Logo: to the web site of Uppsala University

uu.sePublications from Uppsala University
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 42 of 42
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Ahmed, Amina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Martha Karua is taking centre stage in Kenya’s elections: what it means for women in politics2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2. Ahmed, Amina
    et al.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The struggle for gender-equal representation: The 2022 election in Kenya2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Communal conflict, civil war, and the state: Complexities, connections, and the case of Sudan2012In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution, ISSN 1562-6997, E-ISSN 2309-737X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 33-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses communal conflict, which we define as violent conflict between non-state groups that are organised along a shared communal identity, and how such conflicts relate to state-based violence. We argue that a deeper understanding of communal conflicts, the different types of dynamics and conflict issues, as well as of the complex connections between communal conflicts and other forms of organised violence, is necessary for improving academic research as well as for better informed policy and interventions. Our arguments are illustrated through a case study of Sudan. The article makes three main contributions: first, it shows that communal conflicts often have grave consequences, and illustrates several linkages between communal conflicts and state-based conflicts. Secondly, it demonstrates that a correct analysis is necessary before any party intervenes, in order to understand in what ways the communal conflict may be entangled with other types of organised violence. Thirdly, the article underlines that communal conflicts need to be taken into account both when signing a peace agreement and in the post-conflict situation, to avoid the risk that conflict and violence merely spills over from one type to another.

  • 4.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Central Politics and Local Peacemaking: The Conditions for Peace after Communal Conflict2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under what conditions can peace be established after violent communal conflict? This question has received limited research attention to date, despite the fact that communal conflicts kill thousands of people each year and often severely disrupt local livelihoods. This dissertation analyzes how political dynamics affect prospects for peace after communal conflict. It does so by studying the role of the central government, local state and non-state actors, and the interactions between these actors and the communal groups that are engaged in armed conflict. A particular focus is on the role of political bias, in the sense that central government actors have ties to one side in the conflict or strategic interests in the conflict issue. The central claim is that political bias shapes government strategies in the face of conflict, and influences the conflict parties’ strategic calculations and ability to overcome mistrust and engage in conflict resolution. To assess these arguments, the dissertation strategically employs different research methods to develop and test theoretical arguments in four individual essays. Two of the essays rely on novel data to undertake the first cross-national large-N studies of government intervention in communal conflict and how it affects the risk of conflict recurrence. Essay I finds that conflicts that are located in an economically important area, revolve around land and authority, or involve groups with ethnic ties to central rulers are more likely to prompt military intervention by the government. Essay II finds that ethnic ties, in turn, condition the impact that government intervention has on the risk of conflict recurrence. The other two essays are based on systematic analysis of qualitative sources, including unique and extensive interview material collected during several field trips to Kenya. Essay III finds that government bias makes it more difficult for the conflict parties to resolve their conflict through peace agreements. Essay IV finds that by engaging in governance roles otherwise associated with the state, non-state actors can become successful local peacemakers. Taken together, the essays make important contributions by developing, assessing and refining theories concerning the prospects for communal conflict resolution.

    List of papers
    1. Providing security or protecting interests?: Government interventions in violent communal conflicts in Africa
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Providing security or protecting interests?: Government interventions in violent communal conflicts in Africa
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 791-805Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    What factors drive governments’ decisions to intervene in local conflicts within their borders? Communal conflict – that is, organized violence between non-state groups that are mobilized along a shared communal identity – kills thousands each year and severely impacts local livelihoods, at times threatening to spread and affect entire regions. Given the state’s assumed monopoly over the legitimate use of force, we should expect the concerned governments to be critical actors of the overall effort to restore peace in cases of local communal conflict, but empirical evidence indicates that central states tend to only intervene in some cases but not in others. This phenomenon has so far been understudied and the variations in states’ efforts to manage these conflicts remain unexplained. This article presents the first quantitative study of state intervention in communal conflicts. Building on existing scholarly work, I argue that state intervention is explained by a combination of strategic interests and state capacity, and that interests related to ethnic constituencies and land control play an important part in explaining governments’ strategies. These propositions find support in a statistical analysis covering sub-Saharan Africa from 1989 to 2010.

