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  • 151.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bull, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Stenlås, Niklas
    Hasselberg, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Professions under siege2009In: Uppsala Public Management Seminar: Mångvetenskapliga perspektiv på reglering, styrning och ledning av offentlig sektor, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Börjesson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Boberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svenska lärosäten: organisering, finansiering, positionering2022In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 124, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våren 2021 tog riksdagen ställning till den elfte forskningspolitiska propositionen i ordningen, Forskning, frihet, framtid – kunskap och innovation för Sverige (prop. 2020/21:60). Bara genom att studera forskningspropositionernas rubriker kan man enkelt avläsa vilka primära mål sittande regering har med sin forskningspolitik. Förra gången det begav sig stod samverkan högst på agendan. På propositionens 167 sidor nämndes ”samverkan” hela 224 gånger, medan en konkurrent som ”frihet” i stort lyste med sin frånvaro och enbart nämndes sex gånger (prop. 2016/17:50). I den nu aktuella forskningspropositionen har emellertid ”frihet” getts en mer framträdande roll än någonsin tidigare – vilket även framgår av rubriken – och omnämns hela 141 gånger (”samverkan” är dock mer än dubbelt så vanligt) (prop. 2020/21:60). Skälet till att frihetsfrågan fått en så framträdande roll denna gång är förstås de förslag om att föra in akademisk frihet i högskolelagen som Styr- och resursutredningen presenterat i sitt betänkande (”Struten”, se SOU 2019:6). Men hur ska vi förstå denna politiska strävan efter att stärka den akademiska friheten? I detta specialnummer tar vi ett bredare grepp om hur högskolepolitiken utvecklats över tid, och frågar oss vad som utmärker denna frihet. Vem är det som ska ges frihet? Hur ser balansen mellan formell och reell frihet ut? Vad utmärker dem som skänks frihet – oftast lärosätena – och hur skiljer de sig åt?

  • 153.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Hermansson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lena, Wängnerud
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Exit riksdagen2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför lämnar riksdagspolitiker sina uppdrag? Har avhoppen blivit vanligare? Hur påverkar detta riksdagens arbete och politikens utformning?I den här boken argumenterar författarna för att avhoppen indikerar en genomgripande förändring av svensk demokrati. Från att under lång tid ha kännetecknats av att vara en utpräglad partidemokrati, håller Sverige på att omvandlas till en ublikdemokrati. Utmärkande för publikdemokratin är att den befolkas av den politiske entrprenören som politikertyp. Den politiska entreprenören ser som sin uppgift att bryta ny mark - och har, till skillnad från den trogna partiarbetaren, en egen agenda.

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  • 154.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Jungar, Ann-Cathrine
    Svensk elitstyrning skapar maktlöshet2002In: DN debatt 2002-11-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 155.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Jungar, Ann-Cathrine
    Södertörns högskola.
    The Influence of National Parliaments over Domestic European Union Policies2009In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 359-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present survey results on the Swedish and Finnish parliamentarians' perceived influence over domestic decision-making in EU-matters. In the literature the parliaments in Sweden and Finland are classified as powerful parliaments that can exert considerable influence in the domestic EU policy-making. Moreover, Finland and Sweden joined the EU at the same time. Therefore the overall expectation is that the parliaments should be equally powerful. However, the results from our survey indicate a significant difference in perceived influence between the two parliaments. It is obvious that the Swedish parliamentarians perceive themselves as more marginalized in relation to the Government than the Finnish parliamentarians. After having tried different explanations we conclude that the differences can be ascribed to the parliaments' different organisational set-ups for the oversight of the Government.

  • 156.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Karlsson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Replik: Skillnad på ideal och praktik2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 157.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Ledberg Knöchel, Sofia
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Björnehed, Emma
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Professional ambitions and organizational inertia: Analyzing the professionalization projects of the Swedish Military and Police2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the professionalization project of the Swedish military and police and the interplay between profession and organization. Previous literature has suggested that the relationship between professions and organizations are crucial for understanding matters such as organizational change and the development of professional work. Against this background, we start with the assumption that the relationship between professions and organizations is an important variable also for the development and evolvement of professionalization undertakings. We start by mapping ambitions and concrete measures, undertaken from the 1990s onwards, to professionalize these two forces. Following the understanding of professionalization as the scientification of work, we study changes in officer education as well as ambitions to increase the linkage between research and the conduct of professional work. We thereafter analyze to what extent the receiving end has adopted to the input side of these reforms, by studying the importance of scientification when it comes to what knowledge base officers rely on when conducting work; the linkage between scientification and admission, promotion and the status of officers as teachers or researchers. We conclude that there is no immediate correlation between efforts to reform these professional groups and their impact on the organization. Despite similar ambitions by the state, the Swedish military and police have responded differently. We further conclude that for externally initiated professionalization reforms to have an effect, they cannot solely target the professional groups, but also the organization.

