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  • 1.
    Csató, Éva Ágnes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Enwall, JoakimUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Eskhult, MatsUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Jahani, CarinaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Månsson, AnetteUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Schaefer, ChristianeUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Orientalia Suecana Vol LXI (2012)2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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    Orientalia Suecana LXI
  • 2.
    Csató, Éva Ágnes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Enwall, JoakimUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Eskhult, MatsUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Jahani, CarinaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Månsson, AnetteUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Schaefer, ChristianeUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Nielsen, Helle LykkeUniversity of Southern Denmark.Perho, IrmeliUniversity of Helsinki.
    Orientalia Suecana Vol. LXI (2012): Supplement2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 3.
    Csató, Éva Ágnes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Enwall, JoakimUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Isaksson, BoUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Jahani, CarinaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Månsson, AnetteUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Saxena, AnjuUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Schaefer, ChristianeUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Korn, AgnesVergleichende Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Frankfurt, Germany.
    Orientalia Suecana: Vol. 58 (2009)2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT02
  • 4.
    Csató, Éva Ágnes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Enwall, JoakimUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Isaksson, BoUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Jahani, CarinaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Månsson, AnetteUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Saxena, AnjuUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Schaefer, ChristianeUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Viberg, ÅkeUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Orientalia Suecana: Vol. 59 (2010)2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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    Orientalia Suecana 59
  • 5.
    Csató, Éva Ágnes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Enwall, JoakimUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Isaksson, BoUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Jahani, CarinaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Månsson, AnetteUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Saxena, AnjuUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Schaefer, ChristianeUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Wessler, Heinz WernerUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Consolaro, AlessandraUniversità degli Studi di Torina, University of Turin, Italy.
    Orientalia Suecana: Vol. LX (2011)2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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    Orientalia Suecana 60
  • 6.
    Csató, Éva Ágnes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Saxena, AnjuUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Jahani, CarinaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Schaefer, ChristianeUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Orientalia, Suecana
    Orientalia Suecana: An International Journal of Indological, Iranian, Semitic and Turkic Studies: Volume 51-52 (2002-2003)2003Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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    Orientalia Suecana 51-52 [2002-2003]
  • 7.
    Dahlén, Ashk
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Jahani, CarinaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Iran 4 000 år av historia, konst, religion, litteratur och språk2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kungl. Vitterhetsakademien anordnade i november 2010, tillsammans med Medelhavsmuseet, en endagskonferens om iranistiken i Sverige. Konferenspresentationerna utgör de tretton bidragen i denna bok.

    Boken är indelad i fyra olika avdelningar: “Tillbaka till rötterna, om konst, musik och arkeologi i Iran” där Bo Lawergren, Karin Ådahl, Kristian Göransson och Mehrdad Fallahzadeh presenterar sin forskning inom konst, musik och arkeologi. I den andra avdelningen, “Stat och religion, glimtar ur den iranska historien”, återfinns artiklar om Irans historia och religioner av Ashk Dahlén, Anders Hultgård och David Thurfjell. Avdelning nummer tre, “Litteraturen i tiden, forskning kring iranska litteraturer”, innehåller bidrag om persisk, kurdisk och pashtunsk litteratur av Bo Utas, Farhad Shakely och Anders Widmark. Till den fjärde avdelningen, “Iranska språk förr och nu, några axplock från ett forskningsfält”, bidrar Judith Josephson, Helena Bani-Shoraka och Carina Jahani med grammatiska studier samt en diskussion av sociolingvistiska forskningsmetoder.

    Iranistiken rör sig inte bara inom dagens geografiska och politiska stat Iran, utan inom hela det gamla Stor-Iran med dess långa historia, dess religioner, språk och kultur, alltifrån Medelhavet till djupt in i Centralasien. Från och med 1988 finns en professur i ämnet vid Uppsala universitet och svenska Iran-forskare har för första gången fått en organisatorisk och institutionell bas, vilket har bidragit till att det idag bedrivs en livaktig forskning i Sverige kring ämnen med anknytning till Iran.

  • 8.
    Dahlén, Ashk
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Jahani, CarinaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Iran. 4 000 år av historia, konst, religion, litteratur och språk2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kungl. Vitterhetsakademien anordnade i november 2010, tillsammans med Medelhavsmuseet en endagskonferens om iranistiken i Sverige. Konferenspresentationerna utgör de tretton bidragen i denna bok. 

    Boken är indelad i fyra olika avdelningar: "Tillbaka till rötterna, om konst, musik och arkeologi i Iran" där Bo Lawergren, Karin Ådahl, Kristian Göransson och Mehrdad Fallahzadeh presenterar sin forskning inom konst, musik och arkeologi. I den andra avdelningen, "Stat och religion, glimtar ur den iranska historien", återfinns artiklar om Irans historia och religioner av Ashk Dahlén, Anders Hultgård och David Thurfjell. Avdelning nummer tre, "Litteraturen i tiden, forskning kring iranska litteraturer", innehåller bidrag om persisk, kurdisk och pashtunsk litteratur av Bo Utas, Farhad Shakely och Anders Widmark. Till den fjärde avdelningen, "Iranska språk förr och nu, några axplock från ett forskningsfält", bidrar Judith Josephson, Helena Bani-Shoraka och Carina Jahani med grammatiska studier, samt en diskussion om socio-lingvistiska metoder. 

    Iranistiken har rört sig inte bara inom dagens geografiska och politiska stat Iran, utan inom hela det gamla Stor-Iran med dess långa historia, dess religioner, språk och kultur, alltifrån Medelhavet till djupt in i Centralasien. Från och med 1988 finns en professur i ämnet vid Uppsala universitet och svenska Iran-forskare har för första gången fått en organisatorisk och institutionell bas, vilket har bidragit till att det i dag bedrivs en livaktig forskning i Sverige kring ämnen med anknytning till Iran.

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  • 9. Doulatabadi, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Heshmati, Bromand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Möten med balocher: Varje människa är ett epos2013 (ed. 500)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Möten med balocher är en mycket gripande skildring av människor och miljöer som Doulatabadi mötte på sin resa till sydöstra Iran kring årsskiftet 1974–75. Vi får träffa smugglaren Malek som blir hans bäste vän, den dryge kulturpersonligheten Kambuzia som bor i sin herrgård strax utanför Zahedan, poeten Nasuti som han nog helst hade velat slippa träffa, polisen från Shiraz som tycks se det som sin livsuppgift att omvända sunniter till shiismen, och många många fler. Doulatabadis förmåga att på ett levande sätt förmedla, inte bara den yttre miljön, utan också rådande värderingar är enastående. Han beskriver djupa mänskliga relationer på ett både kritiskt och samtidigt sympatiskt sätt. Mahmud Doulatabadi gjorde sin resa för mer än 35 år sedan, men för översättarna känns den mycket aktuell. Det är samma miljö som möter oss idag i detta Irans sydöstliga hörn, en miljö som Doulatabadi sammanfattar med orden »smuggling, opium, moské, sunni, shia, torrhet, sol och sand«.