    Keywords
    Communal conflict, intervention, land control, non-state, non-state conflict, sub-Saharan Africa
    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265486 (URN)10.1177/0022343315597968 (DOI)000364164200007 ()
    Available from: 2015-10-29 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Whose side are you on? Government bias, intervention and the recurrence of communal conflict
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Whose side are you on? Government bias, intervention and the recurrence of communal conflict
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-324925 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2017-08-18
    3. The Political Conditions for Local Peacemaking: A Comparative Study of Communal Conflict Resolution in Kenya
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Political Conditions for Local Peacemaking: A Comparative Study of Communal Conflict Resolution in Kenya
    2019 (English)In: Comparative Political Studies, ISSN 0010-4140, E-ISSN 1552-3829, Vol. 52, no 13-14, p. 2061-2096Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    How does government bias affect prospects for peace agreements in communal conflicts? Government bias has been shown to have a strong impact on the incidence and dynamics of localized ethnic conflict, but the way that it affects conflict resolution remains underexplored. I argue that government bias makes the conflict parties less likely to overcome the commitment problem, because they cannot trust the government’s willingness to guarantee or uphold any agreement they reach. Consequently, bias reduces the chances that the parties are able to reach a peace agreement. A systematic comparison of four cases in Kenya provides support for this argument. I also distinguish between bias related to strategic interest and bias related to relationships, and find that the former is more durable, whereas the latter is more likely to be influenced by political turnover, thereby opening up possibilities for peacemaking.

    Keywords
    African politics, conflict resolution, communal conflict, ethnic conflict, Kenya
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379112 (URN)10.1177/0010414019830734 (DOI)000487028700004 ()
    Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Peace from below: Governance and peacebuilding in Kerio Valley, Kenya
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peace from below: Governance and peacebuilding in Kerio Valley, Kenya
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 469-493Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Under what circumstances can non-state actors become successful local peacemakers? A growing body of research documents the involvement of non-state actors in local conflict resolution in Africa. However, there is large variation in such actors' power, legitimacy, and ultimately their ability to contribute to conflict resolution. The ways in which contextual and dynamic factors at local and national levels, and in particular the relationship between non-state and state actors and institutions, affect local conflict resolution are not sufficiently understood. To address this gap, this paper analyses the peace process addressing a long-standing conflict in Kerio Valley, Kenya. The analysis illustrates how the failure of the state to provide security and basic services led non-state actors to fill important roles in governance. Through this process, they were endowed with legitimacy and power which enabled them to play key roles in a peace process that led to a mutually acceptable peace agreement.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300965 (URN)10.1017/S0022278X16000227 (DOI)000382379300005 ()
    Available from: 2016-08-16 Created: 2016-08-16 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 5.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Cities and armed conflict: A systematic urban-rural coding of UCDP conflict events data2021In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 39, article id 107554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This data article provides a descriptive overview of the Cities and Armed Conflict Events (CACE) dataset and the data collection methods. The dataset provides a systematic coding of armed conflict events taking place in cities and outside cities across the globe. It constitutes an extension of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) Georeferenced Events Dataset (GED) version 18.1 and covers 1989–2017. To identify which events of armed conflict took place in cities, the data was manually matched to to data from the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD). The dataset enables systematic analysis of urban-rural patterns in armed conflict, as illustrated by Elfversson & Höglund [1]. While existing methods for analysing such patterns frequently rely on matching conflict data to spatial grids combined with population density, the data presented here with higher validity captures whether violent events take place in cities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Drivers of electoral violence in Kenya: Red flags to watch out for2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    How government bias can fuel communal conflicts in Africa2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Local peacebuilding: Inspiring examples from African countries2011In: Peace Monitor, ISSN 0031-353X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 14-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Mustafa Dikeç (2017). Urban Rage: The Revolt of the Excluded2021In: Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, ISSN 1752-4512, E-ISSN 1752-4520, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 453-454Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Patterns and Drivers of Communal Conflict in Kenya2019In: The Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity / [ed] Ratuva, Steven, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyzes patterns of communal conflict – i.e., violent conflicts between non-state groups which are organized based on communal identities – in Kenya. The politicized nature of ethnicity in Kenya, and the fact that both elections and land tenure are closely associated with ethnic identity, are highlighted as key factors explaining the prevalence of violent communal conflict. After discussing the main patterns of conflict since 1989, the chapter goes on to identify four main drivers of conflict: electoral politics, cattle raiding, local resources, and boundaries and local authority. The specific dynamics at play in different conflicts vary, and empirical examples illustrate how the precise way that different conflict drivers interact is different from case to case. The chapter also discusses different strategies by state and non-state actors to address and resolve communal conflicts, and how devolution – the decentralization of significant power to the local level under the 2010 constitution – has affected communal conflicts. As the discussion of devolution illustrates, a major point is that while communal conflicts in general should be seen against the background of a state and a political culture where ethnicity is strongly politicized, the impact of national-level political dynamics on communal conflicts will vary from case to case.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    Figure 1