  • 158.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Petersson, Olof
    Sverige behöver en oberoende riksrevision1999In: TLM:Thélème, ISSN 1103-8926, no 4, p. 27-33Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om Inga-Britt Ahlenius förordnande håller på att hamna i personfixering medan det grundläggande problemet förblir olöst: Sverige har en alltför svag granskningsmakt. Vi behöver en verkligt oberoende riksrevision. Det skriver Olof Petersson professor i statsvetenskap, och fil dr Shirin Ahlbäck expert på statlig revision.

  • 159.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sundberg, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Avkollegialiseringen av den svenska högskolan2016In: Det hotade universitetet / [ed] Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin, Bennich-Björkman, Li, Hermansson, Jörgen, Karlsson, Christer & Widmalm, Sten, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2016, 1, p. 45-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sundberg, Elin
    Vad har hänt med det kollegiala styret?2017In: Det ostyrda universitetet?: Perspektiv på styrning, autonomi och reform av svenska lärosäten / [ed] Linda Wedlin & Josef Pallas, Stockholm: Makadam Förlag, 2017, 1, p. 91-119Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Förvaltningspolitikens organisering2020In: Statlig förvaltningspolitik för 2020-talet: en forskningsantologi / [ed] Peter Ehn & Göran Sundström, Stockholm: Statskontoret , 2020, p. 237-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 162.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Att göra rätt - även när ingen ser på2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 163.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    NPM på svenska2013In: Patientens pris: Ett reportage om den svenska sjukvården och marknaden / [ed] Maciej Zaremba, Stockholm: Weyler förlag , 2013, p. 122-153Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 164.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Om att göra rätt även när ingen ser på2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Året innan riksdagsvalet 2014 publicerade oppositionsledaren Stefan Löfven debattartikeln ”Välfärdens yrken måste få sin frihet och status åter” (DN debatt 2013-11-15). Inlägget avslutades med: ”Med en socialdemokratisk regering kommer välfärden få större resurser, ett nytt regelverk som sätter människa framför vinst och en ny styrning som utgår från de välfärdsprofessionellas kompetens och yrkesetik.”2 Det är ovanligt för politikens främsta företrädare att så tydligt göra partipolitik av det som vi statsvetare benämner förvaltnings- politik, dvs. idéer och åtgärder riktade mot förvaltningens organisation och arbetssätt (Petersson & Söderlind 1993: 8). Men nu har det alltså skett. Redan en månad efter att socialdemokraterna och miljöpartiet bildat koalitionsregering efter valet 2014 utfärdades ett pressmeddelande från Finansdepartmentet med budskapet ”Ny styrning bortom New Public Management” (23 oktober 2014). Innebörden var sammanfattningsvis att åter ge välfärdens professioner möjlig- het att använda sitt professionella omdöme i sitt arbete, och att utveckla nya styrmodeller för den offentligt finansierade verksamheten (jfr prop. 2014/15:1: 53). Så ser den dagsaktuella förvaltningspolitiska diskussionen ut, och frågan är vad som döljer sig bakom dessa formuleringar. Vad är det i idéerna från New Public Management (NPM) som man vill komma bort ifrån? Kort sagt, vad är det som skapar politisk mobilisering i denna fråga? 

  • 165.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    ”Professionalism nedvärderas i den marknadsstyrda staten”2012In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2012-10-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 166.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Agency Control or Autonomy?: Government Steering of Swedish Government Agencies 2003–20172021In: International Public Management Journal, ISSN 1096-7494, E-ISSN 1559-3169, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 330-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central claim of the NPM doctrine is that public sector organizations will deliver better quality and improve efficiency if managers are given more autonomy in managerial and operational decisions. At the same time the idea is to keep managers under close control, which has led to the introduction of result-control instruments. This balancing strategy is referred to as the paradox of autonomization. There is, however, still scarce knowledge on whether and how the proposed balancing techniques work. Using a unique database on Swedish government agencies this article aims to mitigate this deficiency (N=1752). A balancing strategy is mainly confirmed, since higher managerial and structural autonomy are balanced with more external results control by government. We show that governments’ attempts at more managerial approaches to public service provision in reality add new ex post controls without reducing the old ones. However, policy and financial autonomy are not balanced by increased results control—these dimensions diminish when controlling for budget size. This study is an answer to a general call for more objective measures for evaluating bureaucratic autonomy