  • 10. Ghomeshi, JIla
    et al.
    Jahani, CarinaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Lenepveu-Hotz, Agnès
    FURTHER TOPICS IN IRANIAN LINGUISTICS: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on iranian linguistics, held in Bamberg on 24-26 august 20132016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers in this volume were presented at the Fifth International Conference on Iranian Linguistics (ICIL5), held 24–26 August 2013 at the Otto Friedrich University, Bamberg, Germany. The conference was organized by Geoffrey Haig, Otto-Friedrich University, Bamberg; Carina Jahani, Uppsala University; Agnes Korn, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main; and Pollet Samvelian, Université Paris III, Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris. It involved more than 50 registered participants, 33 oral presentations, and eight poster presentations, as well as keynote speeches by Bernard Comrie (Max-Planck-Institut, Leipzig) and Éva Jeremiás (Eötvös Lorand University, Budapest). This biennial conference, first held in 2005, attracts international scholars with diverse backgrounds and theoretical outlooks who come to share their current research on Iranian languages past and present. It was first held in Leipzig and thereafter in Hamburg, Paris, Uppsala and Bamberg. 

  • 11.
    Haig, Geoffrey
    et al.
    Bamberg University.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Iranian Linguistics2013In: Orientalia Suecana, ISSN 0078-6578, E-ISSN 2001-7324, Vol. 61, p. 121-125Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 12.
    Hassanabadi, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.
    Jahani, Roubik
    Uppsala Pentecostal Church, Sweden.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Crellin, Robert
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    A Unified Gospel in Persian: An old variant of the Gospels along with exegetical comments by Yahyā Ibn Ayvaz-e Tabrīzī-ye Armanī2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today we are accustomed to thinking of the Bible as a single entity, i.e. as ‘the Bible’, a well-defined corpus containing a set number of books. In late antiquity and in the Middle Ages, however, the situation was much more fluid. This fluidity showed itself not only in the fact that parts of the Bible would often circulate independently, but also in that Bible texts were often known in vernacular languages both in direct translations, but also in interlinear glosses and poetic paraphrases. It is in this context that the Unified Gospel is to be seen. Unifications of the gospel texts are often called Diatessaron (through the four), and, although this name has not been used for the Persian text presented in this book, it can still be seen as belonging to the Diatessaron tradition.

    The Unified Gospel presented here was compiled in Persian by a certain Armenian who calls himself Yahyā Ibn Ayvaz-e Tabrīzī-ye Armanī. The actual time of the compilation cannot be determined from the existing manuscripts. The main manuscript for this edition is kept in the National Library and Archives of Iran. It was finalized on 9 Rajab 1111 A.H. (corresponding to 31 Dec. 1699) by a scribe named Khusraw, son of Bahrām. Other manuscripts, which are introduced in detail in the Persian introduction, have also been taken into account in this edition. In addition to the actual Gospel texts, there are numerous exegetical comments by the compiler, which are of great value for a deeper understanding of how the text was interpreted in former times. The language also shows certain archaic features, both in the vocabulary and the syntax, which indicate that the original work most likely dates to pre-Safavid times.

    It is not entirely clear for whom this Unified Gospel in Persian was produced. The compiler finds that the people of his time had turned away from God and instead sought worldly affairs, spending their time reading stories and poems full of deceit and darkness instead of reading the Gospel. The Gospel was not available to them in Persian, a language of which they had better knowledge than the languages into which the Gospels had already been translated. This was the reason why the compiler/translator undertook the work which resulted in the present manuscript, which is particularly valuable due to the large number of comments to the Bible text added by the compiler.

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  • 13. Hayat, Noroz
    Yes, Dear Mother, Your Son is Back in the Mountains2021In: Orientalia Suecana, ISSN 0078-6578, E-ISSN 2001-7324, Vol. 70, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Hussain, Sajid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Facing exile, facing taunts2020In: Orientalia Suecana, ISSN 0078-6578, E-ISSN 2001-7324, Vol. 69, p. 49-56Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 15.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    A Grammar of Modern Standard Balochi2019Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balochi is an Iranian language spoken in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, the Gulf States (particularly Oman and the United Arab Emirates), Turkmenistan, India, and East Africa. Informal estimates suggest that no less than 10 million people speak the language. It can be divided into three main dialect blocks, Western, Southern and Eastern Balochi.

    Ever since the mid-20th century, there have been attempts to create a unified orthography for Balochi. The development of written Balochi has mainly taken place in Pakistan, where there have been advocates of both the Arabic and Latin scripts. Most literature, of course, has been written in Arabic script, but even here diverging systems have been used. 

    In 2012, at the initiative of Uppsala University, the University of Balochistan and the Balochi Academy, Quetta, as well as a number of Baloch authors and literary societies, a programme was launched with the purpose of working towards the standardization of Balochi orthography and grammar. At an orthography conference held in Uppsala in 2014, the participants decided to work on two parallel orthographies, one based on the Arabic script and one on the Latin script. In 2016, a grammar conference was held, at which some of the areas of grammatical variation in Balochi were discussed and suggestions were made about what forms to include in the standard written Balochi language. 

    In order to create and promote a standard Balochi language, it is important to include as many intellectuals as possible in the process, in order to gain a consensus for the suggested standard language. This description of Modern Standard Balochi orthography, phonology, morphology, syntax and word-formation is based on discussions held at the conferences and on further input from a number of renowned Baloch writers and linguists.

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    bilaga
  • 16.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University.
    Balochernas vandring och språkets förvandling2006In: Vandring & förvandling: Förflyttning - förändring - framtid, 2006, p. 77-85Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    En populärvetenskaplig presentation av hur balochernas vandringar avspeglar sig i deras språk, och hur olika dialekter av det balochiska språket påverkats av olika officiella språk i de länder där språket talas.