    Download (png)
    Figure 2
  • 11.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peace and Politics: Promoting durable solutions to communal conflicts2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peace from below: Governance and peacebuilding in Kerio Valley, Kenya2016In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 469-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under what circumstances can non-state actors become successful local peacemakers? A growing body of research documents the involvement of non-state actors in local conflict resolution in Africa. However, there is large variation in such actors' power, legitimacy, and ultimately their ability to contribute to conflict resolution. The ways in which contextual and dynamic factors at local and national levels, and in particular the relationship between non-state and state actors and institutions, affect local conflict resolution are not sufficiently understood. To address this gap, this paper analyses the peace process addressing a long-standing conflict in Kerio Valley, Kenya. The analysis illustrates how the failure of the state to provide security and basic services led non-state actors to fill important roles in governance. Through this process, they were endowed with legitimacy and power which enabled them to play key roles in a peace process that led to a mutually acceptable peace agreement.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Providing security or protecting interests?: Government interventions in violent communal conflicts in Africa2015In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 791-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What factors drive governments’ decisions to intervene in local conflicts within their borders? Communal conflict – that is, organized violence between non-state groups that are mobilized along a shared communal identity – kills thousands each year and severely impacts local livelihoods, at times threatening to spread and affect entire regions. Given the state’s assumed monopoly over the legitimate use of force, we should expect the concerned governments to be critical actors of the overall effort to restore peace in cases of local communal conflict, but empirical evidence indicates that central states tend to only intervene in some cases but not in others. This phenomenon has so far been understudied and the variations in states’ efforts to manage these conflicts remain unexplained. This article presents the first quantitative study of state intervention in communal conflicts. Building on existing scholarly work, I argue that state intervention is explained by a combination of strategic interests and state capacity, and that interests related to ethnic constituencies and land control play an important part in explaining governments’ strategies. These propositions find support in a statistical analysis covering sub-Saharan Africa from 1989 to 2010.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Political Conditions for Local Peacemaking: A Comparative Study of Communal Conflict Resolution in Kenya2019In: Comparative Political Studies, ISSN 0010-4140, E-ISSN 1552-3829, Vol. 52, no 13-14, p. 2061-2096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does government bias affect prospects for peace agreements in communal conflicts? Government bias has been shown to have a strong impact on the incidence and dynamics of localized ethnic conflict, but the way that it affects conflict resolution remains underexplored. I argue that government bias makes the conflict parties less likely to overcome the commitment problem, because they cannot trust the government’s willingness to guarantee or uphold any agreement they reach. Consequently, bias reduces the chances that the parties are able to reach a peace agreement. A systematic comparison of four cases in Kenya provides support for this argument. I also distinguish between bias related to strategic interest and bias related to relationships, and find that the former is more durable, whereas the latter is more likely to be influenced by political turnover, thereby opening up possibilities for peacemaking.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Whose side are you on? Government bias, intervention and the recurrence of communal conflictManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Gusic, Ivan
    Department of Global Political Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ha, Thao-Nguyen
    Department of Political Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA.
    Meye, Marie-Therese
    Graduate School of Social Sciences, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.
    Geocoding as a Method for Mapping Conflict-related Violence2022In: The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies / [ed] Oliver Richmond & Gëzim Visoka, Palgrave Macmillan, 2022Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Geocoding refers to the systematic assignment of geographic coordinates (such as longitude and latitude) in order to denote places in the world where something is located or takes place. Geocoding within peace and conflict research usually refers to pinning down the precise locations where violent interactions or other similar events take place, with the purpose of enabling the study of spatial dynamics of violence across time and space. Geocoded violent event datasets usually contain rows of information where each row represents an event and rows contain information such as date, form of event, intensity of violence, and the actors involved, in addition to location coordinates. Such data can then be projected onto a map to study patterns of violence or analyzed using statistical software to assess if and why certain types of events tend to occur close to each other. It can also be connected to other geocoded datasets to assess whether certain physical or social conditions increase or decrease risks of violence locally. The introduction of geocoded event datasets covering multiple states since around 2010 have opened up many new avenues of inquiry within peace and conflict research as well as helped answer old questions.