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    fulltext
  • 167.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Att handleda och att vara handledd2018In: Vänbok till Jörgen Hermansson / [ed] Johan Tralau & Jenny Jansson, Uppsala: Statsvetenskapliga föreningen , 2018Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 168.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Constitutions and the Application of Public Management Reforms: Formulating a Research Agenda2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since constitutional aspects of public management reforms are rarely debated, scholars and politicians alike end up underestimating two fundamental problems in modern democratic political systems. The first concerns the effects that public management policies may have on power allocation within and outside the public sphere. Here the lack of critical analysis and debate concerns the fact that seemingly technical adjustments of the government’s tool box may end up changing the power allocation among actors vertically as well as horizontally. The second perspective, and the one to be discussed in this paper, concerns the reverse relationship, i.e. how constitutions influence public management policy reforms. The last decades have resulted in a global spread of ideas regarding how governments should manage public authorities and the public sector. In this paper we aim at identifying constitutional variables to explain the variation of how specific public management tools are applied in different contexts.

  • 169.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Government Steering over Two Decades: A Large-N comparison2016In: RC27 Structure and Organization of Government: Panel:  RC27.05 Out of Control or over Controlled? Incentives, Audits and New Public Management, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The post-NPM debate on government control of state authorities is un-decisive in both problem description and in terms of suggested remedies. ‘Wicked problems’ are said to call for re-integration of state executives, and for enhanced government control in order to increase coordination between public organizations. At the same time, excessive (performance) control is accused of posing a threat to professionalism in the public sector and to its problem solving capacity. In this paper we build upon Verhoest et al’s (2004) suggestion that we need to treat autonomy as a multi-dimensional phenomenon and argue the importance of adopting a nuanced analytical perspective on issues of too much or too little control. Using a unique data set containing information on nearly 20 years of governmental steering as this is expressed in yearly appropriation direction documents (N=1330) issued by the Swedish government, we a) map out how the government’s demand for performance information has developed over time, and b) as we treat performance information demands as one out of many policy instruments in a government’s toolbox we also look for specific and stable combinations of different policy instruments (represented by autonomy dimensions). Our findings show that the number of performance information indicators requested from governments in appropriation direction-documents have on a general level decreased over time. From our bivariate and multivariate analyses we have shown that any government’s inclination to e.g. demand less performance information from its state agencies in general comes with a less autonomous management model for the state agency.

  • 170.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Interim Report on Public Administration Reform Trends and Reform Dynamics in Sweden: Snapshot and EU semester link2016Report (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Mature Agencification: A Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Autonomy2015In: Shaping the Future - Re-invention or revolution?, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Nordic Administrative Heritages and Contemporary Institutional Design2016In: Nordic Administrative Reforms - Lessons for Public Management / [ed] Greve, Carsten, Lægreid, Per and Rykkja, Lise H, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 1, p. 57-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the degree of autonomy, politicization and coordination capacity in the Nordic countries looking at variations across Nordic countries as well as between Nordic countries and other European models. The importance of the East Nordic model is addressed, and also the ministry-agency divide. In terms of autonomy, a distinction is made between managerial autonomy and autonomy in policy-making, and policy implementation respectively. The chapter looks at the question of increased politicization, that is, the degree to which politicians accept the professional expertise of senior civil servants. The chapter also looks at coordination capacity, addressing hierarchy and network arrangements as well as the quality of coordinating along the vertical and horizontal dimension.

  • 173.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Performance Information Demand Dataset: Swedish Governments’ Request for Performance Information from Central Government Agencies 1993 – 20172022Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The data in this database has been collected mainly from appropriation directives issued by the Swedish government to 188 central government agencies 1993 to 2017. It contains variables that describe the formal steering tools applied by governments, such as choice of management model, financial steering, organizational steering, performance information demands, etc. It also contains information about agency characteristics and the governments in office.

  • 174.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Politics of Public Administration Policy: Explaining and Evaluating Public Performance Management in Sweden2012In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 273-281Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project is to describe and explain the introduction and the consequences of the current management model of the public sector (management by results) from a democratic theory perspective. Firstly, our aim is to disclose the norms and values that the present model is bearer of. A first step will be to unfold what kind of values that are rewarded in the present model, and thereby also calling the attention to what values that are neglected. A point of reference for this is Elster's "three-cornered dilemma" of constitutionalism, democracy, and efficiency. This analysis of conflicting values will be made on different administrative levels, since the implications are different depending on whether we focus on government steering or the conditions of the service deliverers on the local level. Secondly, we aim to answer the question on why the model was introduced in the first place, and if this process poses any democratic challenges. Our perspective is that the introduction of this model has had far reaching effects for the work of the executive branch, and thereby has had greater constitutional implications than is generally acknowledged. Yet, we also know from earlier research that the introduction of the model was not of great political interest, but is rather the product of a limited number of top civil servants. Simply put, how come that this one particular management model is adopted, and is allowed to dominate, although it has been so highly criticized?