  • 17.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Balochi2001In: Facts about the World's languages, 2001Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a short presentation of the basic grammatical system of Balochi (phonology, morphology, syntax) with notes on its contact linguistic situation and efforts to preserve and promote the language + a select bibliography.

  • 18.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Balochi: Literary Development, Status and Vitality2023In: Iranian and Minority Languages at Home and in Diaspora / [ed] Anousha Sedighi, Berlin/Boston: Mouton de Gruyter, 2023, p. 65-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balochi is spoken in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, the Gulf States, Turkmenistan, India and East Africa by at least 10 million people. Balochi is not an official language in any of these countries. Some attention was given to Balochi in British India during colonial times, and there has also been more of a movement to read and write Balochi in Pakistan than in Iran, where any use of regional languages in written form has been a suspect activity ever since the days of the Pahlavi monarchy. For this reason, as well as because of the lower level of education in Pakistan than in Iran, Balochi has remained stronger in Pakistan than in Iran. In today’s Iran, many Baloch parents speak Persian rather than Balochi to their children. The purpose of this article is to discuss the status and vitality of Balochi, mainly in Iran and Pakistan, and to describe the desire to preserve and promote Balochi among its speakers. Balochi as a language with a long oral literary tradition, as well as recent attempts towards developing a standard written language will also be addressed.

  • 19.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Asian and African Languages.
    Bilingualism in Sweden: The example of a Swedish-Iranian family2003In: Orientalia Suecana, ISSN 0078-6578, Vol. LI-LII (2002-2003), p. 235-256Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents language use in a multilingual

  • 20.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Complex Predicates and the Issue of Transitivity: The case of Southern Balochi2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex predicates (CPs) are very common in many Iranian languages. However, the source of transitivity of CPs in these languages is, according to previous studies, somewhat uncertain. In some cases the transitivity of the light verb (LV) is found to determine the transitivity of the CP, whereas in other cases it depends on the semantic transitivity of the whole CP. In Southern Balochi (SB), as well as in several other Iranian languages, where ergative alignment is found with transitive (tr.) predicates formed with the past stem, and accusative alignment with intransitive (itr.) predicates formed with the past stem, as well as with all predicates formed with the non-past (present–future) stem, the transitivity of a CP is evident from the alignment.

    Haig (2008: 11–12) discusses the transitivity of CPs and notes that not only in Balochi, but also in Northern Kurdish and Vafsi, semantically itr. CPs can trigger ergative case marking. He also makes two additional remarks for Iranian languages, namely that ―there are examples of etymologically tr. verbs shifting class under semantic pressure‖ and that ―there are interesting interactions between main verbs and auxiliaries‖.

    The purpose of this presentation is to investigate the impact of the transitivity of the LV in determining the transitivity of a CP. The investigation is based on a corpus consisting of six texts and on interviews with three speakers of SB. The study shows that the transitivity of CPs is generally determined by the syntactic transitivity of the LV rather than the semantic transitivity of the whole CP. There is, however, one exception to this rule, namely the LV girag ‘to get‘, which occurs with accusative alignment in semantically itr. CPs.

    Farrell (2003: 199) proposes that the unexpected accusative alignment in the past temporal domain for a CP with a tr. LV in SB could reflect the alignment of this CP in Urdu (i.e. when Urdu forms the corresponding CP with an itr. LV). However, there is only one verb, at least in the present corpus, that breaks the alignment rule, and it does so not only in dialects of SB spoken in Pakistan, e.g. Karachi Balochi, the dialect described by Farrell, but also in dialects spoken in Iran, which are hardly influenced by Urdu syntax at all. Two of the persons I interviewed are from Iran, and they both rule out ergative alignment for semantically itr. CPs involving the LV girag ‘to get‘.

    A more reasonable explanation of the fact that girag ‘to get‘ appears at first sight to break the alignment rule, is that it is an ambitransitive verb. Assuming it is, we can conclude that syntactic transitivity always takes supremacy over semantic transitivity in SB, a rule that applies both to CPs and to periphrastic verb constructions.

    At the end, I compare alignment of CPs a) in SB and Kurdish (a closely related Iranian language) b) in SB and Urdu (a language that SB is in close contact with, particularly in Pakistan).

    References

    Farrell, Tim 1995. Fading Ergativity? A Study of Ergativity in Balochi‖. In: Bennett, David C., Bynon, Theodora, and Hewitt, B. George (eds), Subject, Voice and Ergativity. Selected Essays. London: SOAS, 218–243.

    Farrell, Tim 2003. Linguistic Influences on the Balochi Spoken in Karachi‖. In: Jahani, Carina, and Korn, Agnes (eds), The Baloch and Their Neighbours. Ethnic and Linguistic Contact in Balochistan in Historical and Modern Times. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 169–210.

    Haig, Geoffrey L. J. 2008. Alignment Change in Iranian Languages. A Construction Grammar Approach [Empirical Approaches to Language Typology, 37]. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Korn, Agnes 2009. The Ergative System in Balochi from a Typological Perspective‖. Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies 1:1, 43–79.

  • 21.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Complex predicates and the issue of transitivity: The case of Southern Balochi2015In: From Aṣl to Zā’id: Essays in Honour of Éva M. Jeremiás / [ed] Iván Szántó, Piliscsaba: The Avicenna Institute of Middle Eastern Studies , 2015, p. 79-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex predicates (CPs) are very common in many Iranian languages. However, the source of transitivity of CPs in these languages is, according to previous studies, somewhat uncertain. In some cases the transitivity of the light verb (LV) is found to determine the transitivity of the CP, whereas in other cases it depends on the semantic transitivity of the whole CP. In Southern Balochi (SB), as well as in several other Iranian languages, where ergative alignment is found with transitive (tr.) predicates formed with the past stem, and accusative alignment with intransitive (itr.) predicates formed with the past stem, as well as with all predicates formed with the non-past (present–future) stem, the transitivity of a CP is evident from the alignment.

         The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the transitivity of the LV in determining the transitivity of a CP. The investigation is based on a corpus consisting of six texts and on interviews with three speakers of SB. The study shows that the transitivity of CPs is generally determined by the syntactic transitivity of the LV rather than the semantic transitivity of the whole CP. There is, however, one exception to this rule, namely the LV girag ‘to get’, which occurs with accusative alignment in semantically itr. CPs. A reasonable explanation of the fact that this verb appears at first sight to break the alignment rule is that it is an ambitransitive verb. Assuming it is, we can conclude that syntactic transitivity always takes supremacy over semantic transitivity in SB, a rule that applies both to CPs and to periphrastic verb constructions.