  • 17.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Gusic, IvanMalmö University.Höglund, KristineUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Spatiality of Violence in Post-war Cities2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Gusic, Ivan
    Lund University.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The spatiality of violence in post-war cities2019In: Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, ISSN 2380-2014, E-ISSN 2379-9978, Vol. 4, no 2-3, p. 81-93Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is urbanising rapidly and cities are increasingly held as the most important arenas for sustainable development. Cities emerging from war are no exception, but across the globe, many post-war cities are ravaged by residual or renewed violence, which threatens progress towards peace and stability. This collection of articles addresses why such violence happens, where and how it manifests, and how it can be prevented. It includes contributions that are informed by both post-war logics and urban particularities, that take intra-city dynamics into account, and that adopt a spatial analysis of the city. By bringing together contributions from different disciplinary backgrounds, all addressing the single issue of post-war violence in cities from a spatial perspective, the articles make a threefold contribution to the research agenda on violence in post-war cities. First, the articles nuance our understanding of the causes and forms of the uneven spatial distribution of violence, insecurities, and trauma within and across post-war cities. Second, the articles demonstrate how urban planning and the built environment shape and generate different forms of violence in post-war cities. Third, the articles explore the challenges, opportunities, and potential unintended consequences of conflict resolution in violent urban settings.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Gusic, Ivan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Meye, Marie-Therese
    University of Mannheim.
    The bridge to violence – Mapping and understanding conflict-related violence in postwar Mitrovica2023In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can attention to spatial dynamics improve our understanding of where, how, and why conflict-related violence (CRV) concentrates within postwar cities such as Mitrovica? Like many other postwar cities, Mitrovica – one of Kosovo’s largest cities – remains affected by violence connected to the preceding war. This violence is not equally distributed across the city but rather concentrates to certain flashpoints while other sites are comparatively calm(er). To date, however, research on postwar cities has not fully explained such patterns, partly due to limitations in microlevel data. In this article we rely on novel georeferenced data on CRV, in combination with in-depth fieldwork, to map CRV in Mitrovica and explore the causes for its spatial clustering. Using this approach, we show that CRV concentrates at Mitrovica’s Main Bridge and explore this concentration using relational space as an analytical lens. The analysis contributes new insights into patterns of violence in Mitrovica, demonstrates the value of combining systematic data on the patterns of CRV with in-depth exploration into its underlying dynamics, and contributes to existing research on Mitrovica as well as on postwar cities and postwar violence more broadly.

  • 20.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Gusic, Ivan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Murtagh, Brendan
    School of Natural and Built Environment, Queen's University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Postwar cities: Conceptualizing and mapping the research agenda2023In: Political Geography, ISSN 0962-6298, E-ISSN 1873-5096, Vol. 105, article id 102912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postwar cities are often dangerous, poorly functioning, and hurdles for peace. Current research on postwar cities, however, is largely based on a limited number of “paradigmatic” cases, without a shared understanding of the broader population of cases to which these belong. Important insights therefore remain uncontextualized vis-à-vis broader trends and have an unclear scope of generalizability. The purpose of this article is to promote a global comparativist research agenda that enables systematic research across a spectrum of research foci. First, we conceptualize the postwar city as a city which has experienced war, no longer does, but where fully consolidated peace is not yet present. Second, we operationalize and map postwar cities since 1989, identifying 273 such cities in 45 war-affected states. Third, we provided a typology of contestation in postwar cities. We end by highlighting how our approach advances the research agenda by enabling systematic study of postwar cities, capturing postwar cities more equally across the globe, bringing to the fore numerous understudied cases, and providing a stronger foundation for comparative analysis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Gusic, Ivan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Rokem, Jonathan
    School of Anthropology and Conservation, Kent Interdisciplinary Centre for Spatial Studies, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.