  • 175.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Public Sector and the Courts2015In: The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics / [ed] Jon Pierre, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurring themes relating to the central constitutional principles of the public sector and the courts can be summarized as administrative dualism and institutional autonomy. The scope of the dual Swedish administrative model, as well as how much institutional autonomy government agencies and the courts are granted by the Constitution, has been strongly debated. These debates exemplify what we refer to as “the Swedish Constitution as a story of unresolved issues.” Paradoxically, substantial constitutional reforms in this area rarely come about due to regular constitutional reform making in Sweden. Instead, they are often the result of formally less demanding political decision making.

  • 176.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Glorifiering av handlingskraft tystar det förnuftiga samtalet2005In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Social Democracy for a long time applauded the ideal that politics should be an enlightened, rational activity. Decisions should be based on knowledge and be critically re-evaluated on a continuous basis. Today respect for knowledge and for dialogue is increasingly being replaced by a stress on the ability to enforce your political will at all costs.

  • 177.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Kunskap och politik: Mellan kunskapsnonchalans och expertdelegation2012In: Kunskapen och makten: En antologi om gränslandet mellan forskning och offentligt beslutsfattande / [ed] Per Molander, Stockholm: Bokförlaget Atlantis, 2012, p. 45-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Policy and Knowledge: Ignoring Facts or Surrendering to Experts2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest to evaluate policies and make use of scientific evidence in politics and policy. However, the relationship between politics and knowledge is quite complex. Sometimes politicians involve policy analysts, because they want to find out “the best solution” to a policy problem. But other times they just want to find arguments for a position already decided. This is discouraging. If we want politics to take the form of enlightened understanding it is not acceptable that relevant information is totally ignored. In that case, policy analysis and evaluations might just be a play to the gallery or an empty ritual. On the other hand we do not want politicians to be like puppets on a string for experts. Results from evaluations, scientific committees or other policy analyses, should not be uncritically accepted by politicians. If so, we risk a situation where politics moves from democratic arenas to closed offices of consultants and experts. Hence, from a normative point of view, we would like decision-makers to critically reflect on relevant information, and be able to argue why they dismiss some information and make use of other. But this is not easy, and there are still a lot unknown: there is a need for better instruments for analysis of the problem and more empirical knowledge of how and when politicians navigate between ignorance and technocracy. In this article we take some steps in that direction. First, we elaborate on three basic ideal types; Ignorance, Rational deliberation and Entrusting experts. Second, we test the hypothesis that politicians will entrust experts when there is established knowledge in the field, consensus among experts, and clear politically established criteria to follow. However, the two cases examined do not confirm expected results. In a first case where we would expect decisive influence from experts, the knowledge produced was ignored. In the second case, where we expected politicians to have excellent opportunities to control decision-making, it was instead controlled by experts. This has important implications for how we look upon the relationship between politics and expertise, and for future research.

  • 179.
    Ahlenius, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Water Conservation Policy: The Case of Los Angeles City2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to increase our understanding of how the drought and water shortages between 2013-2017 were framed locally in Los Angeles City. The main focus is the mandatory water conservation policy put forth by Los Angeles City in 2016. The method being used is a frame analysis with three guiding questions as an analytical framework. Those three questions are;

    -       if the definition of water and users of water is the same as in Ostrom’s research on common pool resources

    -       if climate change is part of the discourse in policy and

    -       what frames are being used to persuade citizens to comply with policy on water conservation.

     

    This study shows that Los Angeles City does not share the definitions of water and users of water with Ostrom, climate change is not mentioned in the policy on Emergency Water Conservation and penalties and the police force is used to get citizens to comply with water conservation policy. However, mandatory restrictions on water use are needed, according to the Mayor of Los Angeles City, in order to avoid a public disaster or calamity.

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  • 180.
    Ahlgren, Thea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Att bryta ner och avhumanisera en människa - En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga riksdagsledamöters erfarenheter av och strategier för könade kränkningar på sociala medier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 181.
    Ahlin, Fanny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Legitimacy of the Intervention in Syria: A critical review regarding the intervention in Syria in 2018 executed by the United States of America, Great Britain and France2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 182.
    Ahlqvist, Felizia Torres
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Polarization in the Colombian Election?: A study on Centro Democrático’s portrayal of presidential candidate Gustavo Petro2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 183.
    Ahlroos Källhed, Ivar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bridging the integration gap: The relationship between women's employment, childcare costs and integration policies2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an unexplained gap in employment between native-born and foreign-born women in most European countries and it is not evident how it can be closed. This essay studies some possible explanations of the gap by looking at the effect of childcare costs and integration policies, through regression analysis. The individual effects are not significant, but the results do however give some indication that the degree of integration policies in a country can change the effect of welfare policies such as childcare.