     

  • 22.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    De "ohördas" röst: Folksagans roll för att låta de svagaste i samhället komma till tals2004In: Saga och Sanning: Berättandets konst och berättelsens budskap, 2004, p. 105-119Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Denna artikel presenterar sju olika persiska och balochiska folksagor där de svaga i samhället (föräldralösa eller fysiskt och mentalt handikappade barn, försmådda hustrur etc.) triumferar över de starka. Sagorna är delvis ordagrant och delvis sammanfattande översatta till svenska.

  • 23.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Differences between oral and written narratives in Persian in the encoding of S2 references2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study claims that there is a difference between oral and written Persian narratives for reference to activated participants in the role of S2 (i.e. when the subject was the addressee of a speech reported in the previous sentence in a closed conversation). It is based on the method of participant tracking presented in Dooley and Levinsohn (2001), which was applied to Persian by Roberts (2009).

    On the basis of participant tracking in two texts, one classified as spoken and one as written, Roberts (2009: 349) concluded that "in the ... spoken text the referential strategy relies more on context for maintaining referential identity and is less specific than in the written text". He found the default encoding for S2 in the "spoken" text to be Ø whereas it was N in the "written" text.

    I firstly challenge Roberts’ classification of Māhi siāh-e kučulu as a written text. Even though it is written down, it is basically an oral tale embedded in a larger narrative, which carries over certain traits of oral narration, e.g. the formal opening of a story. Thereafter, I question whether Ø is the default S2 encoding in oral texts. In the second text presented by Roberts and identified as oral by him, there are 16 instances of Ø encoding and 14 instances of encoding with a noun (N). On the basis of 15 new oral narratives reduced to writing, as well as the two oral narratives analysed by Roberts, S2 default encoding proves to be N in oral texts.

    The latter part of the presentation is devoted to establishing default encoding of S2 in Persian written texts and the corpus consists of 15 short stories. In this corpus, the default encoding of S2 is Ø.

    The encoding of S2 for Persian oral and written narratives proposed here is thus the very opposite of what Roberts suggested, namely Ø for written narratives and N for oral narratives. It must be remembered that the oral stories have been reduced to writing and we can therefore say nothing about participant reference in the actual oral performance of the story. What we can discuss is participant reference in oral literature reduced to writing.

    There will also be a brief discussion of marked encoding, i.e. when the S2 is encoded differently from the default.

    DOOLEY, Robert A. and LEVINSOHN, Stephen H. (2001), Analyzing discourse: A manual of basic concepts.Dallas: SIL International.

    ROBERTS, John R. (in cooperation with Behrooz BARJASTEH DELFOROOZ & Carina JAHANI) (2009), study of Persian discourse structure. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. 

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  • 24.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Elfenbein, Josef, An Anthology of Classical and Modern Balochi Literature1991In: Orientalia Suecana, Vol. 45, p. 277-279Article, book review (Other scientific)
  • 25.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology, Asian and African Languages and Cultures, Iranian languages.
    Expressions of future in classical and modern new Persian2008In: Aspects of Iranian Linguistics, Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing , 2008, p. 153-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As in several other Indo-European languages, there are two main strategies for marking future time reference in Persian:1. lexical or contextual means of expressing the future with the verb in the non-past tense2. periphrastic verbal constructions with an ‘upgraded,’ i.e. ‘pragmaticallystrengthened’ and ‘semantically bleached’ verb of volition as the auxiliary.The purpose of the paper is to make a detailed investigation of strategies employed formarking future time reference in written New Persian, both in its classical and modern variety. In Modern New Persian factual prose and fiction are described as two different varieties, since they show a considerable amount of divergence. This study does not include spoken Persian.The results show that the primary strategy for Persian when it comes to expressing future time reference is lexical/contextual marking with the non-past form of the verb. In written language, it is the one encountered the most commonly in Classical Persian (with a Ø-marked verb form) and in the fiction genre of Modern Persian (with a mi-marked verb form). The periphrastic constructions used in Persian are based on the verb ‘towant’, thus volitional constructions.

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  • 26.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Expressions of indirectivity in spoken Modern Persian2000In: Evidentials: Turkic, Iranian and Neighbouring Languages, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin - New York , 2000, p. 499-Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article treats the use of verb forms to denote indirect information (reportative or inferential) in modern spoken Persian. It is based on an empirical study carried out among native speakers of Persian in Sweden.

  • 27.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Is there an "urban mind" in Balochi Literature?2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend, Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University , 2010, p. 457-470Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to compare themes in Balochi written literature with those found in Balochi oral literature in search for an “urban mind”. The Balochi language is spoken in south-western Pakistan and south-eastern Iran, as well as by smaller populations outside Balochistan proper. Various estimates give at hand that there may be between 8 and 10 million speakers of Balochi, or even more.

    Childe presents a number of criteria for urbanism which are used in this chapter to determine whether there is an urban mind in Balochi oral and written literature. The five written texts examined in this study all date from the 1950s and onwards, whereas the five oral texts are undated but assumed to be of a much earlier date than the written texts.

    The study shows that in the oral narratives the urban setting is put forth as an ideal. To become a king or the king’s son-in-law or the foremost merchant in the world is what constitutes true success, and not, for example, to become the richest farmer or cattle owner. This urban mind is only present in a fantasy world, however, and in the written literature there is a totally different and this time realistic setting for the stories. Here the scene is not a world where wishes come true, but the harsh reality of Balochistan. Urbanism as an ideal is absent in these stories, and even though urban phenomena are mentioned they are not crucial in any of the written stories.

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  • 28.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Language Attitudes and Language Maintenance among Iranian Baloch in Sweden2000In: Language in Society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi, 2000, p. 132-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a study of language maintenance and language attitudes conducted among Baloch immigrants in Sweden by means of questionnaires. Among the issues studied we find proficiency in Swedish, Persian and Balochi, language use in the family and in other domains as well as language attitudes and ethnic identification. A smaller section compares the results among the Baloch with results from two other ethnic groups from Iran, the Persians and the Armenians.

  • 29.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Language attitudes and language maintenance among Iranian immigrants in Sweden2004In: Orientalia Suecana, ISSN 0078-6578, Vol. 53, p. 93-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study of language maintenance and langugage attitudes is based on a questionnaire study among Iranian immigrants belonging to three ethnic groups (Persians, Baloch and Armenians) in Sweden. There are considerable variations among second generation immigrants of these three groups when it comes to maintenance of home language versus shift to Swedish. The author tries to analyse and explain these differences in the light of observations she has during more than 20 years of contact with Iranians from these three groups in Sweden.