    Peace in cities, peace through cities? Theorising and exploring geographies of peace in violently contested cities2023In: Peacebuilding, ISSN 2164-7259, E-ISSN 2164-7267, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 321-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue explores geographies of peace in violently contested cities – cities where the socio-political order is contested by actors who use violence and repression to either challenge or reinforce the prevailing distribution of power and political, economic, and social control. The articles within the special issue theorise and explore where, when, how, and why urban conflicts manifest themselves in the context of contested cities. Together, they also uncover strategies and mechanisms that can break dynamics of violence and repression, lead to urban coexistence, and generate peaceful relations in cities, grounding their analyses in rich case studies of different violently contested cities. The special issue thereby advances the research front on violently contested cities by studying their previously underexplored constructive potential. Bringing together different disciplinary perspectives, the special issue speaks to broader issues of conflicted and conflict-driven urbanisation, political violence in cities, and wider processes of urban change.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ha, Thao-Nguyen
    Department of Political Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The urban-rural divide in police trust: insights from Kenya2023In: Policing & society, ISSN 1043-9463, E-ISSN 1477-2728, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 23.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Are armed conflicts becoming more urban?2021In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 119, p. 1-10, article id 103356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, cities in countries such as Syria, Ukraine, and Somalia have been sites of major incidents of armed conflict. Such violence has led observers to note that armed conflict is becoming more urbanized in nature and increasingly affecting cities. However, existing research has not been able to ascertain whether armed conflict is gradually more concentrated in cities, for two reasons. First, most studies employ a grid-based design which does not theoretically or operationally correspond to cities. Second, some studies take the city as the unit of analysis, but look only at a few major cities in certain regions of the world, or include a broader range of political violence. To assess whether armed conflict is indeed becoming more urban in character, we analyze global patterns of armed conflict 1989–2017. We match the UCDP Georeferenced Events Dataset to cities with at least 100,000 inhabitants, and analyze over time the share of fatalities incurred by armed conflict. We include violence be-tween organized armed actors (inter- and intrastate), but also conflict-related violence against civilians which captures acts of terrorism. With this novel approach, we identify an overall reduction over time in the share of armed conflict violence taking place in cities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Den våldsamma staden2020Book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Have cities become the main battlegrounds in armed conflicts?2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Home of Last Resort: Fighting over Land in Kibera's Slum2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Home of last resort: Urban land conflict and the Nubians in Kibera, Kenya2018In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 1749-1765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amid expansive and often informal urban growth, conflict over land has become a severe source of instability in many cities. In slum areas, policies intended to alleviate tensions, including upgrading programmes, the legal regulation of informal tenure arrangements, and the reform of local governance structures, have had the unintended consequence of also spurring violence and conflict. This paper analyses the conflict over a proposed ‘ethnic homeland’ for the Nubian community in the Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya, in order to advance knowledge on the strategies communities adopt to promote their interests and how such strategies impact on urban conflict management. Theoretically, we apply the perspective of ‘institutional bricolage’, which captures how actors make use of existing formal and informal structures in pragmatic ways to meet their conflict management needs. While previous research focuses primarily on how bricolage can facilitate cooperation, the case analysis uncovers how, over time, the land issue has become closely intertwined with claims of identity and citizenship and a political discourse drawn along ethnic lines. In turn, such processes may contribute to the intractability of conflict, causing significant challenges for urban planning.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Urban growth, resilience, and violence2023In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 64, article id 101356Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities undergoing rapid growth are at risk of outbreaks of violence as competition over scarce resources and space intensifies. In this context, it is critical to identify conditions that make cities and their inhabitants resilient to violence. We review research findings about the general relationship between urban growth and the violence-proneness of cities, as well as insights about the factors that underpin violence–resilience in three different areas: 1) urban governance and planning, 2) security institutions, and 3) the everyday practices of urban dwellers. We argue that in order to understand cities’ resilience to violence, we need to account for both the mechanisms linking urban growth to violence, and the possible conflict resolution and mitigation mechanisms present in cities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Violence in the city that belongs to no one: urban distinctiveness and interconnected insecurities in Nairobi (Kenya)2019In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 347-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid urbanisation in the global South has prompted attention to the causes and dynamics of urban violence. Yet, much research tends to either analyse urban violence without attention to the broader conflict complexes of which it forms a part, neglecting linkages between different forms of urban violence and between urban and rural dynamics, or conversely study violence in cities without acknowledging the particularities of the urban context. In this article, we conceptualise urban violence, theorise how it is shaped by urban dynamics and explore its manifestations in Nairobi, Kenya. We find that while Nairobi is not uniquely violent inside Kenya, violence takes on distinct urban forms given citylevel processes, and also that urban violence has led to policies that increase securitisation and militarisation of the city. Our analysis thus improves knowledge of how criminal and political violence is shaped by and shapes the stability of developing cities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Mutahi, Patrick
    Centre for Human Rights and Policy Studies, Kenya.