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  • 184.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Democracy and vaccination uptake - a complex friendshipManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Democracies are generally thought to be better able to handle the provision of public goods than non-democracies. However, vaccines are a type of public good where we might expect this dynamic not to apply. Generally, a high vaccination uptake is net-profitable for the state above a certain level of national wealth, given losses of tax income to disease and health care expenditures. At the same time, democracies may be suspected to be less likely to use coercive means to achieve the goal of high uptake. This leads to the hypothesis that at least among rich countries, democracies may fare worse in terms of vaccination uptake.

    In this paper, I test this proposal using a cross-country panel of WHO uptake data. I test both traditional panel models, as well as an IV-approach using regional democratization waves as an instrument for own-country democracy. With both approaches, the theoretical prediction appears to hold up: rich non-democracies do indeed achieve higher uptake than rich democracies.

  • 185.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Education and voter turnout revisited: Evidence from a Swedish twin sample with validated turnout data2021In: Electoral Studies, ISSN 0261-3794, E-ISSN 1873-6890, Vol. 69, article id 102186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between education and voter turnout is well-established in almost a century of research. The causal status of this correlation, however, is still subject to debate. Results in the previous literature differ substantially, and this may reflect both methodological differences and heterogeneous effects across populations or types of elections. This study addresses the question using a discordant twin design and variance decomposition methods with validated turnout data for both firstand second-order elections in a large sample of Swedish twins, paired with population-wide sibling data. Results show that education does not have an effect on national electoral turnout, but does have an effect on turnout in the European elections. Furthermore, the association between education and turnout is shown to be affected by substantial genetic confounding, which leaves a non-trivial amount of bias even in sibling based designs. This underscores the importance of taking genetic confounding seriously in observational research.

  • 186.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Essays on the collective action dilemma of vaccination2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess positive externalities that make them susceptible to the collective action dilemma: when I get vaccinated, I protect not only myself, but also those who I might otherwise have infected. Thus, some people will have an incentive to free ride on the immunity of others. In a population of rational agents, the critical level of vaccination uptake required for herd immunity will therefore be difficult to attain in the long run, which poses difficulties for disease eradication.

    In this doctoral dissertation, I explore different implications of the collective action dilemma of vaccination, and different ways of ameliorating it. First: given that coercion or force could solve the dilemma, and democracies may be less likely to engage in policies that violate the physical integrity of citizens, democracies may also be at a disadvantage compared to non-democracies when securing herd immunity. In essay I, I show that this is, empirically, indeed the case. Barring the use of extensive coercion therefore necessitates other solutions.

    In essay II, I highlight the exception to individual rationality found in other-regarding motivations such as altruism. Our moral psychology has likely evolved to take other's welfare into account, but the extent of our prosocial motivations vary: a wider form of altruism that encompasses not just family or friends, but strangers, is likely to give way to a more narrow form when humans pair-bond and have children. This dynamic is shown to apply to the sentiments underlying vaccination behavior as well: appeals to the welfare of society of getting vaccinated have positive effects on vaccination propensity, but this effect disappears in people with families and children. On this demographic, appeals to the welfare of close loved ones instead appears to have large effects.

    In essay III, I investigate whether the prosocial motivations underlying vaccination behavior are liable to be affected by motivation crowding - that is, whether they are crowded out when introducing economic incentives to get vaccinated. I find that on average, economic incentives do not have adverse effects, but for a small minority of highly prosocially motivated people, they might.

    List of papers
    1. Money for nothing?: Motivation crowding and economic rationality in the vaccination decision.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Money for nothing?: Motivation crowding and economic rationality in the vaccination decision.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess public goods characteristics that make them vulnerable to the collective action dilemma. Economists have posited a simple way of solving the problem -- economic incentives. However, results from studies on motivation crowding suggest that extrinsic incentives can crowd out intrinsic motivation and therefore backfire. This study investigates if vaccines are subject to motivation crowding using two sets of survey experiments. It is found that in the aggregate, introducing economic incentives has positive effects on vaccination propensity. However, for a subset of highly intrinsically motivated individuals, the effect of introducing economic incentives could be negative. Further, the distinction between pure and impure public goods seems to be driving this dynamic.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311019 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20
    2. When is blood thicker than water?: Variations of other-regard in the vaccination decision.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When is blood thicker than water?: Variations of other-regard in the vaccination decision.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social proximity and kinship have been shown to heavily influence our tendency to altruistic behavior. Evidence about group formation, the development of prosocial motivation during adolescence as well as on both endocrinological and psychological mechanisms involved in prosociality also highlight the likely inherently parochial character of human altruism. Meanwhile, other-regarding motivations can play a central role in vaccination behavior. It is not well-understood, however, what types of other-regard are involved, and what role they play.