  • 30.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    On the Definite Marker in Modern Spoken Persian2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Definiteness as a grammatical category has been discussed in theoretical linguistics both from a philosophical and a discourse pragmatic point of view. One definition of definiteness is that it has to do with whether it is assumed that the addressee is acquainted with the referent of the NP or not (Abbott 2006: 393). Definite NPs can either refer to something previously introduced in the discourse or to something that the speaker assumes that the addressee knows already.

                In many languages, both definite and indefinite nouns are marked (e.g. English, French), in other languages only the definite noun is marked (Irish Gaelic) and in yet others, only the indefinite noun is marked (Turkish). Some languages neither mark definiteness nor indefiniteness on the noun (e.g. Russian) (Abbott 2006:398). Markers for indefiniteness often originate from the numeral ‘one’ and can either occur as indefinite articles (e.g. Swedish en/ett) or indefinite suffixes/clitics (e.g. Balochi =ē). As for markers for definiteness, they are often derived from demonstratives (e.g. Romance languages) (Lyons 1999: 331‒334).

                Modern Written Persian (MWP), as well as Classical Persian (CP) is a language that marks indefiniteness, or rather individuation (see e.g. Korn 2009: 75), with the clitic (CP , Middle Persian ēw ‘one’). There is no dedicated marker for definiteness in CP or MWP. On the contrary, there is a marker for definiteness -e (after C) and –he (after V)  in Modern Spoken Persian (MSP). This –e/-he carries stress. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of this marker and discuss whether it should be regarded as a suffix or as a clitic. In this study, I investigate the use of -e to mark definiteness in MSP in five Persian films and by means of interviews with five L1 Persian speakers.

                Windfuhr and Perry (2009: 432) describes this marker as having “referential function to a person or an item” mentioned earlier in the discourse. Lazard (1992: 73­‒74) also describes this definiteness marker and notes that it is optionally used “better to mark definiteness”. This study, too, shows that the marking of definiteness is by no means obligatory in MSP. Inherently definite nouns (where there is only one possible referent) never take -e, such as ‘the sun, the moon, the world’. For other nouns in the singular, the -e is optionally present. Before the direct object clitic =ro it is realized as -a. There is no marking of definiteness in the plural.

    The definite marker -e can be added to a noun phrase consisting of a noun plus an adjective, in which case the ezāfe which normally connects the adjective to the noun is dropped and the noun+adjective is compounded with only one word stress. The fact that the marker is added to the adjective could be the starting point in the grammaticalization of -e as a clitic rather than a suffix, but since the noun+adjective is re-shaped into a unit with only one word stress (on the definite marker) it seems at this point more correct to regard the -e as a suffix that attaches only to nouns.

    A finding in Koroshi Balochi texts may be the key to the etymology of the definite suffix in Persian. In Koroshi the originally diminutive suffix -ok carrying stress is optionally used to mark a definite noun (see Jahani and Nourzaei 2011 where the whole text is published).

    I therefore argue that the diminutive suffix in Persian, -ak, is a likely candidate for the origin of the -e suffix. The diminutive suffix carries stress, like the -e suffix, and a reduction of -ak > -a > -e in MSP is not hard to envisage. It may be interesting to note that the definite marker -aka in Sorani Kurdish is likewise stressed (on the final syllable) (Thackston, p. 9), and so is the definite marker -eke / -e in Bakhtiari (Anonby and Asadi 2014: 67). Also in these languages, the definiteness marker is likely to be a diminutive suffix that has taken on the grammatical role of marking definiteness.

     

    References:

    Anonby, Erik and Asadi, Ashraf (2014). Bakhtiari Studies. Phonology, Text, Lexicon (Studia Iranica Upsaliensia 24). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

    Abbott, B. (2006). “Definite and Indefinite”. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics. Amsterdam and Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 392–398. ‪

    Jahani, Carina, and Maryam Nourzaei (2011). “A Folktale in Koroshi Dedicated to Joy Edelman”. In: Leksika, ėtimologiya, yazykovye kontakty. K yubileyu doktora filologičeskix nauk professor Džoy Yosifovny Ėdel’man [Lexicon, etymology, linguistic contacts. For the birthday of Professor Joy Yosifovna Edelman, doctor of philosophy], ed. L.R. Dodyxudoeva, S. R. Vinogradova, and A. S. Bayandur, A. S. Moscow: Akademiya Nauk,  pp. 62‒70

    Korn, Agnes (2009). “The Ergative System in Balochi from a Typological Perspective”. Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies 1:1, 43–79.

    Lazard, Gilbert (1992). A Grammar of Contemporary Persian. Transl. into English by Shirley A. Lyon. Costa Mesa and New York: Mazda Publishers.

    Lyons, Christopher (1999). Definiteness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Thackston, W.M. Sorani Kurdish. A Reference Grammar with selected readings. Online at: http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~iranian/Sorani/sorani_1_grammar.pdf (retrieved 9 Nov. 2014)

    Windfuhr, Gernot and Perry John R. (2009). “Persian and Tajik”. In: The Iranian Languages, ed. G. Windfuhr, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 416‒544.

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  • 31.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Prospectivity in Persian and Balochi and the preterite for non-past events2017In: Prospective and Proximative in Turkic, Iranian and beyond / [ed] Korn, Agnes, Irina Nevskaya, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 2017, p. 261-275Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospectivity has been discussed by, e.g., COMRIE (1976: 64), who describes prospective aspect as a future counterpart to the perfect aspect. DAHL (1985: 112) finds that there is “some evidence” that Prospective is “across-linguistic category” and that it is encoded by periphrastic constructions. The definition of Prospective assumed here is that it is an aspect which indicates a prediction-based or intention-based state that is related to a future event, either imminent or non-imminent, which either takes place (non-Avertive) or is averted (Avertive).

    There are a few constructions found in Iranian languages that match this definition. Of the constructions discussed here for Persian and Balochi, the construction with a verbal adjective and the copula found in Balochi is the most prototypical prospective construction, but also the progressive/prospective construction in Persian with ‘to have’, and the constructions with the verbs ‘to come’ (Balochi) and ‘to want’ (Persian) can be considered to meet the criteria of prospectivity as defined by COMRIE.

    Moreover, there is a non-past use of the preterite verb form which could be understood as a form of Prospective. However, authentic examples give at hand that a more convincing interpretation of this pattern is that of relative past tense with perfective aspect, an event viewed in its entirety including its completion, i.e. with a deictic temporal centre after the completion of the event.

  • 32.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology, Asian and African Languages and Cultures. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology, Asian and African Languages and Cultures, Iranian languages.
    Restrictive relative clauses in Balochi and the marking of the antecedent: linguistic influence from Persian?2008In: The Baloch and others: linguistic, historical and socio-political perspectives on pluralism in Balochistan, Wiesbaden: Reichert , 2008, p. 139-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An interesting morphosyntactic feature that has been observed in e.g. New Persian and Balochi is that the same suffix that marks indefinite restrictive selection out of a generic unit or a plurality (the so-called yā-ye vaḥdat) is also attached to head nouns of restrictive relative clauses. The purpose of the article is to investigate whether an extension of the use of the suffix denoting indefinite selection to mark antecedents of restrictive relative clauses similar to the one observed in Persian has also taken place in Balochi. If there is such a marking, in what variants of Balochi does it occur? In these cases, should it be seen as an internal development in Balochi parallel to that of Persian or can it be attributed to linguistic influence from Persian? Data from different Balochi dialects are investigated and the conclusion is that the dialects divide neatly into three groups when it comes to the marking of the antecedent, those heavily influenced by Modern Persian, those where there has been a close contact with, but not massive influence from Persian and those dialects where there has been a limited influence from Persian, mainly in its classical form.

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  • 33.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Asian and African Languages.
    Restrictive Relative Clauses in Classical and Modern New Persian and the Marking of the Antecedent2001In: Orientalia Suecana, Vol. 49, 2000, p. 33-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a corpus based study of restrictive relative clauses in Classical and Modern written New Persian from the 10th to the 20th century A.D. Different types of restrictive relative clauses (indefinite and specific) are described for the marking of the antecedent, either with a demonstrative article or with the indefinite suffix -i or a combination of the two markers. The grammaticalisation process of the -i as a marker of antecedents of restrictive relative clauses is presented in a quantitative study of all occurrences of restrictive relative clauses in the corpus.

  • 34.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Simple past for immediate future in some Iranian languages2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospectivity has been discussed by, e.g., Comrie (1976: 64), who describes prospective aspect as a future counterpart to the perfect aspect. Dahl (1985: 112) finds that there is “some evidence” that prospective is “a cross-linguistic category” and that it is encoded by periphrastic constructions. The definition of prospective assumed here is that it is an aspect which indicates a prediction-based or intention-based state that is related to a future, either imminent or non-imminent event which either takes place (non-avertive) or is averted (avertive).

                There are a few constructions found in Iranian languages that match this definition. Of the constructions discussed here for Persian and Balochi, the construction with a verbal adjective and the copula found in Balochi is the most prototypical prospective construction, but also the progressive/prospective construction in Persian with ‘to have’, and the constructions with the verbs ‘to come’ (Balochi) and ‘to want’ (Persian) can be considered to meet the criteria of prospectivity as defined by Comrie.

                Moreover, there is a non-past use of the preterite verb form which could be understood as a form of prospective. However, authentic examples give at hand that a more convincing interpretation of this pattern is that of relative past tense with perfective aspect, an event viewed in its entirety including its completion, i.e. with a deictic temporal centre after the completion of the event.

    References:

    Comrie, Bernard 1976: Aspect. Cambridge etc.: Cambridge University Press.

    Dahl, Östen 1985: Tense and Aspect Systems. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

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  • 35.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Asian and African Languages.
    Standardization and Orthography in the Balochi Language1989Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with the process of standardization in written Balochi in Pakistan from 1950 onwards.

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    presentationsbild
  • 36.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    State control and its impact on language in Balochistan2005In: The Role of the State in West Asia, 2005, p. 191-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes language policies in Iran and Pakistan affecting the Balochi language spoken in these two countries. It also describes Persian substrate phenomena in one particular Balochi dialect spoken in Iran and argues that the grammatical structure of a particular language or dialect can give a better understanding of migrations in the past. Finally the issue of revitalisation versus language death is discussed.

  • 37.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    The Baloch as an Ethnic Group in the Persian Gulf Region2014In: The Persian Gulf in Modern Times: People, Ports, and History / [ed] Lawrence G. Potter, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, p. 267-297Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    The Balochi Language and Languages in Iranian Balochistan2013In: The Journal of the Middle East and Africa, ISSN 2152-0844, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 153-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers a broad introduction to the Balochi languageand its dialects, as well as current trends in the official languagepolicy both in Iran and in Pakistan. Other languages spoken inIranian Balochistan are also presented, and the problems of andprospects for the continuing use of the Balochi language in Iranare discussed. From a historical point of view, Balochi is classifiedas a Northwestern Iranian language closely related to Kurdish,although it is spoken in the southeastern corner of the Iranianlinguistic area. It is difficult to estimate the total number of Balochispeakers, but 10 million may serve as an approximation. The maindialect split is between Western, Southern, and Eastern Balochi.The fact that the Balochi speakers are separated into several countrieswith various official languages is another cause of dialectdifferentiation. Along with modernization came a secular educationsystem and a nationalist discourse, first in British Indiaand later in Iran. There is, however, no official use of Balochi asa language of administration or education. This poses a seriousthreat to the survival of the language beyond one or two moregenerations. Such a threat is, of course, even more imminent forthe languages spoken by smaller communities in southeasternIran, such as Jadgali, Brahui, Bashkardi, and Koroshi.

  • 39.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    The Balochi Language as a Garden. An Attempt to Create a Standard for Written Balochi2019In: Iranian Studies in Honour of Adriano V. Rossi, Part 1 / [ed] Badalkhan, Sabir; Gian Pietro Basello; Matteo de Chiara, Naples: Università degli Studi di Napoli “L’Orientale” , 2019, p. 411-435Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    The Case System in Iranian Balochi in a Contact Linguistic Perspective2003In: The Baloch and Their Neighbours: Ethnic and Linguistic Contact in Balochistan in Historical and Modern Times, 2003, p. 380-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this article is the case system reduction taking place in Balochi dialects spoken in Iran. Different dialects of Balochi are more or less heavily influenced by the state language Persian, and the case systems in several of these dialects find themselves in different phases of being restructured with the very reduced Persian case system as the model. Examples of this reduction are, e.g., that in one dialect the genitive case is totally lost in favour of the Persian ezafe-construction and that the case form used for the indirect object is frequently replaced by a prepositional phrase.

