only the 'public' as 'political'.

  • 40. Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Negotiating ‘Otherness’: Dilemmas of a Non-Western Researcher in the Indian Sub-Continent1999In: Journal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, E-ISSN 1465-3869, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on certain methodological issues that arose while interviewing Indian women activists in Uttar Pradesh, a state of North India. These activists had actively contributed to the anti-colonial struggle from 1920 till India's independence in 1947. This paper addresses two key issues. Firstly, the category 'Other' was not a fixed category. Its meaning was continuously negotiable, both, in my relationship with respondents and in terms of what I understood to be feminist methodology. Moreover, in the Indian context it was difficult to follow the precepts of what I understood to be feminist methodology because I could not write about the respondent's experiences by using their own language. At the same time, present feminist concepts such as gender-equality, oppression and consciousness had little meaning for women born at the turn of the century. Secondly, there were dilemmas around interviewing Indian women which made me aware of issues of class, religion, gender and generation. This paper is divided in three main sections. The first section focuses on other sources of evidence such as official and unofficial records, newspapers and magazines which provide the initial framework as well as help to locate the historical context of any research. However, they have to be studied in conjunction with oral narratives, which provide the crucial link between all the other sources of evidence. The second section deals with the dilemmas of 'Otherness' and the third section focuses on the dilemmas that arose while conducting interviews.

  • 41.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Religion2010In: Gender Matters in World Politics: Feminist Introduction to International Relations / [ed] Laura Shepherd, London: Routledge , 2010, p. 265-279Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42. Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    State Policies, Strategies and Implementation in combating patriarchal violence, focusing on honour-related violence: A Comparative Study of Sweden, United Kingdom and Turkey2007Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Centre for the Study of Women and Gender, University of Warwick, Coventry.
    The Domestic Sphere as a Political Site: A Study of Women in the Indian Nationalist Movement1997In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 493-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indian women participated in the nationalist movement not only in the public domain but also from the domestic domain. A large majority of women during the movement retained their traditional roles and still made significant contributions to the movement from within the domestic sphere. The movement's success was dependent on women's contribution and the nationalist movement benefited from the nationalist activities of women. The relationship between the nationalist movement and middle-class women was thus mutually beneficial. The nationalist symbols and representations of women created by the leaders greatly facilitated women's involvement in the movement. The nature of activities that women engaged in helped the politicisation of women's consciousness.

  • 44. Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    The Marginalisation of Women in Writings on the Indian Nationalist Movement1995In: Gender and Colonialism / [ed] Timothy Foley, Lionel Pilkington, Sean Ryder, and Elizabeth Tilley, Galway: Galway University Press , 1995, p. 103-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    University of Warwick, England.
    Women as Activists: Women as Symbols, A Study of the Indian Nationalist Movement1993In: Feminist review (Print), ISSN 0141-7789, E-ISSN 1466-4380, no 44, p. 80-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Department of Sociology, University of Bristol.
    Women as arm-bearers: Gendered caste-violence and the Indian state2006In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 474-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the intersections between gender, caste and violence in a post-colonial context. It analyses how in specific cultural and historical contexts, men, women and children can act as both victims and perpetrators of violence and ‘inhuman atrocities’. This is coupled with the lack of law and order and protection from the state, the state understood in terms of both the pan-Indian state and the provincial state of Bihar. The complexities involved when women do take up violence moves the analyses beyond a circumscribed understanding of women as ‘vulnerable victims’ and ‘recipients of violent acts’. The empirical research draws on recent and ongoing caste conflicts in rural Bihar (but also in Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat), North India. Dalit women are the chief arms bearers who defend their interests over economic resources (land and water) and have taken the responsibility to protect their own integrity against sexual violence from the upper caste men.

  • 47.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    University of Bristol .
    Women in the Indian National Movement: Unseen Faces and Unheard Voices, 1930-422006 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies of the role of women in the Indian national movement have concentrated on the contribution made by only a handful of prominent women leaders such as Sarojini Naidu, Vijaylakshmi Pandit, Sucheta Kripalani and Annie Besant. Less acknowledged but equally forceful was the participation of hundreds of women at the local level-out in the streets as well as inside their homes. This book, significantly, focuses on the nationalist participation of ordinary middle-class women in India’s freedom movement, especially in the United Provinces (modern Uttar Pradesh).

  • 48.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Department of Sociology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Women in the Indian National Movement: Unseen Faces and Unheard Voices, 1930-422015 (ed. 2)Book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Borevi, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Gender and the ‘integrationist turn’: Comparative perspectives on marriage migration in the UK and Sweden2014In: Tijdschrift voor Genderstudies, ISSN 1388-3186, E-ISSN 2352-2437, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 149-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family migration policies are part of a larger integration policy trend referred to as the ‘civic integrationist turn’. States across Europe have moved away from more rights-based approaches for the integration of immigrants towards a stronger emphasis on obligations, implying that new arrivals must prove to have attained certain integration achievements before accessing rights in the host country. This development has to be understood in relation to growing concerns about national identity and social cohesion where immigrant groups are seen to pose a threat to existing liberal values. Arguably, discourses of gender equality are at the heart of this debate, and have pushed the question of women’s emancipation closer to the borders of Fortress Europe. It is in this context that we locate our paper on gender equality discourses on family re-unification policies and more specifically marriage migration in the UK and Sweden. The rationale behind our comparative approach is that these countries share a similar ‘multicultural’ integration policy legacy and were previously regarded to be the most committed to the ‘multicultural programme’. But while the UK has made significant policy moves, with the introduction of stricter requirements, Sweden remains reluctant towards the use of civic conditioning of rights as an integration policy tool.

  • 50.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Farahani, Fataneh
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ethnol Hist Relig & Gender Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Epistemic modalities of racialised knowledge production in the Swedish academy2019In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 42, no 16, p. 214-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central aim of this article is to examine the impact of racialization processes within the Swedish academic community in order to understand what kinds of knowledge productions and knowing subject positions are rendered (im)possible in everyday academic interactions. Through autoethnography as an alternative methodological entry point, we analyse our embodied racialised experiences of navigating through historically white universities within a geo-political context framed through a supposedly “colour blind” and “post-racial society”. Our analytical reasoning is presented through several steps. First, we discuss how academic habitus and affiliations maintained in various scientific forums is informed through established, racialised norms and if/whose knowledge is marginalized, devalued, or/and is included due to the reductive representation. Second, we discuss how an uncultivated sense of epistemic entitlement, within different academic settings and communities, constructs indisputable knowing subjects and generates (un)earned (un)comfortable zones. Third, we argue how managing the existing accent ceiling becomes a mode for navigating the norms of whiteness.

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