    Okasi, Benard
    Centre for Human Rights and Policy Studies, Kenya.
    Insecurity and Conflict Management in Urban Slums: Findings from a Household Survey in Kawangware and Korogocho, Nairobi2024Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Muvumba Sellström, Angela
    Nordic Africa Institute, Box 1703, SE-751 47, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pellerin, Camille
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Contesting the growing city?: Forms of urban growth and consequences for communal violence2023In: Political Geography, ISSN 0962-6298, E-ISSN 1873-5096, Vol. 100, article id 102810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does rapid urban growth affect risks of communal violence in cities? In rapidly growing cities, poor planning and weak institutions combined with an unregulated influx of migrants can create a potent recipe for violent mobilization. In addition, politicized identity groups often compete for resources and interact in close proximity in urban areas. Despite a growing research agenda on the relationship between rapid urban growth and urban violent unrest, findings remain inconclusive. One explanation for the disparate conclusions is that the theoretical pathways connecting urban growth and unrest largely fail to consider both the violence-generating and violence-stemming effects of urban growth. With a focus on conflict-ridden societies, we theorize processes through which urban growth influences different aspects of group relations in the city, and thereby contribute to prevent, suppress or generate communal violence. To illustrate the framework, we draw on insights from Nairobi, Kampala and Addis Ababa. By paying attention to processes, we are able to identify a range of developments associated with city growth which in turn have different implications for communal violence. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordic Africa Institute.
    Djup splittring i Kenya efter valet2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 28 november 2017 svors Uhuru Kenyatta in för en andra presidentperiod i Kenya. En uppslitande, omtvistad och utdragen valprocess fick därmed sin slutpunkt. Men den senaste tidens institutionella och politiska utveckling ger fog för oro inför Kenyas framtid, skriver forskarna Emma Elfversson, Kristine Höglund och Anders Sjögren.

  • 33.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindberg Bromley, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Williams, Paul D.
    b Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
    Urban peacekeeping under siege: attacks on African Union peacekeepers in Mogadishu, 2007–20092019In: Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, ISSN 2380-2014, E-ISSN 2379-9978, Vol. 4, no 2-3, p. 158-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peacekeepers in cities face particular challenges because cities are densely populated and heterogeneous, encompass multiple terrains and fluid features, and host key assets of political, economic and strategic importance. Attacks targeting peacekeepers in cities constitute a recurrent problem, but how do they affect a peace operation’s activities? We theorise the effects of such violence on three outcomes: patrolling and outreach, use of force, and the establishment of new bases. We explore these dynamics by analysing intra-city dynamics of violence and operational activity following attacks on African Union (AU) peacekeepers in Mogadishu, Somalia, from initial deployment in 2007 through 2009. We use the geo-referenced UCDP Peacemakers at Risk (PAR) dataset and extend it by coding specific city sub-locations for incidences of violence, allowing us to analyse the spatiality of violence involving peacekeepers in Mogadishu. The evidence suggests that during its first three years, attacks on AMISOM significantly hampered its ability to spread out in the city and operate effectively, but did not evidently alter wider patterns of violence in the city. Despite these challenges, AMISOM managed to fulfil the core element of its mandate: preventing the overthrow of the Somali Transitional Federal Government.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindberg Bromley, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Williams, Paul D.