    In this study, I use a 2x2 factor survey experiment to investigate the differing effects of narrow (family-oriented) versus wide (purely altruistic) other-regard. I find that stimulating either of these types of other-regard leads to increases in vaccination propensity. However, the effects differ markedly between types of subjects: subjects in a settled family constellation display large effects of narrow, but not wide, other-regard, whereas others display the opposite. Wide other-regard therefore appears to be crowded out by narrow when humans enter pair-bonding. To maintain sufficient vaccination uptake, this distinction should be taken into consideration when designing messages to the public.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311018 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20
    3. Democracy and vaccination uptake - a complex friendship
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democracy and vaccination uptake - a complex friendship
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Democracies are generally thought to be better able to handle the provision of public goods than non-democracies. However, vaccines are a type of public good where we might expect this dynamic not to apply. Generally, a high vaccination uptake is net-profitable for the state above a certain level of national wealth, given losses of tax income to disease and health care expenditures. At the same time, democracies may be suspected to be less likely to use coercive means to achieve the goal of high uptake. This leads to the hypothesis that at least among rich countries, democracies may fare worse in terms of vaccination uptake.

    In this paper, I test this proposal using a cross-country panel of WHO uptake data. I test both traditional panel models, as well as an IV-approach using regional democratization waves as an instrument for own-country democracy. With both approaches, the theoretical prediction appears to hold up: rich non-democracies do indeed achieve higher uptake than rich democracies.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311017 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20
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  • 187.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Extraversion Probably Does Not Cause Political Participation. Evidence from Two Genetically Informed Designs2023In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1301-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial literature in political psychology has emphasized the importance of personality traits for understanding differences in political participation. One such trait is extraversion. However, the causal status of this relationship is complicated by a number of issues, not least genetic confounding stemming from the heritability of both personality traits and political participation. This study confirms the well-established naive relationship between extraversion and participation, but goes on with (a) a discordant MZ twin design and (b) a new approach using measured genetic variation, or a polygenic index, in the given trait (extraversion) to assess the causal nature of this relationship. First, utilizing variation in extraversion and participation within identical twin pairs shows that twins with higher extraversion do not participate more. Second, random variation within fraternal twin pairs in a polygenic index of extraversion does predict trait extraversion, but does not predict political participation. In summary, previously identified associations between extraversion and political participation are not likely to be causal, but instead reflect common underlying familial factors.

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  • 188.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Money for nothing?: Motivation crowding and economic rationality in the vaccination decision.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess public goods characteristics that make them vulnerable to the collective action dilemma. Economists have posited a simple way of solving the problem -- economic incentives. However, results from studies on motivation crowding suggest that extrinsic incentives can crowd out intrinsic motivation and therefore backfire. This study investigates if vaccines are subject to motivation crowding using two sets of survey experiments. It is found that in the aggregate, introducing economic incentives has positive effects on vaccination propensity. However, for a subset of highly intrinsically motivated individuals, the effect of introducing economic incentives could be negative. Further, the distinction between pure and impure public goods seems to be driving this dynamic.

  • 189.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Moral Enhancement Should Target Self-Interest and Cognitive Capacity2017In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 363-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current suggestions for capacities that should be targeted for moral enhancement has centered on traits like empathy, fairness or aggression. The literature, however, lacks a proper model for understanding the interplay and complexity of moral capacities, which limits the practicability of proposed interventions. In this paper, I integrate some existing knowledge on the nature of human moral behavior and present a formal model of prosocial motivation. The model provides two important results regarding the most friction-free route to moral enhancement. First, we should consider decreasing self-interested motivation rather than increasing prosociality directly. Second, this should be complemented with cognitive enhancement. These suggestions are tested against existing and emerging evidence on cognitive capacity, mindfulness meditation and the effects of psychedelic drugs and are found to have sufficient grounding for further theoretical and empirical exploration. Furthermore, moral effects of the latter two are hypothesized to result from a diminished sense of self with subsequent reductions in self-interest.

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  • 190.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    When is blood thicker than water?: Variations of other-regard in the vaccination decision.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social proximity and kinship have been shown to heavily influence our tendency to altruistic behavior. Evidence about group formation, the development of prosocial motivation during adolescence as well as on both endocrinological and psychological mechanisms involved in prosociality also highlight the likely inherently parochial character of human altruism. Meanwhile, other-regarding motivations can play a central role in vaccination behavior. It is not well-understood, however, what types of other-regard are involved, and what role they play.

    In this study, I use a 2x2 factor survey experiment to investigate the differing effects of narrow (family-oriented) versus wide (purely altruistic) other-regard. I find that stimulating either of these types of other-regard leads to increases in vaccination propensity. However, the effects differ markedly between types of subjects: subjects in a settled family constellation display large effects of narrow, but not wide, other-regard, whereas others display the opposite. Wide other-regard therefore appears to be crowded out by narrow when humans enter pair-bonding. To maintain sufficient vaccination uptake, this distinction should be taken into consideration when designing messages to the public.

  • 191.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Brännlund, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Uncovering the source of patrimonial voting2022In: Political Behavior, ISSN 0190-9320, E-ISSN 1573-6687, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 1681-1702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The boom in wealth inequality seen in recent decades has generated a steep rise in scholarly interest in both the drivers and the consequences of the wealth gap. In political science, a pertinent questionregards the political behavior across the wealth spectrum. A common argument is that the wealthy practice patrimonial voting, i.e. voting for right-wing parties to maximize returns on their assets. While thispattern is descriptively well documented, it is less certain to what extent this reflects an actual causal relationship between wealth and political preferences. In this study, we provide new evidence by exploitingwealth variation within identical twin pairs. Our findings suggest that while more wealth is descriptivelyconnected to more support for right-wing parties, the causal impact of wealth on policy preferences islikely highly overstated. For several relevant policy areas these effects may not exist at all. Furthermore,the bias in naive observational estimates seems to be mainly driven by environmental familial confoundersshared within twin pairs, rather than genetic confounding.

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  • 192.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Nyman, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Smrek, Michal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Fiscal Effects of EU Migration to Slovakia2019In: Globe in Motion 2: Multiple Shades of Migration: Regional Perspectives / [ed] Miroslava Hlinčíková & Martina Sekulová, Bratislava: Institute of Ethnology and Social Anthropology, Slovak Academy of Sciences , 2019, p. 46-61Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Quantifying Bias from Measurable and Unmeasurable Confounders Across Three Domains of Individual Determinants of Political Preferences2023In: Political Analysis, ISSN 1047-1987, E-ISSN 1476-4989, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 181-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A core part of political research is to identify how political preferences are shaped. The nature of these questions is such that robust causal identification is often difficult to achieve, and we are not seldom stuck with observational methods that we know have limited causal validity. The purpose of this paper is to measure the magnitude of bias stemming from both measurable and unmeasurable confounders across three broad domains of individual determinants of political preferences: socio-economic factors, moral values, and psychological constructs. We leverage a unique combination of rich Swedish registry data for a large sample of identical twins, with a comprehensive battery of 34 political preference measures, and build a meta-analytical model comparing our most conservative observational (naive) estimates with discordant twin estimates. This allows us to infer the amount of bias from unobserved genetic and shared environmental factors that remains in the naive models for our predictors, while avoiding precision issues common in family-based designs. The results are sobering: in most cases, substantial bias remains in naive models. A rough heuristic is that about half of the effect size even in conservative observational estimates is composed of confounding.

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  • 194.
    Ahlstedt, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Moberg, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Brulin, Emma
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unite Occupat Med, Solna, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health equity and working life.
    Do illegitimate tasks matter for registered nurses' work motivation?: A cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative sample of Swedish nurses2023In: International Journal of Nursing Studies Advances, E-ISSN 2666-142X, Vol. 5, article id 100159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A challenge in Western countries is the growing need for registered nurses (RNs') in hospitals, primary care and home healthcare. Decreasing illegitimate tasks and strengthening RNs' work motivation are some strategies to address this challenge.

    Objective: Our overall aim was to explore the association between RNs' experiences of illegitimate tasks and work motivation operationalised as four dimensions: work engagement, opportunities to provide high-quality care, employer satisfaction and intention to remain at the workplace. To address this aim, three specific research questions were asked: (1) Is there an association between illegitimate tasks and work motivation? (2) Do the levels of reported illegitimate tasks differ between RNs working in hospitals and those working in primary care or home healthcare settings? (3) Do associations between illegitimate work tasks and work motivation differ with type of workplace?

    Design: A cross-sectional design.

    Methods: We used responses from a stratified population of RNs in Sweden, n = 2,333, working either in hospitals, primary care or home healthcare. Calibrating weights were applied in all analyses to ascertain the generalisability of the findings. Illegitimate tasks were measured with the Bern Illegitimate Tasks Scale. Data were analysed using chi-squared tests and linear or logistic regression analysis. Interaction was measured on the multiplicative scale by adding an interaction term to the fully adjusted models.

