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  • 1.
    Károly, László
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    An Old Uigur medical fragment in Syriac script2024In: Orientalia Suecana, ISSN 0078-6578, E-ISSN 2001-7324, Vol. 73, p. 28-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Museum of Asian Art in Berlin holds a single-folio fragment (shelf-mark M 152) of an Old Uigur medical text written in the Syriac script. It is the only known manuscript in the entire collection of Old Uigur texts of the Church of the East that deals with medicine. The present article provides a new edition of the fragment including a transliteration, transcription, English translation, commentary and glossary.

  • 2.
    Dahllöf, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Author gender and text characteristics in contemporary Swedish fiction2024In: Language and Literature, ISSN 0963-9470, E-ISSN 1461-7293, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 69-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study addresses the question of to what extent and how authors’ gender is reflected in the textual properties of bestselling fiction in Swedish during the period 2015–2020. The empirical material was a corpus of 235 female-authored books and 214 male-authored works. The analysis of the texts departed from text property measures targeting grammatical and lexical aspects of language use. Differences between the genders were analysed using the probability of superiority measure in combination with a threshold criterion. The results suggest that authors of bestselling fiction in the Swedish book market to a high degree engage in forms of gender performance when they compose their texts. The differences could in most cases be interpreted as conforming to patterns that have previously been reported for other languages and categories of language use. The gender performance to a large extent agreed with traditional stereotypes about the interests of women and men. There were also differences in grammar-related stylistic preferences. Among the female themes, positive emotion and social interaction were prominent. The male examples include weapons and animosity, as well as numerical quantification. A more grammar-related tendency is that male authors tend to package a larger fraction of their text into noun phrases.

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  • 3.
    Cullhed, Eric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS).
    Har tandvärk någon plats i ett gott liv?2024In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 20-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Akita, Kimi
    et al.
    Nagoya Univ, Dept English Linguist, Furo Cho,Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    McLean, Bonnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Park, Jiyeon
    Namseoul Univ, Namseoul Inst Int Educ, 91 Daehak Ro, Cheonan 31020, Chungcheongnam, South Korea..
    Thompson, Arthur Lewis
    Univ Hong Kong, Dept Linguist, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Iconicity mediates semantic networks of sound symbolism2024In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 155, no 4, p. 2687-2697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One speech sound can be associated with multiple meanings through iconicity, indexicality, and/or systematicity. It was not until recently that this “pluripotentiality” of sound symbolism attracted serious attention, and it remains uninvestigated how pluripotentiality may arise. In the current study, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, and English speakers rated unfamiliar jewel names on three semantic scales: size, brightness, and hardness. The results showed language-specific and cross-linguistically shared pluripotential sound symbolism. Japanese speakers associated voiced stops with large and dark jewels, whereas Mandarin speakers associated [i] with small and bright jewels. Japanese, Mandarin, and English speakers also associated lip rounding with darkness and softness. These sound-symbolic meanings are unlikely to be obtained through metaphorical or metonymical extension, nor are they reported to colexify. Notably, in a purely semantic network without the mediation of lip rounding, softness can instead be associated with brightness, as illustrated by synesthetic metaphors such as yawaraka-na hizashi /jawaɾakanaçizaɕi/ “a gentle (lit. soft) sunshine” in Japanese. These findings suggest that the semantic networks of sound symbolism may not coincide with those of metaphor or metonymy. The current study summarizes the findings in the form of (phono)semantic maps to facilitate cross-linguistic comparisons of pluripotential sound symbolism.

  • 5.
    de Heer, Mervi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Modern Languages, Finno-Ugric Languages.
    Blokland, Rogier
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Modern Languages, Finno-Ugric Languages.
    Dunn, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Vesakoski, Outi
    University of Turku Department of Biology Turku Finland;University of Turku Department of Finnish language and Finno-Ugric linguistics Turku Finland.
    Loanwords in Basic Vocabulary as an Indicator of Borrowing Profiles2024In: Journal of Language Contact : Evolution of Languages, ISSN 1877-4091, E-ISSN 1955-2629, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 54-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Loanwords carry information on linguistic interactions, and can also reveal (pre-)historicalpopulation contacts. The contact history of a particular language family is an essential component of historical linguistics, but it is also illuminating for integrative studies of the human past. However, data availability and the time-consuming nature of etymology mean that comprehensive research on loanword layers exists for relatively few languages, forcing us to rely on limited material for others. This paper compares the loanword layers in the basic and total vocabulary of six well-studied Uralic languages, assessing how accurately the borrowing profile in basic vocabulary reflects the full profile of a language. We define “borrowing profile” as the known contact history of a language reflected by its loanword layers. We demonstrate that the loanword layers in basic vocabulary provide an adequate cross-section of the full borrowing profile, although basic vocabulary manifests prehistoric contacts more strongly than more recent contacts.

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  • 6.
    Hällzon, Patrick
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Slavist Turkol & Zirkumbalt Studien, Mainz, Germany.
    Ötkür, Zulhayat
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Ståhlberg, Sabira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies.
    Making the most of scarce biological resources in the desert: Loptuq material culture in Eastern Turkestan around 19002024In: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, E-ISSN 1746-4269, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Most fisher-gatherer communities we know of utilized a limited number of natural resources for their livelihood. The Turkic-speaking Loptuq (exonym Loplik, Loplyk) in the Lower Tarim River basin, Taklamakan desert, Eastern Turkestan (Xinjiang), were no exception. Their habitat, the Lop Nor marsh and lake area, was surrounded by desert and very poor in plant species; the Loptuq had to make the most of a handful of available biological resources for housing, furniture, clothing and fabric, fishnets and traps, tools and other equipment. The taxa used by the Loptuq were documented by foreign explorers at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries, prior to the forced resettlement of the group in the 1950s and subsequent destruction of their language, lifestyle and culture.

    Methods and sources

    Ethnobiology explores the relationship between humans and their environment, including the use of biological resources for different purposes. In several aspects, historical ethnobiology is more challenging; it studies this relationship in the past and therefore cannot verify results with informants. As the present study discusses an extinct culture on the basis of literary and material sources, we apply a method called source pluralism. This approach allows the inclusion and combination of a wide range of data and materials, even scraps of information from various sources, with the aim to understand phenomena which are sparsely mentioned in historical records.

    Travel reports by Swedish, British, German, American and Russian explorers together with linguistic data provide the most important sources for understanding Loptuq interaction with the environment and its biota. Especially the large number of toponyms and phytonyms recorded by the Swedish explorer Sven Hedin and materials from his expeditions, including voucher specimens kept in Stockholm in the herbarium of the Swedish Natural History Museum, and objects of material culture in the collections of the Ethnographical Museum, are crucial for our analysis about local knowledge among the Loptuq. Illustrations and photographs provide us with additional information.

    Results

    The question of how the Loptuq managed to survive at the fringe of a desert, a marsh and a lake which changed its location, intrigued all foreign visitors to the Lop Nor. The Loptuq’s main livelihood was fishing, hunting and gathering, and their material culture provided by plants and other organic materials included their usage, consumption and trade. Only a handful of species formed the basis of the Loptuq material culture, but they had learned to use these specific plants for a variety of purposes. The most important of these were Lop hemp, Poacynum pictum (Schrenk) Baill., the riparian tree Euphrates poplar, Populus euphratica Olivier, and the aquatic common reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Several species of tamarisk were used for fuel and building fences. A few plants were also harvested for making foodstuffs such as snacks and potherbs. In addition, the Loptuq also used fur, bird skins, down, feathers, mammal bones and fish bones for their material needs. The habitat provided cultural ecological services such as motifs for their folklore, linguistic expressions and songs, and the Loptuq engaged in small-scale bartering of plant products and furs with itinerant traders, which ensured them with a supply of metal for making tools.

    Conclusion

    This article discusses the now extinct Loptuq material culture as it existed more than a hundred years ago, and how the scarce biological resources of their desert and marsh habitat were utilized. Loptuq adaptation strategies to the environment and local knowledge, transmitted over generations, which contributed to their survival and subsistence, were closely connected with the use of biological resources.

    For this study, a comprehensive approach has been adopted for the complex relationships between human, biota and landscape. The Loptuq are today largely ignored or deleted from history for political reasons and are seldom, if at all, mentioned in modern sources about the Lop Nor area. Their experience and knowledge, however, could be useful today, in a period of rapid climate change, for others living in or at the fringe of expanding deserts.

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  • 7.
    Sjökvist, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Uppsala University, University Library.
    On Literary Spoils of War in Private Libraries.: The Case of Rålamb at Länna Gård2024In: Biblioteka, ISSN 1506-3615, no 27 (36), p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Dong, Guojun
    et al.
    Bate, Andrew
    Haguinet, François
    Westman, Gabriel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Dürlich, Luise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Department of Computer Science, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Kista, Sweden.
    Hviid, Anders
    Sessa, Maurizio
    Optimizing Signal Management in a Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: A Proof-of-Concept with COVID-19 Vaccines Using Signs, Symptoms, and Natural Language Processing2024In: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 173-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionThe Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) has already been challenged by an extreme increase in the number of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) after the market introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Evidence from scientific literature suggests that when there is an extreme increase in the number of ICSRs recorded in spontaneous reporting databases (such as the VAERS), an accompanying increase in the number of disproportionality signals (sometimes referred to as ‘statistical alerts’) generated is expected.

    ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to develop a natural language processing (NLP)-based approach to optimize signal management by excluding disproportionality signals related to listed adverse events following immunization (AEFIs). COVID-19 vaccines were used as a proof-of-concept.

    MethodsThe VAERS was used as a data source, and the Finding Associated Concepts with Text Analysis (FACTA+) was used to extract signs and symptoms of listed AEFIs from MEDLINE for COVID-19 vaccines. Disproportionality analyses were conducted according to guidelines and recommendations provided by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. By using signs and symptoms of listed AEFIs, we computed the proportion of disproportionality signals dismissed for COVID-19 vaccines using this approach. Nine NLP techniques, including Generative Pre-Trained Transformer 3.5 (GPT-3.5), were used to automatically retrieve Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms (MedDRA PTs) from signs and symptoms extracted from FACTA+.

    ResultsOverall, 17% of disproportionality signals for COVID-19 vaccines were dismissed as they reported signs and symptoms of listed AEFIs. Eight of nine NLP techniques used to automatically retrieve MedDRA PTs from signs and symptoms extracted from FACTA+ showed suboptimal performance. GPT-3.5 achieved an accuracy of 78% in correctly assigning MedDRA PTs.

    ConclusionOur approach reduced the need for manual exclusion of disproportionality signals related to listed AEFIs and may lead to better optimization of time and resources in signal management.

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  • 9.
    Dahllöf, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Orden som avslöjar författaren2024In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, Vol. 3, p. 55-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Jing, Yingqi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Widmer, Paul
    University of Zurich.
    Bickel, Balthasar
    University of Zurich.
    Word order evolves at similar rates in main and subordinate clauses: Corpus-based evidence from Indo-European2024In: Diachronica, ISSN 0176-4225, E-ISSN 1569-9714, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 532-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In syntactic change, it remains an open issue whether word orders are more conservative or innovative in subordinate clauses compared with main clauses. Using 47 dependency-annotated corpora and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, we explore the evolution of S/V, V/O, and S/O orders across main and subordinate clauses in Indo-European. Our results reveal similar rates of change across clause types, with no evidence for any inherent conservatism of subordinate or main clauses. Our models also support evolutionary biases towards SV, VO, and SO orders, consistent with theories of dependency length minimization that favor verb-medial orders and with theories of a subject preference that favor SO orders. Finally, our results show that while the word order in the proto-language cannot be estimated with any reasonable degree of certainty, the early history of the family was dominated by a moderate preference for SVO orders, with substantial uncertainty between VO and OV orders in both main and subordinate clauses.

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  • 11.
    Wessler, Heinz Werner
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    12. Welt-Hindi-Konferenz2023In: Literaturforum Indien, , p. 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Wessler, Heinz Werner
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    75 Jahre Menschenrechte: Die Feststimmung bleibt aus2023In: Herder Korrespondenz, ISSN 0018-0645Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Pedersén, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    A brick in Sargon’s wall in Babylon2023In: N.A.B.U., ISSN 0989-5671, no 74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Burman, Annie C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    A Digital Concordance of Etruscan, Faliscan, and Early Latin Inscriptions from Etruria2023In: Etruscan and Italic Studies, ISSN 2566-9095, Vol. 26, no 1-2, p. 86-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigraphic concordances (lists which give corresponding references for two or more epigraphic corpora) are an indispensable resource for any scholar whose work relates to inscriptions. Despite their usefulness, there are inherent issues with conventional concordances of the type found at the back of epigraphic corpora. This article presents a digital concordance for Etruscan, Faliscan and early Latin inscriptions from Etruria. The concordance, which is contained in a CSV file, is downloadable from the repository Zenodo, and allows for both free-text searches and reordering according to each included corpus. The digital format allows for future revision and correction; an email address dedicated to feedback from the scholarly community has been set up. The corpora included in the concordance are chosen to make the concordance a comprehensive resource for both contemporary scholarly use and study of the history of epigraphy.

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  • 15.
    Wessler, Heinz Werner
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Adventslängtan och den ekologiska vändningen2023In: Signum : katolsk orientering om kyrka, kultur, samhälle, ISSN 0347-0423Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Dahlén, Ashk
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Arier och iranier: ett språkhistoriskt perspektiv2023In: Hellenika, ISSN 0348-0100, no 183, p. 7-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Iranier är beteckning på medborgarna i den moderna nationalstaten Iran, men termen används också om talare av iranska språk. De iranska språken tillhör den iranska grenen av den indoeuropeiska språkgruppen och är besläktade med de germanska språken, däribland svenska och engelska. Att de indoeuropeiska språken har ett gemensamt ursprung är särskilt tydligt rörande ordförrådet men de har även likartad grammatik och likartade ljudsystem. De iranska språken kommer från ett uriranskt språk som talades över ett vidsträckt område på den eurasiska stäppen för omkring 3800 år sedan. Den äldsta iranska litteraturen som vi känner till är Gāthā (Sånger), ett diktverk som författades av filosofen Zarathustra omkring 1500 f.v.t. på avestiska. Till de viktigaste nutida iranska språken hör persiska, pashto, kurmanji, sorani, balochiska och ossetiska, vilka talas på olika platser i ett bälte mellan östra Turkiet och norra Syrien i väster till Tadzjikistan och norra Pakistan i öster, och mellan Nordossetien och Uzbekistan i norr och Iran i söder. Persiska är i dag det största iranska språket och har officiell status i Iran, Afghanistan och Tadzjikistan. Nationsnamnet Persien härstammar, via grekiskans Persís, från fornpersiskans Pārsa, vilket är namnet på persernas ursprungliga område i nuvarande södra Iran. Ordet Pārsa lever kvar i provinsnamnet Fārs med Shiraz som huvudort.

    Folkbeteckningen ”iranier” härstammar etymologiskt sett från avestiskans airiia (”arier, iranier”) i betydelsen ”ädel, ädling”. Forniranierna och deras indoariska kusiner, vilka förknippas med den vediska kulturen, använde begreppet arier som etnisk självbenämning. Namnet Iran, ordagrant ”ariernas land”, förekommer för första gången i en avestisk hymn som är tillägnad himlens gud Mithra och härrör från andra årtusendet f.v.t. Författaren talar om att ledarna i iraniernas länder styr över ett mycket stort territorium och beskrivningen tyder på att Iran vid tidpunkten inte var en samlad politisk enhet, utan ett konglomerat av mer eller mindre självständiga stormannavälden. Talarna av de avestiska och fornpersiska språken kallade sig själva ”arier” i betydelsen ”vi, de ädla”. När akemeniderrikets statsbyggare Dareios den store säger att han inte bara är ”en akemenider, en perser, son till en perser”, utan också ”en arier av arisk börd” talar han inte bara om sin aristokratiska släkttavla, utan också om sin etniska tillhörighet. I en inskrift som han lät utfärda i kilskrift på berget Bisutun i västra Iran ber han till sin gud, Den höga visheten (ahura mazda), som han kallar ”ariernas gud”, och lovordar sina egna bragder.

  • 17.
    Oshima, Takayoshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Ancient Studies, Stellenbosch, South Africa..
    attīma nannarat šamê u erṣtim - "You are the light of heaven and earth": A study of two cylinder seals with the goddess in a nimbus from the Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem2023In: Near Eastern archaeology (Atlanta, Ga.), ISSN 1094-2076, E-ISSN 2325-5404, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 102-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an in-depth study of two cylinders seals with the goddess in a nimbus from the Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem. It is commonly accepted that the goddess in a nimbus is Ishtar (Inana in Sumerian), the goddess of love and war. Although Ishtar is one of the best-attested motifs on ancient Mesopotamian seals, the appearance of the goddess surrounded by rays of light—reminiscent of Roman Catholic imagery of the Virgin Mary surrounded by sunshine—is limited primarily to the period between the eighth and seventh centuries BCE. This article offers an insight into the iconography of this mysterious goddess, as well as a glimpse of a small portion of the Bible Lands Museum Seal Collection, probably one of the largest such collections in the world.

  • 18.
    Rattenborg, Rune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Babylon. Den store by: Beretning fra et besøg i Irak2023In: Sfinx, ISSN 0105-7618, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 4-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Wessler, Heinz Werner
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    "Bach för framtiden": 300 år sedan Johan Sebastian Bach blev Thomaskantor2023In: Signum : katolsk orientering om kyrka, kultur, samhälle, ISSN 0347-0423Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Lindgren, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Barns berättande – Valet av material, tillvägagångssätt och typ av bedömning påverkar våra slutsatser om barns berättarförmåga2023In: Svensk Intresseförening för Tal och SpråkArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    På vilket sätt påverkar valet av material, tillvägagångssätt och typ av bedömning våra slutsatsernär vi undersöker barns berättande? Här redogör jag för resultat från studier av svenska barn i ål-dern 4 till 9 år som visar på betydelsen av dessa metodologiska val för vår syn på barns berättar-förmåga, exempelvis när det gäller åldersutveckling och skillnader mellan olika grupper av barn.

  • 21. Bergman, Erik
    et al.
    Dürlich, Luise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Swedish Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, Sweden, Department of Computer Science, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Kista, Sweden.
    Arthurson, Veronica
    Sundström, Anders
    Larsson, Maria
    Bhuiyan, Shamima
    Jakobsson, Andreas
    Westman, Gabriel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Swedish Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    BERT based natural language processing for triage of adverse drug reaction reports shows close to human-level performance2023In: PLOS Digital Health, E-ISSN 2767-3170, Vol. 2, no 12, article id 0000409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-marketing reports of suspected adverse drug reactions are important for establishing the safety profile of a medicinal product. However, a high influx of reports poses a challenge for regulatory authorities as a delay in identification of previously unknown adverse drug reactions can potentially be harmful to patients. In this study, we use natural language processing (NLP) to predict whether a report is of serious nature based solely on the free-text fields and adverse event terms in the report, potentially allowing reports mislabelled at time of reporting to be detected and prioritized for assessment. We consider four different NLP models at various levels of complexity, bootstrap their train-validation data split to eliminate random effects in the performance estimates and conduct prospective testing to avoid the risk of data leakage. Using a Swedish BERT based language model, continued language pre-training and final classification training, we achieve close to human-level performance in this task. Model architectures based on less complex technical foundation such as bag-of-words approaches and LSTM neural networks trained with random initiation of weights appear to perform less well, likely due to the lack of robustness that a base of general language training provides.

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  • 22.
    Nourzaei, Maryam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Otto-Friedrich-Universität, Bamberg, Germany.
    Diachronic development of the K-suffixes: Evidence from Classical New Persian, Contemporary Written Persian and Contemporary Spoken Persian2023In: Iranian Studies, ISSN 0021-0862, E-ISSN 1475-4819, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 115-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the usage and frequency of what we refer to as K-suffixes in ClassicalNew Persian of the ninth to thirteenth centuries, Contemporary Written Persian of the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries, and Contemporary Spoken Persian. It shows that K-suffixes are most likely to be the reflexes of earlier evaluative morphemes, traditionally called “diminutives,” and are characterized by a high degree of multifunctionality. While evaluative functions continue to dominate in the Classical New Persian works, they have largely been lost in contemporary spoken Persian, and the suffix is now systematically used to express definiteness. The development of the K-suffix as a definiteness marker in contemporary colloquial Persian appears to be innovative, and is mainly dependent on genre, speaker, and speech situation.

    Data for Classical New Persian is taken from critical editions of works from the ninth to thirteenth centuries. The data for Contemporary Written Persian comes from comprehensive books of fiction from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries, and for Contemporary Spoken Persian from an extensive corpus of spoken Persian narratives and a questionnaire answered by fifteen speakers. The results suggest that evaluative morphology can develop into definiteness marking, with the development passing through a stage of combination with a deictic marker.

    This paper concludes that the development of definiteness marking can proceed down a new pathway that is different from the one normally assumed for demonstrative-based definite marking, though the endpoint may be similar. The study contributes the second detailed documentation of this process for any Iranian language, and one of the few well-documented cases of a non-demonstrative origin of definiteness marking worldwide.

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  • 23.
    Cullhed, Eric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS).
    Dödssynd med oförtjänt dåligt rykte2023In: Svenska Dagbladet Kultur, Vol. 4, no 23, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Dahlén, Ashk