    Urban peacekeeping: What we’ve learnt from AU’s mission in Somalia2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The pursuit of inclusion: Conditions for civil society inclusion in peace processes in communal conflicts in Kenya2022In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 171-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are some peace processes in communal conflicts more inclusive of civil society actors than others? Inclusion of civil society actors, such as churches and religious leaders, women’s organizations, or youth groups, is seen as important for normative reasons, and studies also suggest that civil society inclusion can improve the prospects for durable peace. Yet, we have a very limited understanding of why we observe inclusion in some communal conflicts but not others. We address this gap by theorizing about various forms of civil society inclusion in local peace processes, and examining to what extent involvement by different types of third-party actors—governments, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—may contribute to inclusion. Empirically, we draw on a combination of cross-case and in-depth data covering peace negotiations in communal conflicts in Kenya. The findings show that civil society was less frequently included as facilitators when the government was involved as a third party, while inclusion in the form of direct participation of civil society in negotiations, or via involvement in the implementation phase, was equally common across different types of third-party actors. Our study thus provides important new insights regarding how inclusion plays out in communal conflicts.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do Local Power-Sharing Deals Reduce Ethnopolitical Hostility?: The Effects of ‘Negotiated Democracy’ in a Devolved Kenya2020In: Ethnopolitics, ISSN 1744-9057, E-ISSN 1744-9065, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 45-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do local power-sharing arrangements affect levels of ethnopolitical hostility? The introduction of decentralisation in contexts previously marked by communal conflict underscores the need to assess local power-sharing mechanisms. However, existing literature on power-sharing has mainly examined national-level arrangements. In this article we contribute to the literature on decentralisation and ethnopolitical conflict by analysing two conflict-affected cases in Kenya. We find that local power sharing in Nakuru made intercommunal relations less hostile than in Uasin Gishu, where no such arrangement was present. The introduction and effects of local power sharing, however, is highly conditioned by national politics.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Willis, Justin
    Durham University.
    Kenya declares William Ruto as its new president in an election drama that’s far from over2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Urban Kenyans mistrust police even more than rural residents do: study sets out why it matters2024Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Gusic, Ivan
    Malmö University.
    The promise and perils of postwar cities2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Mutahi, Patrick
    Centre for Human Rights and Policy Studies, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Why Kenya wants to send police to Haiti and prospects for success2023Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Murtagh, Brendan
    et al.
    School of Natural and Built Environment, David Keir Building, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, UK.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Gusic, Ivan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Meye, Marie-Therese
    Graduate School of Economic and Social Sciences, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.
    Urban restructuring and the reproduction of spaces of violence in Belfast2023In: Peacebuilding, ISSN 2164-7259, E-ISSN 2164-7267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper maps the distribution of post-conflict violence in Belfast and how it has restructured socially, economically and spatially. An end to hostilities and stable transition produces and is produced by a more complex set of distinctly urban assemblages, actors, resources and places. Bringing the ideas of ‘ordering’ into relation with assemblage theory, the paper suggests that explanations for the survival, volume, type and distribution of violence cannot be understood within exclusively ethnonational frames, identarian politics or military logics. In Belfast, the data reveal a more variegated map of peace and consumption; inner-city alienation and the intensification of division; as well as the emergence of new geographies of displaced violence. The paper concludes by emphasising the need to understand how urban processes and competing ethnic orders create highly differentiated spaces that explain the resilience of violence after hostilities have formally closed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Pellerin, Camille
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    (Re)claiming Finfinne?: Violent Protest and the Right to Addis Ababa2023In: Rebellious Riots: Entangled Geographies of Contention in Africa / [ed] Sam Kniknie; Karen Büscher, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2023, p. 128-161Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2015, Addis Ababa has seen an unprecedented rise in political protest contesting the distribution of resources between the country’s ethnic groups and questioning the ownership of the capital city. Ethiopia has a history of civil war and armed struggle, but urban protest remains a recent phenomenon. The fact that struggle against marginalisation by the Oromo, one of Ethiopia’s largest ethnic groups, has finally reached the capital has profoundly shaken many Addis Ababans. Compared to other parts of the country, inter-group relations in the city have often been characterized by relatively high levels of tolerance, with a strong sense of a cosmopolitan urban identity. We seek to contribute to understanding this recent rise in urban contestation, through the lens of how long-term city residents make sense of it. We argue that although the question about the ownership of Addis Ababa is central to the Oromo struggle, the recent violent protests do not signify a simple shift of the Oromo struggle from rural areas into the streets of the capital. Our analysis highlights how ethnicity intertwines with urbanity to create a more complex landscape of self- and other-ascribed identities, in turn shaping how the violence is interpreted.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
1 - 42 of 42
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf