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  • 1. Aguirre, A.
    et al.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Piedra-Malagon, E. M.
    Cruz-Ortega, R.
    Dirzo, R.
    Morphological variation in the flowers of Jacaratia mexicana A. DC. (Caricaceae), a subdioecious tree2009In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 417-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Caricaceae is a small family of tropical trees and herbs in which most species are dioecious. In the present study, we extend our previous work on dioecy in the Caricaceae, characterising the morphological variation in sexual expression in flowers of the dioecious tree Jacaratia mexicana. We found that, in J. mexicana, female plants produce only pistillate flowers, while male plants are sexually variable and can bear three different types of flowers: staminate, pistillate and perfect. To characterise the distinct types of flowers, we measured 26 morphological variables. Our results indicate that: (i) pistillate flowers from male trees carry healthy-looking ovules and are morphologically similar, although smaller than, pistillate flowers on female plants; (ii) staminate flowers have a rudimentary, non-functional pistil and are the only flowers capable of producing nectar; and (iii) perfect flowers produce healthy-looking ovules and pollen, but have smaller ovaries than pistillate flowers and fewer anthers than staminate flowers, and do not produce nectar. The restriction of sexual variation to male trees is consistent with the evolutionary path of dioecy from hermaphrodite ancestors through the initial invasion of male-sterile plants and a subsequent gradual reduction in female fertility in cosexual individuals (gynodioecy pathway), but further work is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  • 2. Aguirre, A.
    et al.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Salazar-Goroztieta, L.
    Arias, D. M.
    Dirzo, R.
    Variation in sexual expression in Jacaratia mexicana (Caricaceae) in southern Mexico: Frequency and relative seed performance of fruit-producing males2007In: Biotropica, ISSN 0006-3606, E-ISSN 1744-7429, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioecy, the segregation of male and female structures among individuals, is widespread in tropical plants, encompassing 10-30 percent of species in some sites. In many cases, interindividual sex separation is not complete, as individual plants, although nominally dioecious, may produce both types of reproductive structures. A common form of this sexual variation is the production of female structures in otherwise male individuals, commonly referred to as fruiting males. Here we report the existence of fruiting males in the dioecious tropical tree Jacaratia mexicana (Caricaceae). We show that fruiting males can constitute up to 45 percent of all males in some populations of a tropical forest in Southern Mexico. In order to determine the functional significance of fruiting males for the breeding system of J. mexicana, we compared the relative performance of male- and female-borne seeds. Our results show that seeds from fruiting males are three times less likely to germinate and survive than seeds from female trees. Based on relative seed fitness data, and sex ratios in natural populations, we estimate that 6-15 percent of the genes contributed by fruiting males to the next generation are transmitted via ovules, meaning that morphological variation in gender is at least partially accompanied by functional gender variation. Finally, our seed fitness estimates for fruiting males suggest that fruiting males will not replace female plants in natural populations.

  • 3. Amer, M.
    et al.
    Tyler, A.
    Fouda, T.
    Hunter, P.
    Elmetwalli, A.
    Wilson, C.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Spectral characteristics for estimation heavy metals accumulation in wheat plants and grain2017In: Scientific Papers-Series Management Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants would the start with step of a metal's pathway starting with the dirt on heterotrophic creatures for example, such that animals and humans, thus the substance from claiming metallic follow components for eatable parts of a plant representable accessible load of these metals that might enter those natural way of life through plants. Around metal elements, Cu and Zn would micro nutrients as they are essential in trace concentrations for physiological processes in plants. Furthermore consequently would a critical part from the soil-plant-food continuum. Therefor this study aimed to analysing the performance of multivariate hyperspectral vegetation indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in estimating the accumulation of these elements in plant dry mutter and the final product of Egyptian wheat crop irrigated with high concentrations of Zn and Cu. We applied five concentrations for each element (0.05, 20, 40, 100, and 150 ppm of Zn) and (0.02, 8, 10, 12, and 15 ppm of Cu) to a controlled greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of these concentrations on plant spectral characteristics and study the possibility of using spectroradiometry measurements for identifying the grain content of these metals. The results demonstrated that The hyperspectral vegetation indices had a potential for monitoring Zn concentration in the plant dry matter. NPCI and PSSR had a highest correlation with Cu phytoaccumulation into the grains with highest significant level (P-Value < 0.01) and (r) values (-0.39, -0.42).

  • 4.
    Anderson, Bruce
    et al.
    Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch Univ., Cape Town, South Africa..
    Pannell, John
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Billiard, Sylvain
    University Lille, CNRS, UMR 8198 – Evo-Eco-Paleo, 59000 Lille, France..
    Burgarella, Concetta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    de Boer, Hugo
    Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, 0318 Oslo, Norway..
    Dufay, Mathilde
    CEFE, University Montpellier, CNRS, University Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, Ephe, IRD, Montpellier, France..
    Helmstetter, Andrew J.
    FRB – CESAB, 5 Rue de l’École de Médecine, 34000 Montpellier, France..
    Méndez, Marcos
    Area of Biodiversity and Conservation, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain..
    Otto, Sarah P.
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Roze, Denis
    IRL 3614, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Station Biologique de Roscoff, 29688 Roscoff Cedex, France..
    Sauquet, Hervé
    National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.;Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Schoen, Daniel
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada..
    Schönenberger, Jürg
    Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria..
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana
    Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0225, USA..
    Käfer, Jos
    Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive UMR 5558, 69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Glemin, Sylvain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. CNRS, Ecosystèmes Biodiversité Evolution (Université de Rennes), 35000 Rennes, France.
    Opposing effects of plant traits on diversification2023In: iScience, E-ISSN 2589-0042, Vol. 26, no 4, article id 106362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species diversity can vary dramatically across lineages due to differences in speciation and extinction rates. Here, we explore the effects of several plant traits on diversification, finding that most traits have opposing effects on diversification. For example, outcrossing may increase the efficacy of selection and adaptation but also decrease mate availability, two processes with contrasting effects on lineage persistence. Such opposing trait effects can manifest as differences in diversification rates that depend on ecological context, spatiotemporal scale, and associations with other traits. The complexity of pathways linking traits to diversification suggests that the mechanistic underpinnings behind their correlations may be difficult to interpret with any certainty, and context dependence means that the effects of specific traits on diversification are likely to differ across multiple lineages and timescales. This calls for taxonomically and context-controlled approaches to studies that correlate traits and diversification.

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  • 5. Arroyo-Correa, Blanca
    et al.
    Beattie, Ceit Elisabeth
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Biological and Environmental Sciences , School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling , Stirling FK9 4LA , UK.
    Bee and floral traits affect the characteristics of the vibrations experienced by flowers during buzz-pollination2019In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 222, no 4, article id 198176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During buzz pollination, bees use their indirect flight muscles to produce vibrations that are transmitted to the flowers and result in pollen release. Although buzz pollination has been known for >100 years, we are still in the early stages of understanding how bee and floral characteristics affect the production and transmission of floral vibrations. Here, we analysed floral vibrations produced by four closely related bumblebee taxa (Bombus spp.) on two buzz-pollinated plants species (Solanum spp.). We measured floral vibrations transmitted to the flower to establish the extent to which the mechanical properties of floral vibrations depend on bee and plant characteristics. By comparing four bee taxa visiting the same plant species, we found that peak acceleration, root mean-squared acceleration (RMS) and frequency vary between bee taxa, but that neither bee size (intertegular distance) nor flower biomass (dry mass) affects peak acceleration, RMS or frequency. A comparison of floral vibrations of two bee taxa visiting flowers of two plant species showed that, while bee species affects peak acceleration, RMS and frequency, plant species only affects acceleration (peak acceleration and RMS), not frequency. When accounting for differences in the transmission of vibrations across the two types of flower, using a species-specific ‘coupling factor’, we found that RMS acceleration and peak displacement do not differ between plant species. This suggests that bees produce the same initial acceleration in different plants but that transmission of these vibrations through the flower is affected by floral characteristics.

  • 6. Baduel, Pierre
    et al.
    Bray, Sian
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Kolář, Filip
    Yant, Levi
    The “polyploid hop”: shifting challenges and opportunities over the evolutionary lifespan of genome duplications2018In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 6, no 117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The duplication of an entire genome is no small affair. Whole genome duplication (WGD) is a dramatic mutation with long-lasting effects, yet it occurs repeatedly in all eukaryotic kingdoms. Plants are particularly rich in documented WGDs, with recent and ancient polyploidization events in all major extant lineages. However, challenges immediately following WGD, such as the maintenance of stable chromosome segregation or detrimental ecological interactions with diploid progenitors, commonly do not permit establishment of nascent polyploids. Despite these immediate issues some lineages nevertheless persist and thrive. In fact, ecological modeling commonly supports patterns of adaptive niche differentiation in polyploids, with young polyploids often invading new niches and leaving their diploid progenitors behind. In line with these observations of polyploid evolutionary success, recent work documents instant physiological consequences of WGD associated with increased dehydration stress tolerance in first-generation autotetraploids. Furthermore, population genetic theory predicts both short- and long-term benefits of polyploidy and new empirical data suggests that established polyploids may act as “sponges” accumulating adaptive allelic diversity. In addition to their increased genetic variability, introgression with other tetraploid lineages, diploid progenitors, or even other species, further increases the available pool of genetic variants to polyploids. Despite this, the evolutionary advantages of polyploidy are still questioned, and the debate over the idea of polyploidy as an evolutionary dead-end carries on. Here we broadly synthesize the newest empirical data moving this debate forward. Altogether, evidence suggests that if early barriers are overcome, WGD can offer instantaneous fitness advantages opening the way to a transformed fitness landscape by sampling a higher diversity of alleles, including some already preadapted to their local environment. This occurs in the context of intragenomic, population genomic, and physiological modifications that can, on occasion, offer an evolutionary edge. Yet in the long run, early advantages can turn into long-term hindrances, and without ecological drivers such as novel ecological niche availability or agricultural propagation, a restabilization of the genome via diploidization will begin the cycle anew.

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  • 7. Barrett, S. C. H.
    et al.
    Ness, R. W.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Evolutionary pathways to self-fertilization in a tristylous plant species2009In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 183, no 3, p. 546-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    P>Evolutionary transitions from outcrossing to selfing occur commonly in heterostylous genera. The morphological polymorphisms that characterize heterostyly provide opportunities for different pathways for selfing to evolve. Here, we investigate the origins and pathways by which selfing has evolved in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata by providing new evidence based on morphology, DNA sequences and genetic analysis. The primary pathway from outcrossing to selfing involves the stochastic loss of the short-styled morph (S-morph) from trimorphic populations, followed by the spread of selfing variants of the mid-styled morph (M-morph). However, the discovery of selfing variants of the long-styled morph (L-morph) in Central America indicates a secondary pathway and distinct origin for selfing. Comparisons of multi-locus nucleotide sequences from 27 populations sampled from throughout the geographical range suggest multiple transitions to selfing. Genetic analysis of selfing variants of the L- and M-morphs demonstrates recessive control of the loss of herkogamy, although the number of factors appears to differ between the forms. Early stages in the establishment of selfing involve developmental instability in the formation of flowers capable of autonomous self-pollination. The relatively simple genetic control of herkogamy reduction and frequent colonizing episodes may often create demographic conditions favouring transitions to selfing in E. paniculata. New Phytologist (2009) 183: 546-556doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02937.x.

  • 8.
    Brito, Vinicius Lourenço Garcia
    et al.
    Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38405-315 Brazil..
    Pereira Nunes, Carlos Eduardo
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, StirlingFK9 4LA, UK..
    Resende, Caique Rocha
    Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38405-315 Brazil..
    Montealegre-Zapata, Fernando
    School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN67DL, UK..
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, StirlingFK9 4LA, UK.
    Biomechanical properties of a buzz-pollinated flower2020In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 7, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately half of all bee species use vibrations to remove pollen from plants with diverse floral morphologies. In many buzz-pollinated flowers, these mechanical vibrations generated by bees are transmitted through floral tissues, principally pollen-containing anthers, causing pollen to be ejected from small openings (pores or slits) at the tip of the stamen. Despite the importance of substrate-borne vibrations for both bees and plants, few studies to date have characterized the transmission properties of floral vibrations. In this study, we use contactless laser vibrometry to evaluate the transmission of vibrations in the corolla and anthers of buzz-pollinated flowers of Solanum rostratum, and measure vibrations in three spatial axes. We found that floral vibrations conserve their dominant frequency (300 Hz) as they are transmitted throughout the flower. We also found that vibration amplitude at anthers and petals can be up to greater than 400% higher than input amplitude applied at the receptacle at the base of the flower, and that anthers vibrate with a higher amplitude velocity than petals. Together, these results suggest that vibrations travel differently through floral structures and across different spatial axes. As pollen release is a function of vibration amplitude, we conjecture that bees might benefit from applying vibrations in the axes associated with higher vibration amplification.

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  • 9. Cooley, Hazel
    et al.
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling. Stirling , Scotland , UK.
    Buzz-pollinated crops: A global review and meta-analysis of the effects of supplemental bee pollination in tomato2021In: Journal of Economic Entomology, ISSN 0022-0493, E-ISSN 1938-291X, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 505-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buzz-pollinated plants require visitation from vibration producing bee species to elicit full pollen release. Several important food crops are buzz-pollinated including tomato, eggplant, kiwi, and blueberry. Although more than half of all bee species can buzz pollinate, the most commonly deployed supplemental pollinator, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae; honey bees), cannot produce vibrations to remove pollen. Here, we provide a list of buzz-pollinated food crops and discuss the extent to which they rely on pollination by vibration-producing bees. We then use the most commonly cultivated of these crops, the tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), as a case study to investigate the effect of different pollination treatments on aspects of fruit quality. Following a systematic review of the literature, we statistically analyzed 71 experiments from 24 studies across different geopolitical regions and conducted a meta-analysis on a subset of 21 of these experiments. Our results show that both supplemental pollination by buzz-pollinating bees and open pollination by assemblages of bees, which include buzz pollinators, significantly increase tomato fruit weight compared to a no-pollination control. In contrast, auxin treatment, artificial mechanical vibrations, or supplemental pollination by non-buzz-pollinating bees (including Apis spp.), do not significantly increase fruit weight. Finally, we compare strategies for providing bee pollination in tomato cultivation around the globe and highlight how using buzz-pollinating bees might improve tomato yield, particularly in some geographic regions. We conclude that employing native, wild buzz pollinators can deliver important economic benefits with reduced environmental risks and increased advantages for both developed and emerging economies.

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  • 10. Da Re, Daniele
    et al.
    Olivares, Angel P
    Smith, William
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Biological and Environmental Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK.
    Global analysis of ecological niche conservation and niche shift in exotic populations of monkeyflowers (Mimulus guttatus, M. luteus) and their hybrid (M. × robertsii)2020In: Plant Ecology & Diversity, ISSN 1755-0874, E-ISSN 1755-1668, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 133-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Hybridisation associated with biological invasions may generate new phenotypic combinations, allowing hybrids to occupy new ecological niches. To date, few studies have assessed niche shifts associated with hybridisation in recently introduced populations while simultaneously characterising the niche of parental species in both native and introduced ranges.

    Aims Here, we compared (1) the ecological niche of a novel hybrid monkeyflower,M. xrobertsii, with the niches of its two parental taxa (M. guttatus, M. luteus), and (2) the ecological niches of native (Americas) and introduced parental populations (Europe and New Zealand).

    Methods We assembled >13,000 geo-referenced occurrence records and eight environmental variables and conducted an ecological niche model analysis using maximum entropy, principal component and niche dynamics analysis.

    Results We found no evidence of niche shift in the hybrid, which may result in potential competition between parental and derived taxa in the introduced range.M. guttatusshowed niche conservatism in introduced populations in Europe, but a niche shift in New Zealand, whileM. luteusshowed a niche shift in Europe.

    Conclusions The comparison of native and non-native populations of parental taxa, suggests that whether invasions result in niche shifts or not depends on both taxon and geographic region, highlighting the idiosyncratic nature of biological invasions.

  • 11. De Luca, P. A.
    et al.
    Buchmann, S.
    Galen, C.
    Mason, A. C.
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Biological & Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Does body size predict the buzz-pollination frequencies used by bees?2019In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 4875-4887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body size is an important trait linking pollinators and plants. Morphological matching between pollinators and plants is thought to reinforce pollinator fidelity, as the correct fit ensures that both parties benefit from the interaction. We investigated the influence of body size in a specialized pollination system (buzz-pollination) where bees vibrate flowers to release pollen concealed within poricidal stamens. Specifically, we explored how body size influences the frequency of buzz-pollination vibrations. Body size is expected to affect frequency as a result of the physical constraints it places on the indirect flight muscles that control the production of floral vibrations. Larger insects beat their wings less rapidly than smaller-bodied insects when flying, but whether similar scaling relationships exist with floral vibrations has not been widely explored. This is important because the amount of pollen ejected is determined by the frequency of the vibration and the displacement of a bee's thorax. We conducted a field study in three ecogeographic regions (alpine, desert, grassland) and recorded flight and floral vibrations from freely foraging bees from 27 species across four families. We found that floral vibration frequencies were significantly higher than flight frequencies, but never exceeded 400Hz. Also, only flight frequencies were negatively correlated with body size. As a bee's size increased, its buzz ratio (floral frequency/flight frequency) increased such that only the largest bees were capable of generating floral vibration frequencies that exceeded double that of their flight vibrations. These results indicate size affects the capacity of bees to raise floral vibration frequencies substantially above flight frequencies. This may put smaller bees at a competitive disadvantage because even at the maximum floral vibration frequency of 400Hz, their inability to achieve comparable thoracic displacements as larger bees would result in generating vibrations with lower amplitudes, and thus less total pollen ejected for the same foraging effort.

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  • 12. De Luca, P. A.
    et al.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    What's the 'buzz' about? The ecology and evolutionary significance of buzz-pollination2013In: Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 429-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many plant species have evolved floral characteristics that restrict pollen access. Some of these species are visited by insects, principally bees, which make use of vibrations to extract pollen from anthers. Buzz-pollination, as this phenomenon is generally known, is a widespread method of fertilization for thousands of species in both natural and agricultural systems. Despite its prevalence in pollination systems, the ecological and evolutionary conditions that favour the evolution of buzz-pollination are poorly known. We briefly summarize the biology of buzz-pollination and review recent studies on plant and pollinator characteristics that affect pollen removal. We suggest that buzz-pollination evolves as the result of an escalation in the competition between plants and pollen-consuming floral visitors (including pollen thieves and true pollinators) to control the rate of pollen removal from flowers.

  • 13. De Luca, Paul A.
    et al.
    Bussiere, Luc F.
    Souto-Vilaros, Daniel
    Goulson, Dave
    Mason, Andrew C.
    Vallejo-Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Variability in bumblebee pollination buzzes affects the quantity of pollen released from flowers2013In: Oecologia, Vol. 172, no 3, p. 805-816Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. De Luca, Paul A.
    et al.
    Cox, Darryl A.
    Vallejo-Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Comparison of pollination and defensive buzzes in bumblebees indicates species-specific and context-dependent vibrations2014In: Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 101, no 4, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. De Luca, Paul Anthony
    et al.
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Blooms and buzzing bees: Bridging buzz pollination and biotremology2022In: Biotremology: Physiology, Ecology and Evolution / [ed] Peggy S. M. Hill, Valerio Mazzoni, Nataša Stritih-Peljhan, Meta Virant-Doberlet, Andreas Wessel, Berlin: Springer Nature, 2022, p. 261-292Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16. Eckert, Christopher G.
    et al.
    Kalisz, Susan
    Geber, Monica A.
    Sargent, Risa
    Elle, Elizabeth
    Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier
    Goodwillie, Carol
    Johnston, Mark O.
    Kelly, John K.
    Moeller, David A.
    Porcher, Emmanuelle
    Ree, Richard H.
    Vallejo-Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Winn, Alice A.
    Plant mating systems in a changing world2010In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. In Press, Corrected ProofArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence that human disturbance can negatively impact plant-pollinator interactions such as outcross pollination. We present a meta-analysis of 22 studies involving 27 plant species showing a significant reduction in the proportion of seeds outcrossed in response to anthropogenic habitat modifications. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of disturbance on plant mating systems, and in particular whether reproductive assurance through selfing effectively compensates for reduced outcrossing. The extent to which disturbance reduces pollinator versus mate availability could generate diverse selective forces on reproductive traits. Investigating how anthropogenic change influences plant mating will lead to new opportunities for better understanding of how mating systems evolve, as well as of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of human activities and how to mitigate them.

  • 17. Edger, P. P.
    et al.
    Smith, R.
    McKain, M. R.
    Cooley, A. M.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Yuan, Y.
    Bewick, A. J.
    Ji, L.
    Platts, A. E.
    Bowman, M. J.
    Childs, K. L.
    Washburn, J. D.
    Schmitz, R. J.
    Smith, G. D.
    Pires, J. C.
    Puzey, J. R.
    Subgenome dominance in an interspecific hybrid, synthetic allopolyploid, and a 140-Year-old naturally established neo-allopolyploid monkeyflower2017In: Plant Cell, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 2150-2167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that one of the parental subgenomes in ancient polyploids is generally more dominant, having retained more genes and being more highly expressed, a phenomenon termed subgenome dominance. The genomic features that determine how quickly and which subgenome dominates within a newly formed polyploid remain poorly understood. To investigate the rate of emergence of subgenome dominance, we examined gene expression, gene methylation, and transposable element (TE) methylation in a natural, <140-year-old allopolyploid (Mimulus peregrinus), a resynthesized interspecies triploid hybrid (M. robertsii), a resynthesized allopolyploid (M. peregrinus), and progenitor species (M. guttatus and M. luteus). We show that subgenome expression dominance occurs instantly following the hybridization of divergent genomes and significantly increases over generations. Additionally, CHH methylation levels are reduced in regions near genes and within TEs in the first-generation hybrid, intermediate in the resynthesized allopolyploid, and are repatterned differently between the dominant and recessive subgenomes in the natural allopolyploid. Subgenome differences in levels of TE methylation mirror the increase in expression bias observed over the generations following hybridization. These findings provide important insights into genomic and epigenomic shock that occurs following hybridization and polyploid events and may also contribute to uncovering the mechanistic basis of heterosis and subgenome dominance.

  • 18. Goodwillie, Carol
    et al.
    Sargent, Risa D.
    Eckert, Christopher G.
    Elle, Elizabeth
    Geber, Monica A.
    Johnston, Mark O.
    Kalisz, Susan
    Moeller, David A.
    Ree, Richard H.
    Vallejo-Marin, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Winn, Alice A.
    Correlated evolution of mating system and floral display traits in flowering plants and its implications for the distribution of mating system variation2010In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 185, p. 311-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New Phytologist (2009)  Reduced allocation to structures for pollinator attraction is predicted in selfing species. We explored the association between outcrossing and floral display in a broad sample of angiosperms. We used the demonstrated relationship to test for bias against selfing species in the outcrossing rate distribution, the shape of which has relevance for the stability of mixed mating.  Relationships between outcrossing rate, flower size, flower number and floral display, measured as the product of flower size and number, were examined using phylogenetically independent contrasts. The distribution of floral displays among species in the outcrossing rate database was compared with that of a random sample of the same flora.  The outcrossing rate was positively associated with the product of flower size and number; individually, components of display were less strongly related to outcrossing. Compared with a random sample, species in the outcrossing rate database showed a deficit of small floral display sizes.  We found broad support for reduced allocation to attraction in selfing species. We suggest that covariation between mating systems and total allocation to attraction can explain the deviation from expected trade-offs between flower size and number. Our results suggest a bias against estimating outcrossing rates in the lower half of the distribution, but not specifically against highly selfing species.

  • 19. Goulson, D.
    et al.
    Park, K. J.
    Tinsley, M. C.
    Bussiere, L. F.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Social learning drives handedness in nectar-robbing bumblebees2013In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 67, no 7, p. 1141-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bumblebees have been found to observe and copy the behaviour of others with regard to floral choices, particularly when investigating novel flower types. They can also learn to make nectar-robbing holes in flowers as a result of encountering them. Here, we investigate handedness in nectar-robbing bumblebees feeding on Rhinanthus minor, a flower that can be robbed from either the right-hand side or the left-hand side. We studied numerous patches of R. minor spread across an alpine landscape; each patch tended to be robbed on either the right or the left. The intensity of side bias increased through the season and was strongest in the most heavily robbed patches. We suggest that bees within patches learn robbing strategies (including handedness) from one another, either by direct observation or from experience with the location of holes, leading to rapid frequency-dependent selection for a common strategy. Primary robbing was predominantly carried out not only by a specialist robbing species, Bombus wurflenii, but also by Bombus lucorum, a widespread generalist. Both species adopted the same handedness within particular flower patches, providing the first evidence for social learning crossing the species boundary in wild insects.

  • 20.
    Helmstetter, Andrew J.
    et al.
    Fondation pour la recherche sur la biodiversité—CEntre de Synthèse et d'Analyse sur la Biodiversité Montpellier France.
    Zenil‐Ferguson, Rosana
    Department of Biology University of Kentucky Lexington Kentucky USA.
    Sauquet, Hervé
    National Herbarium of New South Wales Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust Sydney New South Wales Australia;Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences University of New South Wales Sydney Australia.
    Otto, Sarah P.
    Department of Zoology University of British Columbia Vancouver British Columbia Canada.
    Méndez, Marcos
    Area of Biodiversity and Conservation Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Móstoles Madrid Spain.
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Schönenberger, Jürg
    Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research University of Vienna Vienna Austria.
    Burgarella, Concetta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Anderson, Bruce
    Department of Botany and Zoology University of Stellenbosch Matieland South Africa.
    de Boer, Hugo
    Natural History Museum University of Oslo Oslo Norway.
    Glemin, Sylvain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. CNRS, Ecosystèmes Biodiversité Evolution (Université de Rennes) Rennes France.
    Käfer, Jos
    Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive UMR 5558 Villeurbanne France;DIADE, Université de Montpellier, IRD, CIRAD Montpellier France.
    Trait‐dependent diversification in angiosperms: Patterns, models and data2023In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 640-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in species richness across the tree of life, accompanied by the incredible variety of ecological and morphological characteristics found in nature, has inspired many studies to link traits with species diversification. Angiosperms are a highly diverse group that has fundamentally shaped life on earth since the Cretaceous, and illustrate how species diversification affects ecosystem functioning. Numerous traits and processes have been linked to differences in species richness within this group, but we know little about their relative importance and how they interact. Here, we synthesised data from 152 studies that used state-dependent speciation and extinction (SSE) models on angiosperm clades. Intrinsic traits related to reproduction and morphology were often linked to diversification but a set of universal drivers did not emerge as traits did not have consistent effects across clades. Importantly, SSE model results were correlated to data set properties - trees that were larger, older or less well-sampled tended to yield trait-dependent outcomes. We compared these properties to recommendations for SSE model use and provide a set of best practices to follow when designing studies and reporting results. Finally, we argue that SSE model inferences should be considered in a larger context incorporating species' ecology, demography and genetics.

  • 21.
    Huang, Wen
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Wuhan Bot Garden, Key Lab Aquat Bot & Watershed Ecol, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Conservat Biol, Core Bot Gardens, Wuhan 430074, Peoples R China..
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Inouye, David W.
    Rocky Mt Biol Labs, POB 519, Crested Butte, CO 81224 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Biol, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Yang, Chun-Feng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Wuhan Bot Garden, Key Lab Aquat Bot & Watershed Ecol, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Conservat Biol, Core Bot Gardens, Wuhan 430074, Peoples R China..
    Ye, Zhong-Ming
    Chinese Acad Sci, Wuhan Bot Garden, Key Lab Aquat Bot & Watershed Ecol, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Conservat Biol, Core Bot Gardens, Wuhan 430074, Peoples R China..
    Bumblebees' flower preferences are associated with floral abundance and buzz frequency when buzz-pollinating co-flowering plants2024In: Entomologia generalis, ISSN 0171-8177, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buzz-pollination is used by some bees to expel pollen through vibrating flowers. Yet, little is known about the determinants influencing bee preferences among buzz-pollinated flowers. We studied five co-flowering, nectarless species of Pedicularis (Orobanchaceae) buzz-pollinated by bumblebees in an alpine meadow, to investigate bumblebees' flower preferences in response to fluctuations of floral abundance across five years. We also recorded and analyzed the buzzing frequencies produced by the three dominant bumblebee specie. Our results indicate that Bombus friseanus and B. lepidus visited different Pedicularis flowers using similar buzz frequencies and displayed an abundance-dependent flower preference across years. These two bumblebee species had staggered phenologies with distinct timing of peak abundances across the five years. In contrast, B. festivus used lower fundamental buzz frequencies, had a constant flower preference across years, but used different buzz frequencies across Pedicularis species. Although the amount of pollen released after bumblebee visitation varied across Pedicularis species, we found that after a single visit all bumblebees deposited similar amounts of pollen on stigmas. Our study indicates that bumblebees' flower preferences is sometimes, but not always, modulated by floral abundance, and that at least one bumblebee species was observed to produce buzzes of different frequencies in different plant species. Competition for floral resources among bumblebees and for pollination services among co-flowering Pedicularis species may structure plant-pollinator interactions and affect species coexistence.

  • 22. Johnston, M. O.
    et al.
    Porcher, E.
    Cheptou, P. O.
    Eckert, C. G.
    Elle, E.
    Geber, M. A.
    Kalisz, S.
    Kelly, J. K.
    Moeller, D. A.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Winn, A. A.
    Correlations among fertility components can maintain mixed mating in plants2009In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 173, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classical models studying the evolution of self-fertilization in plants conclude that only complete selfing and complete outcrossing are evolutionarily stable. In contrast with this prediction, 42% of seed-plant species are reported to have rates of self-fertilization between 0.2 and 0.8. We propose that many previous models fail to predict intermediate selfing rates because they do not allow for functional relationships among three components of reproductive fitness: self-fertilized ovules, outcrossed ovules, and ovules sired by successful pollen export. Because the optimal design for fertility components may differ, conflicts among the alternative pathways to fitness are possible, and the greatest fertility may be achieved with some self-fertilization. Here we develop and analyze a model to predict optimal selfing rates that includes a range of possible relationships among the three components of reproductive fitness, as well as the effects of evolving inbreeding depression caused by deleterious mutations and of selection on total seed number. We demonstrate that intermediate selfing is optimal for a wide variety of relationships among fitness components and that inbreeding depression is not a good predictor of selfing-rate evolution. Functional relationships subsume the myriad effects of individual plant traits and thus offer a more general and simpler perspective on mating system evolution.

  • 23. Kemp, Jurene Ellen
    et al.
    Telles, Francismeire Jane
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Reduced visitation to buzz-pollinated Cyanella hyacinthoides in the presence of other pollen sources in the hyperdiverse Cape Floristic Region2022In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 12, no 4, article id e8784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many plant species have floral morphologies that restrict access to floral resources, such as pollen or nectar, and only a subset of floral visitors can perform the handling behaviors required to extract restricted resources. Due to the time and energy required to extract resources from morphologically complex flowers, these plant species potentially compete for pollinators with co-flowering plants that have more easily accessible resources. A widespread floral mechanism restricting access to pollen is the presence of tubular anthers that open through small pores or slits (poricidal anthers). Some bees have evolved the capacity to remove pollen from poricidal anthers using vibrations, giving rise to the phenomenon of buzz-pollination. These bee vibrations that are produced for pollen extraction are presumably energetically costly, and to date, few studies have investigated whether buzz-pollinated flowers may be at a disadvantage when competing for pollinators' attention with plant species that present unrestricted pollen resources. Here, we studied Cyanella hyacinthoides (Tecophilaeaceae), a geophyte with poricidal anthers in the hyperdiverse Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, to assess how the composition and relative abundance of flowers with easily accessible pollen affect bee visitation to a buzz-pollinated plant. We found that the number of pollinator species of C. hyacinthoides was not influenced by community composition. However, visitation rates to C. hyacinthoides were reduced when the relative abundances of flowers with more accessible resources were high. Visitation rates were strongly associated with petal color, showing that flower color is important in mediating these interactions. We conclude that buzz-pollinated plants might be at a competitive disadvantage when many easily accessible pollen sources are available, particularly when competitor species share its floral signals.

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  • 24. Kemp, Jurene Ellen
    et al.
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom, FK9 4LA.
    Pollen dispensing schedules in buzz-pollinated plants: Experimental comparison of species with contrasting floral morphologies2021In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 108, no 6, p. 993-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise Plants can mitigate the fitness costs associated with pollen consumption by floral visitors by optimizing pollen release rates. In buzz-pollinated plants, bees apply vibrations to remove pollen from anthers with small pores. These poricidal anthers potentially function as mechanism staggering pollen release, but this has rarely been tested across plant species differing in anther morphology.

    Methods In Solanum Section Androceras, three pairs of buzz-pollinated species have undergone independent evolutionary shifts between large- and small-flowers, which are accompanied by replicate changes in anther morphology. We used these shifts in anther morphology to characterize the association between anther morphology and pollen dispensing schedules. We applied simulated bee-like vibrations to anthers to elicit pollen release, and compared pollen dispensing schedules across anther morphologies. We also investigated how vibration velocity affects pollen release.

    Results Replicate transitions in Solanum anther morphology are associated with consistent changes in pollen dispensing schedules. We found that small-flowered taxa release their pollen at higher rates than their large-flowered counterparts. Higher vibration velocities resulted in quicker pollen dispensing and more total pollen released. Finally, both the pollen dispensing rate and the amount of pollen released in the first vibration were negatively related to anther wall area, but we did not observe any association between pore size and pollen dispensing.

    Conclusions Our results provide the first empirical demonstration that the pollen dispensing properties of poricidal anthers depend on both floral characteristics and bee vibration properties. Morphological modification of anthers could thus provide a mechanism to exploit different pollination environments.

  • 25. Kinser, Taliesin J
    et al.
    Smith, Ronald D
    Lawrence, Amelia H
    Cooley, Arielle M
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Univ Stirling, Fac Nat Sci, Biol & Environm Sci, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland..
    Conradi Smith, Gregory D
    Puzey, Joshua R
    Endosperm-based incompatibilities in hybrid monkeyflowers2021In: The Plant Cell, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 2235-2257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endosperm is an angiosperm innovation central to their reproduction whose development, and thus seed viability, is controlled by genomic imprinting, where expression from certain genes is parent-specific. Unsuccessful imprinting has been linked to failed inter-specific and inter-ploidy hybridization. Despite their importance in plant speciation, the underlying mechanisms behind these endosperm-based barriers remain poorly understood. Here, we describe one such barrier between diploid Mimulus guttatus and tetraploid Mimulus luteus. The two parents differ in endosperm DNA methylation, expression dynamics, and imprinted genes. Hybrid seeds suffer from underdeveloped endosperm, reducing viability, or arrested endosperm and seed abortion when M. guttatus or M. luteus is seed parent, respectively, and transgressive methylation and expression patterns emerge. The two inherited M. luteus subgenomes, genetically distinct but epigenetically similar, are expressionally dominant over the M. guttatus genome in hybrid embryos and especially their endosperm, where paternal imprints are perturbed. In aborted seeds, de novo methylation is inhibited, potentially owing to incompatible paternal instructions of imbalanced dosage from M. guttatus imprints. We suggest that diverged epigenetic/regulatory landscapes between parental genomes induce epigenetic repatterning and global shifts in expression, which, in endosperm, may uniquely facilitate incompatible interactions between divergent imprinting schemes, potentially driving rapid barriers.

  • 26. Lafon-Placette, C.
    et al.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Parisod, C.
    Abbott, R. J.
    Kohler, C.
    Current plant speciation research: unravelling the processes and mechanisms behind the evolution of reproductive isolation barriers2016In: New Phytologist, Vol. 209, no 1, p. 29-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Marcelo, Vanessa G
    et al.
    de Brito, Vinícius LG
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Department of Biological andEnvironmental Sciences, Faculty ofNatural Sciences, University of Stirling,Stirling, UK.
    Consolaro, Hélder
    Andromonoecy in Solanum lycocarpum A. St.‐Hil.(Solanaceae): Floral attributes, visitors and variation in sexual expression over time2021In: Plant Species Biology, ISSN 0913-557X, E-ISSN 1442-1984, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 308-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual expression in andromonoecious species-those in which a single individual can bear both staminate and hermaphroditic flowers-may vary among reproductive events in the same plant, among individuals and across populations. This variation influences, in turn, the individual contribution of hermaphroditic plants via male and female fitness functions (i.e., Lloyd & apos;s phenotypic gender). However, temporal variation in sexual expression in andromonoecious species and its relationship with seasonal changes in climatic conditions remain poorly understood. Here we analyze floral attributes, visitors and variation in sexual expression in three populations of Solanum lycocarpum A. St. -Hil. Seasonality in the production of floral types, the mating system and floral visitors were also investigated. Hermaphroditic flowers produced more pollen grains, but the pollen of staminate flowers had higher viability. Only hermaphroditic flowers produced fruits, and ovules in staminate flowers were sterile. Solanum lycocarpum is mainly pollinated by large bees with the ability to vibrate flowers. Phenotypic gender varied throughout the year, and the seasonal production of staminate flowers is associated with the local climate. We suggest that the higher and seasonally variable relative abundance of staminate flowers compared to the low and uniform production of hermaphroditic flowers may be explained by (a) the very high energetic costs incurred in producing large fruits, which in turn make hermaphroditic flower production very costly, and (b) the potentially lower energy expenditure of the smaller staminate flowers with reduced pistils and non-viable ovules that allow them to rapidly respond to climate variability.

  • 28. Meeus, Sofie
    et al.
    Šemberová, Kristýna
    De Storme, Nico
    Geelen, Danny
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences. University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK.
    Effect of whole-genome duplication on the evolutionary rescue of sterile hybrid monkeyflowers2020In: Plant Communications, Vol. 1, no 6, article id 100093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybridization is a creative evolutionary force, increasing genomic diversity and facilitating adaptation and even speciation. Hybrids often face significant challenges to establishment, including reduced fertility that arises from genomic incompatibilities between their parents. Whole-genome duplication in hybrids (allopolyploidy) can restore fertility, cause immediate phenotypic changes, and generate reproductive isolation. Yet the survival of polyploid lineages is uncertain, and few studies have compared the performance of recently formed allopolyploids and their parents under field conditions. Here, we use natural and synthetically produced hybrid and polyploid monkeyflowers (Mimulus spp.) to study how polyploidy contributes to the fertility, reproductive isolation, phenotype, and performance of hybrids in the field. We find that polyploidization restores fertility and that allopolyploids are reproductively isolated from their parents. The phenotype of allopolyploids displays the classic gigas effect of whole-genome duplication, in which plants have larger organs and are slower to flower. Field experiments indicate that survival of synthetic hybrids before and after polyploidization is intermediate between that of the parents, whereas natural hybrids have higher survival than all other taxa. We conclude that hybridization and polyploidy can act as sources of genomic novelty, but adaptive evolution is key in mediating the establishment of young allopolyploid lineages.

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  • 29. Moczek, A.P.
    et al.
    Sears, K.E.
    Stollewerk, A.
    Wittkopp, P.J.
    Diggle, P.
    Dworkin, I.
    Ledon-Rettig, C.
    Matus, D.Q.
    Roth, S.
    Abouheif, E.
    Brown, F.D.
    Chiu, C.-H.
    Cohen, C.S.
    De Tomaso, A.W.
    Gilbert, S.F.
    Hall, B.
    Love, A.C.
    Lyons, D.C.
    Sanger, T.J.
    Smith, J.
    Specht, C.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Extavour, C.G.
    The significance and scope of evolutionary developmental biology: A vision for the 21st century2015In: Evolution and Development, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 198-219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Moczek, Armin P.
    et al.
    Sears, Karen E.
    Stollewerk, Angelika
    Wittkopp, Patricia J.
    Diggle, Pamela
    Dworkin, Ian
    Ledon-Rettig, Cristina
    Matus, David Q.
    Roth, Siegfried
    Abouheif, Ehab
    Brown, Federico D.
    Chiu, Chi-Hua
    Cohen, C. Sarah
    Tomaso, Anthony W. De
    Gilbert, Scott F.
    Hall, Brian
    Love, Alan C.
    Lyons, Deirdre C.
    Sanger, Thomas J.
    Smith, Joel
    Specht, Chelsea
    Vallejo-Marin, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Extavour, Cassandra G.
    The significance and scope of evolutionary developmental biology: a vision for the 21st century2015In: Evolution & development, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 198-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has undergone dramatic transformations since its emergence as a distinct discipline. This paper aims to highlight the scope, power, and future promise of evo-devo to transform and unify diverse aspects of biology. We articulate key questions at the core of eleven biological disciplines-from Evolution, Development, Paleontology, and Neurobiology to Cellular and Molecular Biology, Quantitative Genetics, Human Diseases, Ecology, Agriculture and Science Education, and lastly, Evolutionary Developmental Biology itself-and discuss why evo-devo is uniquely situated to substantially improve our ability to find meaningful answers to these fundamental questions. We posit that the tools, concepts, and ways of thinking developed by evo-devo have profound potential to advance, integrate, and unify biological sciences as well as inform policy decisions and illuminate science education. We look to the next generation of evolutionary developmental biologists to help shape this process as we confront the scientific challenges of the 21st century.

  • 31. Moeller, D.A.
    et al.
    Briscoe Runquist, R.D.
    Moe, A.M.
    Geber, M.A.
    Goodwillie, C.
    Cheptou, P.-O.
    Eckert, C.G.
    Elle, E.
    Johnston, M.O.
    Kalisz, S.
    Ree, R.H.
    Sargent, R.D.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Winn, A.A.
    Global biogeography of mating system variation in seed plants2017In: Ecology Letters, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 375-384Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Moore, C. Douglas
    et al.
    Univ Stirling, Biol & Environm Sci, Stirling FK9 4LA, England..
    Farman, Dudley I.
    Univ Greenwich, Nat Resources Inst, Chatham ME4 4TB, Kent, England..
    Särkinen, Tiina
    Royal Bot Garden Edinburgh, 20A Inverleith Row, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, Scotland..
    Stevenson, Philip C.
    Univ Greenwich, Nat Resources Inst, Chatham ME4 4TB, Kent, England.;Royal Bot Gardens Kew, Richmond TW9 3AE, Surrey, England..
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Univ Stirling, Biol & Environm Sci, Stirling FK9 4LA, England.
    Floral scent changes in response to pollen removal are rare in buzz-pollinated Solanum2024In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 260, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floral scent influences the recruitment, learning, and behaviour of floral visitors. Variation in floral scent can provide information on the amount of reward available or whether a flower has been visited recently and may be particularly important in species with visually concealed rewards. In many buzz-pollinated flowers, tubular anthers opening via small apical pores (poricidal anthers) visually conceal pollen and appear similar regardless of pollen quantity within the anther. We investigated whether pollen removal changes floral scent composition and emission rate in seven taxa of buzz-pollinated Solanum (Solanaceae). We found that pollen removal reduced both the overall emission of floral scent and the emission of specific compounds (linalool and farnesol) in S. lumholtzianum. Our findings suggest that in six out of seven buzz-pollinated taxa studied here, floral scent could not be used as a signal by visitors as it does not contain information on pollen availability.

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  • 33. Morgan, T.
    et al.
    Whitehorn, P.
    Lye, G. C.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Floral sonication is an innate behaviour in bumblebees that can be fine-tuned with experience in manipulating flowers2016In: Journal of insect behavior, ISSN 0892-7553, E-ISSN 1572-8889, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 233-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bumblebees demonstrate an extensive capacity for learning complex motor skills to maximise exploitation of floral rewards. This ability is well studied in nectar collection but its role in pollen foraging is less well understood. Floral sonication is used by bees to extract pollen from some plant species with anthers which must be vibrated (buzzed) to release pollen. Pollen removal is determined by sonication characteristics including frequency and amplitude, and thus the ability to optimise sonication should allow bees to maximise the pollen collection. We investigated the ability of the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) to modify the frequency and amplitude of their buzzes with increasing experience manipulating flowers of the buzz-pollinated plant Solanum rostratum. We analysed flight and feeding vibrations generated by na < ve workers across feeding bouts. Feeding buzzes were of a higher frequency and a lower amplitude than flight buzzes. Both flight and feeding buzzes had reduced amplitudes with increasing number of foraging trips. However, the frequency of their feeding buzzes was reduced significantly more than their flight buzzes as bumblebee workers gained experience manipulating flowers. These results suggest that bumblebees are able to modify the characteristics of their buzzes with experience manipulating buzz-pollinated flowers. We discuss our findings in the context of bumblebee learning, and the current understanding of the optimal sonication characteristics for releasing pollen in buzz-pollinated species. Our results present a tantalising insight into the potential role of learning in floral sonication, paving the way for future research in this area.

  • 34. Nevard, L.
    et al.
    Russell, A. L.
    Foord, K.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Biological & Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK.
    Transmission of bee-like vibrations in buzz-pollinated plants with different stamen architectures2021In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 13541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In buzz-pollinated plants, bees apply thoracic vibrations to the flower, causing pollen release from anthers, often through apical pores. Bees grasp one or more anthers with their mandibles, and vibrations are transmitted to this focal anther(s), adjacent anthers, and the whole flower. Pollen release depends on anther vibration, and thus it should be affected by vibration transmission through flowers with distinct morphologies, as found among buzz-pollinated taxa. We compare vibration transmission between focal and non-focal anthers in four species with contrasting stamen architectures: Cyclamen persicum, Exacum affine, Solanum dulcamara and S. houstonii. We used a mechanical transducer to apply bee-like vibrations to focal anthers, measuring the vibration frequency and displacement amplitude at focal and non-focal anther tips simultaneously using high-speed video analysis (6000 frames per second). In flowers in which anthers are tightly arranged (C. persicum and S. dulcamara), vibrations in focal and non-focal anthers are indistinguishable in both frequency and displacement amplitude. In contrast, flowers with loosely arranged anthers (E. affine) including those with differentiated stamens (heterantherous S. houstonii), show the same frequency but higher displacement amplitude in non-focal anthers compared to focal anthers. We suggest that stamen architecture modulates vibration transmission, potentially affecting pollen release and bee behaviour.

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  • 35.
    Nevard, Lucy
    et al.
    Biological &amp; Environmental Sciences University of Stirling Stirling UK FK9 4LA.
    Vallejo-Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Stirling Stirling UK FK9 4LA.
    Floral orientation affects outcross‐pollen deposition in buzz‐pollinated flowers with bilateral symmetry2022In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 109, no 10, p. 1568-1578Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Nunes, Carlos Eduardo Pereira
    et al.
    Nevard, Lucy
    Montealegre-Zapata, Fernando
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Variation in the natural frequency of stamens in six morphologically diverse, buzz-pollinated, heterantherous Solanum taxa and its relationship to bee vibrations2021In: Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4074, E-ISSN 1095-8339, Vol. 197, no 4, p. 541-553Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Pantoja, Pauline O.
    et al.
    Paine, C. E. Timothy
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK.
    Natural selection and outbreeding depression suggest adaptive differentiation in the invasive range of a clonal plant2018In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 285, no 1882, article id 20181091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses of phenotypic selection and demography in field populations are powerful ways to establishing the potential role of natural selection in shaping evolution during biological invasions. Here we use experimental F2 crosses between native and introduced populations of Mimulus guttatus to estimate the pattern of natural selection in part of its introduced range, and to seek evidence of outbreeding depression of colonists. The F2s combined the genome of an introduced population with the genome of either native or introduced populations. We found that the introduced × introduced cross had the fastest population growth rate owing to increased winter survival, clonality and seed production. Our analysis also revealed that selection through sexual fitness favoured large floral displays, large vegetative and flower size, lateral spread and early flowering. Our results indicate a source-of-origin effect, consistent with outbreeding depression exposed by mating between introduced and native populations. Our findings suggest that well-established non-native populations may pay a high fitness cost during subsequent bouts of admixture with native populations, and reveal that processes such as local adaptation in the invasive range can mediate the fitness consequences of admixture.

  • 38. Pantoja, Pauline O.
    et al.
    Simón-Porcar, Violeta I.
    Puzey, Joshua R.
    Vallejo-Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Genetic variation and clonal diversity in introduced populations of Mimulus guttatus assessed by genotyping at 62 single nucleotide polymorphism loci2017In: Plant Ecology & Diversity, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 5-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are increasingly being used to study non-native populations. SNPs are relatively information poor on a per locus basis, but allow genotyping more loci than others markers (e.g., microsatellites) and have the advantage of consistent allele calls between studies.Aims: We investigated the utility of a newly developed set of SNP markers, suitable for high throughput genotyping to characterise genotypic variation and population structure in non-native populations of the facultative clonal herb Mimulus guttatus in the United Kingdom (UK).Methods: We analysed 62 SNP markers and using a high throughput platform genotyped 383 individuals from 10 populations from the native range in North America and 14 populations in the UK.Results: We found wide variation in genotypic diversity within UK populations, indicating reproductive strategies that vary from mostly clonal to mostly sexual. All but one UK population were, on average, more closely related to each other than to North American populations, and the exceptional UK population showed strong affinity to native Alaskan plants.Conclusions: A small number of SNPs can detect patterns of clonality and broad-scale relationships between native and introduced populations. However, elucidating population structure at a finer scale will require genotyping individuals at greater depth.

  • 39. Pereira Nunes, Carlos Eduardo
    et al.
    Vallejo-Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom.
    How Much Pollen Do Beelike Floral Vibrations Remove from Different Types of Anthers?2022In: International journal of plant sciences, ISSN 1058-5893, E-ISSN 1537-5315, Vol. 183, no 9, p. 768-776Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Pritchard, David J.
    et al.
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK..
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK..
    Buzz pollination2020In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 30, no 15, p. R858-R860Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 41. Pritchard, David J.
    et al.
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences , University of Stirling , Stirling, FK9 4LA , UK.
    Floral vibrations by buzz-pollinating bees achieve higher frequency, velocity and acceleration than flight and defence vibrations2020In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 223, no 11, article id 220541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrations play an important role in insect behaviour. In bees, vibrations are used in a variety of contexts including communication, as a warning signal to deter predators and during pollen foraging. However, little is known about how the biomechanical properties of bee vibrations vary across multiple behaviours within a species. In this study, we compared the properties of vibrations produced by Bombus terrestris audax (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers in three contexts: during flight, during defensive buzzing, and in floral vibrations produced during pollen foraging on two buzz-pollinated plants (Solanum, Solanaceae). Using laser vibrometry, we were able to obtain contactless measures of both the frequency and amplitude of the thoracic vibrations of bees across the three behaviours. Despite all three types of vibrations being produced by the same power flight muscles, we found clear differences in the mechanical properties of the vibrations produced in different contexts. Both floral and defensive buzzes had higher frequency and amplitude velocity, acceleration, and displacement than the vibrations produced during flight. Floral vibrations had the highest frequency, amplitude velocity and acceleration of all the behaviours studied. Vibration amplitude, and in particular acceleration, of floral vibrations has been suggested as the key property for removing pollen from buzz-pollinated anthers. By increasing frequency and amplitude velocity and acceleration of their vibrations during vibratory pollen collection, foraging bees may be able to maximise pollen removal from flowers, although their foraging decisions are likely to be influenced by the presumably high cost of producing floral vibrations.

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  • 42. Puzey, J. R.
    et al.
    Vallejo-Marin, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Genomics of invasion: diversity and selection in introduced populations of monkeyflowers (Mimulus guttatus)2014In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 23, no 18, p. 4472-4485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global trade and travel is irreversibly changing the distribution of species around the world. Because introduced species experience drastic demographic events during colonization and often face novel environmental challenges from their native range, introduced populations may undergo rapid evolutionary change. Genomic studies provide the opportunity to investigate the extent to which demographic, historical and selective processes shape the genomic structure of introduced populations by analysing the signature that these processes leave on genomic variation. Here, we use next-genera tion sequencing to compare genome-wide relationships and patterns of diversity in native and introduced populations of the yellow monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus). Genome resequencing data from 10 introduced populations from the United Kingdom (UK) and 12 native M. guttatus populations in North America (NA) demonstrated reduced neutral genetic diversity in the introduced range and showed that UK populations are derived from a geographic region around the North Pacific. A selective-sweep analysis revealed site frequency changes consistent with selection on five of 14 chromosomes, with genes in these regions showing reduced silent site diversity. While the target of selection is unknown, genes associated with flowering time and biotic and abiotic stresses were located within the swept regions. The future identification of the specific source of origin of introduced UK populations will help determining whether the observed selective sweeps can be traced to unsampled native populations or occurred since dispersal across the Atlantic. Our study demonstrates the general potential of genome-wide analyses to uncover a range of evolutionary processes affecting invasive populations.

  • 43. Rotter, Michael C.
    et al.
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK.
    Holeski, Liza M.
    A test of the evolution of increased competitive ability in two invaded regions2019In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 713-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-native plant species invasions can have significant ecological and economic impacts. Finding patterns that predict and explain the success of non-native species has thus been an important focus in invasion ecology. The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis has been a frequently used framework to understand invasion success. Evolution of increased competitive ability predicts that (1) non-native populations will escape from coevolved specialist herbivores that were present within the native range and this release from specialist herbivores should result in relaxed selection pressure on specialist-related defense traits, (2) there will be a trade-off between allocation of resources for resistance against specialist herbivores and allocation to traits related to competitive ability, and (3) this shift will allow more allocation to competitive ability traits. We tested the predictions of EICA in the model plant Mimulus guttatus, a native of western North America (WNA). We compared how well the predictions of EICA fit patterns in two non-native regions, the United Kingdom (UK), an older more successful invasion, and eastern North America (ENA), a younger less successful invasion. We completed extensive herbivore surveys and grew plants derived from multiple populations in each region in a common greenhouse environment to test adherence to the predictions of EICA. We found evidence of specialist herbivore escape in the UK, but not the ENA plants. Compared to native plants the UK plants had lower levels of resistance traits, were taller, and produced larger and more flowers, while the ENA plants had mostly equivalent traits to the WNA plants. Plants from the UK conformed to the predictions of EICA more closely than those from ENA. The UK invasion is an older, more successful invasion, suggesting that support for EICA predictions may be highest in more successful invasions.

  • 44. Rouger, R.
    et al.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Jump, A. S.
    Development and cross- species amplification of microsatellite loci for Puccinellia maritima, an important engineer saltmarsh species2014In: Genetics and Molecular Research, ISSN 1676-5680, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 3426-3431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The grass Puccinellia maritima is an important saltmarsh ecosystem engineer exhibiting wide morphological variation, which is partially genetically determined. Nevertheless, nothing is known about its population genetics or how neutral genetic variation is distributed throughout its geographical range. Here, we describe 12 polymorphic microsatellites pooled into two multiplexes for this octoploid species. Assessment of 24 samples from three populations revealed 4 to 29 alleles per locus, with variation in allele presence and abundance between populations. The transferability of these markers is reported based on their cross-amplification in six other Puccinellia species of different ploidy levels.

  • 45. Runemark, A.
    et al.
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK.
    Meier, J. I.
    Eukaryote hybrid genomes2019In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 15, no 11, article id 1008404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interspecific hybridization is the process where closely related species mate and produce offspring with admixed genomes. The genomic revolution has shown that hybridization is common, and that it may represent an important source of novel variation. Although most interspecific hybrids are sterile or less fit than their parents, some may survive and reproduce, enabling the transfer of adaptive variants across the species boundary, and even result in the formation of novel evolutionary lineages. There are two main variants of hybrid species genomes: allopolyploid, which have one full chromosome set from each parent species, and homoploid, which are a mosaic of the parent species genomes with no increase in chromosome number. The establishment of hybrid species requires the development of reproductive isolation against parental species. Allopolyploid species often have strong intrinsic reproductive barriers due to differences in chromosome number, and homoploid hybrids can become reproductively isolated from the parent species through assortment of genetic incompatibilities. However, both types of hybrids can become further reproductively isolated, gaining extrinsic isolation barriers, by exploiting novel ecological niches, relative to their parents. Hybrids represent the merging of divergent genomes and thus face problems arising from incompatible combinations of genes. Thus hybrid genomes are highly dynamic and undergo rapid evolutionary change, including genome stabilization in which selection against incompatible combinations results in fixation of compatible ancestry block combinations within the hybrid species. The potential for rapid adaptation or speciation makes hybrid genomes a particularly exciting subject of in evolutionary biology. Here we summarize how introgressed alleles or hybrid species can establish and how the resulting hybrid genomes evolve.

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  • 46. Schouppe, D.
    et al.
    Brys, R.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jacquemyn, H.
    Geographic variation in floral traits and the capacity of autonomous selfing across allopatric and sympatric populations of two closely related Centaurium species2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floral traits and the relative contribution of autonomous selfing to total seed set varies geographically and is often driven by the availability and abundance of suitable pollinators and/or the presence of co-flowering relatives. In the latter case, competition for pollinator services and costs of hybridization can select for floral traits that reduce interspecific gene flow and contribute to prezygotic isolation, potentially leading to geographic variation in floral divergence between allopatric and sympatric populations. In this study, we investigated variation in floral traits and its implications on the capacity of autonomous selfing in both allopatric and sympatric populations of two closely related Centaurium species (Gentianaceae) across two distinct geographic regions (UK and mainland Europe). Although the magnitude and direction of floral differentiation varied between regions, sympatric populations were always significantly more divergent in floral traits and the capacity to self autonomously than allopatric populations. These results indicate that mating systems can vary substantially within a species and that the joint occurrence of plant species can have a major impact on floral morphology and capacity of autonomous selfing, most likely as a way to reduce the probability of interspecific interference.

  • 47. Simón-Porcar, Violeta I.
    et al.
    Silva, Jose L.
    Meeus, Sofie
    Higgins, James D.
    Vallejo-Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Recent autopolyploidization in a naturalized population of Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae)2017In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 185, no 2, p. 189-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyploidization can trigger rapid changes in morphology, ecology and genomics even in the absence of associated hybridization. However, disentangling the immediate biological consequences of genome duplication from the evolutionary change that subsequently accumulates in polyploid lineages requires the identification and analysis of recently formed polyploids. We investigated the incidence of polyploidization in introduced populations of Mimulus guttatus in the UK and report the discovery of a new mixed diploid-autopolyploid population in the Shetland Isles. We conducted a genetic analysis of six Shetland populations to investigate whether tetraploid individuals may have originated from local diploid plants and compared the morphology of tetraploids and local diploids to assess the phenotypic consequences of genome duplication. Autotetraploids are genetically close to sympatric diploids, suggesting that they have originated locally. Phenotypically, whole genome duplication has resulted in clear differences between ploidies, with tetraploids showing delayed phenology and larger flowers, leaves and stems than diploids. Our results support the hypothesis that novel evolutionary lineages can rapidly originate via polyploidization. The newly discovered autopolyploidization event in a non-native Mimulus population provides an opportunity to investigate the early causes and consequences of polyploidization in the wild.

  • 48. Simón-Porcar, Violeta I
    et al.
    Silva, Jose L
    Vallejo-Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling , Scotland FK9 4LA, UK.
    Rapid local adaptation in both sexual and asexual invasive populations of monkeyflowers (Mimulus spp.)2021In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 127, no 5, p. 655-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims Traditionally, local adaptation has been seen as the outcome of a long evolutionary history, particularly with regard to sexual lineages. By contrast, phenotypic plasticity has been thought to be most important during the initial stages of population establishment and in asexual species. We evaluated the roles of adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity in the invasive success of two closely related species of invasive monkeyflowers (Mimulus) in the UK that have contrasting reproductive strategies: M. guttatus combines sexual (seeds) and asexual (clonal growth) reproduction while M.xrobertsii is entirely asexual.

    Methods We compared the clonality (number of stolons), floral and vegetative phenotype, and phenotypic plasticity of native (M. guttatus) and invasive (M. guttatus and M.xrobertsii) populations grown in controlled environment chambers under the environmental conditions at each latitudinal extreme of the UK. The goal was to discern the roles of temperature and photoperiod on the expression of phenotypic traits. Next, we tested the existence of local adaptation in the two species within the invasive range with a reciprocal transplant experiment at two field sites in the latitudinal extremes of the UK, and analysed which phenotypic traits underlie potential local fitness advantages in each species.

    Key Results Populations of M. guttatus in the UK showed local adaptation through sexual function (fruit production), while M.xrobertsii showed local adaptation via asexual function (stolon production). Phenotypic selection analyses revealed that different traits are associated with fitness in each species. Invasive and native populations of M. guttatus had similar phenotypic plasticity and clonality. M.xrobertsii presents greater plasticity and clonality than native M. guttatus, but most populations have restricted clonality under the warm conditions of the south of the UK.

    Conclusions This study provides experimental evidence of local adaptation in a strictly asexual invasive species with high clonality and phenotypic plasticity. This indicates that even asexual taxa can rapidly (<200 years) adapt to novel environmental conditions in which alternative strategies may not ensure the persistence of populations.

  • 49. Solis-Montero, L.
    et al.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Does the morphological fit between flowers and pollinators affect pollen deposition? An experimental test in a buzz-pollinated species with anther dimorphism2017In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 8, p. 2706-2715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some pollination systems, such as buzz-pollination, are associated with floral morphologies that require a close physical interaction between floral sexual organs and insect visitors. In these systems, a pollinator's size relative to the flower may be an important feature determining whether the visitor touches both male and female sexual organs and thus transfers pollen between plants efficiently. To date, few studies have addressed whether in fact the fit between flower and pollinator influences pollen transfer, particularly among buzz-pollinated species. Here we use Solanum rostratum, a buzz-pollinated plant with dimorphic anthers and mirror-image flowers, to investigate whether the morphological fit between the pollinator's body and floral morphology influences pollen deposition. We hypothesized that when the size of the pollinator matches the separation between the sexual organs in a flower, more pollen should be transferred to the stigma than when the visitor is either too small or too big relative to the flower. To test this hypothesis, we exposed flowers of S.rostratum with varying levels of separation between sexual organs, to bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) of different sizes. We recorded the number of visits received, pollen deposition, and fruit and seed production. We found higher pollen deposition when bees were the same size or bigger than the separation between anther and stigma within a flower. We found a similar, but not statistically significant pattern for fruit set. In contrast, seed set was more likely to occur when the size of the flower exceeded the size of the bee, suggesting that other postpollination processes may be important in translating pollen receipt to seed set. Our results suggest that the fit between flower and pollinator significantly influences pollen deposition in this buzz-pollinated species. We speculate that in buzz-pollinated species where floral morphology and pollinators interact closely, variation in the visitor's size may determine whether it acts mainly as a pollinator or as a pollen thief (i.e., removing pollen rewards but contributing little to pollen deposition and fertilization).

  • 50. Solis-Montero, L.
    et al.
    Vergara, C. H.
    Vallejo-Marin, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    High incidence of pollen theft in natural populations of a buzz-pollinated plant2015In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 599-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 20,000 angiosperm species possess non-dehiscent anthers that open through small pores at the anther's tip. These flowers are visited by bees that use vibrations to remove pollen, a phenomenon known as buzz pollination. However, some floral visitors fail to transfer pollen efficiently, either through a mismatch of flower and insect size, or because they are unable to buzz-pollinate. These visitors collect pollen, but provide little or no pollination, behaving as pollen thieves. Although pollen theft is widespread in plants, few studies have quantified the incidence of pollen thieves for buzz-pollinated plants. We use observations of natural populations and floral manipulations of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae) to investigate the incidence of pollen theft, find morphological and behavioural differences between pollinators and thieves, measure the pollination efficiency of visitors, and characterize the reproductive ecology of this herb. We found that most visitors act as thieves, with < 20 % of all bees contacting the stigma. Insect visitors that regularly failed to contact the stigma (illegitimate visitors), included buzzing and non-buzzing bees, were significantly smaller, visited fewer flowers per bout, and stayed longer in each flower than (legitimate) visitors that regularly contact the stigma. Few flowers visited solely by illegitimate visitors set fruit. Our results show that S. rostratum requires insect visitation to set seed and natural populations experience moderate pollen limitation. We conclude that insect size, relative to the flower, is the main determinant of whether a visitor acts as a pollinator or a pollen thief in S. rostratum.

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