  • 41.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    The Glottal Plosive: A Phoneme in Spoken Modern Persian or Not?2005In: Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, 2005, p. 373-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The articles aims to shed light on the phonological sstatus and the pronunciation of the glottal plosive in the spoken variants of Modern Persian found in Iran. It is based on recorded interviews with 24 persons, aged between 20 and 80, 16 living in Iran and 8 living in Sweden. Conclusions: the glottal plosive does exist as a phoneme in Persian, but its pronunciation in Arabic loanwords depends on a number of factors such as phonological environment, semantic field of the word, speech situation, individual variation etc.

  • 42.
    Jahani, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    To bring the distant near: On deixis in Iranian oral literature2018In: Trends in Iranian and Persian linguistics / [ed] Alireza Korangy and Corey Miller, Berlin and Boston: Mouton de Gruyter, 2018, p. 309-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to study oral narratives in a number of Iranian languages with a particular focus on how the audience is brought inside the framework of the story. The oral narratives selected for this study are traditional folktales and legends in Koroshi Balochi, Sistani Balochi, Vafsi, and Gorani.

    Deictic devices locate an event and its participants in time and space and cannot be fully interpreted without reference to the context. They also bring coherence to the narrative. A deictic center is a point to which the deictic element is anchored. Deixis can be absolute, i.e., place the deictic center at the location and moment of utterance, but the speaker does not necessarily need to adopt his or her own time and location as the deictic center. It is also possible to detach the deictic center completely from not only the temporal and locational setting of the speech, but also from the real world, and to place it at a time and place that never existed or will exist inside an imaginary story (deictic shift).

    The four linguistic variants in this study show interesting variation when it comes to deictic shift. It is more common for spatial deixis to be shifted to the story than for tense to be anchored in the story. Koroshi Balochi, Sistani Balochi, and Vafsi present almost total spatial deictic shift, whereas in Gorani the deixis is occasionally moved outside the story. Gorani is the language that has the strongest tense anchoring inside the narrative, with almost exclusive use of the non-past tense. At the other extreme we find Sistani Balochi, which has no tense anchoring in the narrative (only past tense verb forms). Koroshi Balochi uses non-past tense for events in the story line and Vafsi changes between using non-past and past tense.

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    Deixis in Iranian Oral literature
  • 43.
    Jahani, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Anonby, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Nourzaei, Maryam
    Korosh2015In: Encyclopædia IranicaArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Jahani, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Badalkhan, Sabir
    Naples University.
    Literatur auf Belutschi2017In: Handbuch der Iranistik, Band 2 / [ed] Ludwig Paul, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 2017, p. 355-363Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Jahani, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Baloch, Nagoman
    Baloch, Taj
    Unheard Voices: Twenty-one short stories in Balochi with English translations. Collected and edited by Carina Jahani, Nagoman Baloch and Taj Baloch2022Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents twenty one Balochi short stories in Balochi-Latin and Balochi-Arabic script, as well as English translations and introductions of the authors in English. The stories have been edited to correspond to the grammatical and orthographic standards adopted by the Balochi Language Project and are arranged according to three themes: Human Relations, Man and his Environment, and Exile.

    The writing of short stories in Balochi began in the early 1950s and was mainly limited to Eastern (Pakistani) Balochistan. During the 1950s and 1960s a number of new writers of fiction emerged. The themes of stories by these early authors were often of a local character. Most of the stories are plot-centred and chronologically structured. Often an omniscient narrator tells the story. The writers frequently want to convey a message and depict injustices in society, and in doing so they indirectly call for social and political reforms. 

    From the 1970s onward, a new generation of authors appeared on the scene. The writers belonging to the second generation are, as a rule, better educated than those of the first generation. They developed the short story genre by trying out new techniques and bringing in more varied and sometimes less locally anchored themes.

    Since the 1990s, a large number of new authors have emerged. New trends in Balochi short story writing include their increased readability, simplification of the language, separation of the characters in the stories from the author’s own ideology and a weaker urge to convey a message to the reader, as well as the treatment of taboo subjects that have not previously been addressed in Balochi literature. The growing number of women writers has also added a female voice, where women’s issues are no longer discussed only in a male-oriented discourse. 

    The overwhelming dominance of writers from Pakistan is worth noting. Of the twenty-one authors represented in this anthology, only one comes from the western side of Balochistan, i.e. Iran. It is also noteworthy that several of the younger writers have had to leave their country and now live in exile.

     

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  • 46.
    Jahani, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Barjasteh Delforooz, Behrooz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Axenov, Serge
    St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Nourzaei, Maryam
    University of Olum va Tahqiqat, Fars, Iran.
    Impersonal Constructions in Balochi2010In: Orientalia Suecana, ISSN 0078-6578, E-ISSN 2001-7324, Vol. 59, p. 168-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impersonal constructions are interesting from a typological perspective. Siewierska (2008: 3-4) finds that "[t]he semantic characterizations of impersonality centre on two notions", either "the lack of a human agent controlling the depicted situation or event" or "situations or events which may be brought about by a human agent but rucially one which is not specified." The present article focuses on grammatical constructions for situations or events brought about by a non-specified agent in one Iranian language, namely Balochi. It draws upon four Balochi corpuses available to the authors, comprising four different dialects of Balochi and consisting of altogether approximately 130,000 words.

    There are three constructions for a non-specific agent found in the corpus, those with the verb in 3PL, those with the verb in 2SG, and those with a passive verb. It seems that the 3PL construction allows the speaker to distance himself/herself from the event somehow in narrative texts, where the speaker and addressee are not included in the referential framework of this construction. The 2SG construction, on the contrary, allows an unrestricted impersonal interpretation in narrative texts. However, in procedural texts, the 2SG and 3PL constructions are used interchangeably to include the speaker, and probably also the addressee. The 2SG construction in narrative texts and the 2SG and 3PL constructions in procedural texts are open to a truly impersonal interpretation. Thus, the 3PL construction does follow the referential properties described by Siewierska (2008: 14–17) in narrative texts but has wider referential properties in procedural texts. In Balochi, the referential properties of the passive construction seem, on the contrary, not to be as unrestricted as Siewierska (2008: 23) suggests.

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  • 47.
    Jahani, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Barjasteh Delforooz, Behrooz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Nourzaei, Maryam
    University of Olum va Tahqiqat, Fars, Iran.
    Non-canonical Subjects in Balochi2012In: Iranian Languages and Culture: Essays in Honor of Gernot Ludwig Windfuhr / [ed] Behrad Aghaei, M.R. Ghanoonparvar, Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers , 2012, p. 196-218Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several of the world’s languages, it has been observed that there is one ‘canonical’ and another ‘non-canonical’ marking of subjects. The common ‘canonical’ markings of the subject are nominative for a non-ergative language and agentive (or ergative) for an ergative language. ‘Non-canonical’ markings could be, e.g., genitive, dative, or locative.

    Van Valin (2006: 684) makes a distinction between ‘experiencers’ and ‘purposeful instigators’ or ‘agents’ and finds that “[i]n many languages ... subjects that are experiencers appear in the dative case, whereas those that are willful instigators appear in the nominative or ergative case”. It seems to me in English, ça me plaît in French, me gusta in Spanish, and es fehlt mir in German are all examples of constructions with a dative experiencer.

    Case studies of non-canonical subjects have been carried out on a variety of languages, including several languages on the Indian Subcontinent belonging to different language families, and thus spoken in the same greater linguistic area as Balochi, e.g., Hindi-Urdu (Davison 2004), Bangla (also called Bengali) (Dasgupta 2004, Onishi 2001), Gujarati (Mistry 2004), Nepali, Kashmiri and other languages of the Himalayas (Bickel 2004), Kannada (Amritavalli 2004), Malayalam (Jayaseelan 2004) and Tamil (Lakshmi Bai 2004).

    Information on non-canonical subject constructions are found in various grammatical descriptions of Iranian languages (see, e.g., Lazard 1992: 111‒112, Jahani and Korn 2009: 666, Edelman and Dodykhudoeva 2009: 804‒805). Haig (2008) discusses non-canonical subjects in Iranian languages from a diachronic perspective, particularly their role in the emergence of ergativity in the past temporal field. He also presents constructions with a non-canonical subject for one specific Kurdish dialect, Badīnānī (Haig 2008: 257‒263). There are also a number of theoretical studies on Persian that deal with, among other constructions, non-canonical subject constructions, e.g., Barjasteh (1983) and Sedighi (2001).

    The language under study here, Balochi, belongs to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is spoken in south-eastern Iran, south-western Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, as well as in the UAE, Oman and other places on the Arabian Peninsula, in Turkmenistan, in India and in East Africa. It is generally classified as a North-Western Iranian language, although the strict borderline between North-Western and South-Western Iranian languages has recently been questioned by Paul (see, e.g., Paul 2003: 71) and Korn (see, e.g., Korn 2003, 2005: 329‒330).

    The aim of this article is to describe and classify constructions with a non-canonical subject in three Balochi corpora available to the authors, namely Behrooz Barjasteh Delforooz’s corpus of tales and life stories from Iranian and Afghan Sistan (BS), Maryam Nourzaei’s corpus of tales, a life story and a procedural text in Koroshi, a dialect of Balochi spoken by scattered communities in Fars and other south-eastern provinces of Iran (BK), and Carina Jahani’s corpus of modern short stories from Pakistan (BP). These three corpora comprise approximately 90 000 words.

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  • 48.
    Jahani, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology, Asian and African Languages and Cultures, Iranian languages.
    Kargar, DariushUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology, Asian and African Languages and Cultures, Iranian languages.
    Manuscript, Text and Literature. Author: Bo Utas: Collected Essays on Middle and New Persian Texts.2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present volume comprises part of Bo Utas' extensive scholarship on Persian literature. The articles included in the book are: * On the composition of the Ayyātkār-ī Zarērān * Non-religious Book Pahlavi literature as a source to the history of Central Asia * Jang u āštī: War and peace in Iran * The manuscript tradition of Miṣbāḥ ul-arvāḥ and the application of the stemmatic method to New Persian texts * The Munjājāt or Ilāhī-nāmah of ‘Abdu'llāh Anṣārī * Towards a computerized method for the construction of stemmas of Persian manuscripts * Some trends in modern Persian literature * Did ‘Adhra remain a virgin? * A journey to the other world according to the Lantern of Spirits * Four entries from a French literary dictionary (in French) * Arabic and Iranian elements in New Persian prosody * ‘Ambiguity’ in the Savāniḥ of Aḥmad Ghazālī * The ardent lover and the virgin - a Greek romance in Muslim lands * The invention of the barbat according to ‘Unsuri's Vamiq-u-‘Adhra * The aesthetic use of New Persian * ‘Genres’ in Persian literature 900-1900

  • 49.
    Jahani, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology, Asian and African Languages and Cultures, Iranian languages.
    Korn, Agnes
    University of Frankfurt-am-Main.
    Balochi2009In: The Iranian languages / [ed] Gernot Windfuhr, London and New York: Routledge , 2009, p. 634-692Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Balochi (Bal.) is spoken in south-western Pakistan, in the province of Balochistan as well as by smaller populations in Punjab and Sindh and by a large number of people in Karachi. It is also spoken in south-eastern Iran, in the province of Sistan and Baluchistan and by Baloch who have settled in the north-eastern provinces of Khorasan and Golestan. It is furthermore spoken by smaller communities in Afghanistan (particularly in the province of Nimruz), in the Gulf States (especially in Oman and the United Arab Emirates), in the Marw / Mari region in Turkmenistan, in India, East Africa, and nowadays also by a considerable number of Baloch in North America, Europe and Australia.

    It is difficult to estimate the total number of Balochi speakers. Central authorities readily underestimate ethnic minorities, while members of ethnicities sometimes do the opposite. Censuses generally ignore the bi‑ or multilingual situation of most speakers. Moreover, large numbers of those who identify as Baloch do not speak the language any more, particularly in the areas bordering Indian languages in Punjab and Sindh, on the one hand, and in Khorasan and Golestan, on the other hand, as well as in East Africa and in the Gulf States. In contrast, Balochi has been retained quite well in Turkmenistan due to the adherence to a traditional rural lifestyle and the generally low level of education. The total number of speakers of Balochi has been estimated as being between 5-8 million (Jahani 2001: 59), but might also be somewhat higher than that. 

    The chapter is a description of the various dialects of Balochi, their phonology, morphology and syntax. It also provides two short glossed samples of Balochi.

  • 50.
    Jahani, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Korn, Agnes
    Grammaticalisation in the verb system in Iranian languages2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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