    Results: Overall, approximately 25 % of RNs reported frequently experiencing illegitimate tasks. There were statistically significant associations between higher perceptions of illegitimate tasks and lower ratings in the four dimensions of work motivation: work engagement [beta coefficient [beta] = -0.14, confidence interval [CI] 95 % = -0.18; -0.10], opportunities to provide highquality care [beta = -0.46, CI 95 % = -0.51; -40] and employer satisfaction [beta = -0.60, CI 95 % = -0.67; -0.54]. Experiencing higher levels of illegitimate tasks also related to a decreased intention to remain at the workplace [illegitimate tasks: odds ratio = 0.32, CI 95 % = 0.27; 0.29]. RNs who worked in home healthcare reported higher levels of illegitimate tasks than RNs who worked in hospitals.

    Conclusions: Reducing the amount of illegitimate tasks may contribute to counteracting the shortage of RNs by increasing work motivation and willingness to remain at the workplace.

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  • 195.
    Ahlstedt, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Moberg, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Brulin, Emma
    Institute of environmental medicine, Unite of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Department of Public Health and Caring Science,Public health, working life and rehabilitation, Uppsala University.
    Social support from manager and co-workers in relation to registered nurses' work motivation in three healthcare settings: A cross-sectional study of a Swedish national sampleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Ahlström, Hanna
    et al.
    Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Global Econ Dynam & Biosphere, POB 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hileman, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Garcia, Maria Mancilla
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Libre Bruxelles ULB, Fac Sci, Socioenvironm Dynam Res Grp SONYA, Brussels, Belgium..
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Victoria, Dept Geog, Victoria, BC, Canada.;Univ Victoria, Ctr Global Studies, Victoria, BC, Canada..
    Jonas, Krisztina
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pranindita, Agnes
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kuiper, Jan J.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fetzer, Ingo
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    An Earth system law perspective on governing social-hydrological systems in the Anthropocene2021In: Earth System Governance, ISSN 2589-8116, Vol. 10, article id 100120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global hydrological cycle is characterized by complex interdependencies and self-regulating feedbacks that keep water in an ever-evolving state of flux at local, regional, and global levels. Increasingly, the scale of human impacts in the Anthropocene is altering the dynamics of this cycle, which presents additional challenges for water governance. "Earth system law" provides an important approach for addressing gaps in governance that arise from the mismatch between the global hydrological cycle and dispersed regulatory architecture across institutions and geographic regions. In this article, we articulate the potential for Earth system law to account for core hydrological problems that complicate water governance, including delay, redistribution, intertwinements, permanence, and scale. Through merging concepts from Earth system law with existing policy and legal principles, we frame an approach for addressing hydrological problems in the Anthropocene and strengthening institutional fit between established governance systems and the global hydrological cycle. We discuss how such an approach can be applied, and the challenges and implications for governing water as a cycle and complex social-hydrological system, both in research and practice.

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  • 197.
    Ahlzén, Siri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Understanding corruption through social norms: A field study about corrupt behaviour in local institutions in Lusaka2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that conventional policy interventions aiming to reduce corruption have yielded little success. Shifting the focus from macro level aspects of corruption to focus on micro-level aspects, such as social norms and individual decision-making processes, has recently been suggested as a way to understand underlying reasons why corruption remains persistent in many societies. The thesis aims to uncover reasons for individual corrupt behaviour in Zambia by studying what social norms exist in relation to corruption in local government institutions in Lusaka. It furthermore investigates how social norms can explain the persisting corruption within these local institutions. By conducting in-depth interviews with citizens and stakeholders the study reveals social norms that are conducive to corruption and that are affecting citizens behaviour when interacting with local government institutions. A conflict in the relation between descriptive norms and injunctive norms is discovered and explained by the logic of prisoner’s dilemma. The study concludes that social norms could be seen a part of explaining why corruption remains persistent in Lusaka government institutions, and that both injunctive norms and descriptive norms are affecting individual corrupt behaviour. It shows that descriptive norms can explain how individuals justify corrupt behaviour that they in theory think is wrong. It suggests that Lusaka’s local government could benefit from including a social norms perspective when designing anti- corruption interventions in order to achieve better results.

  • 198.
    Ahlén, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    A Progressive Dilemma?: Investigating cross-country variations in family-immigration policies through the lens of welfare-state regimes2023In: Political Research Exchange, E-ISSN 2474-736X, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 2249976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of a ‘progressive dilemma’, according to which there is an intrinsic tension between comprehensive welfare states and large-scale immigration, has figured prominently in scholarly as well as political debates over the last decade. As one of the main categories of entry in most affluent democracies, family immigration stands out as a particularly interesting test case in this context. Building on this notion of a progressive dilemma, as well as on other theorizing on the welfare-migration nexus, this study examines whether the restrictive effects of certain risk factors on family-immigration policies, such as growing immigration and rising unemployment, have been conditioned by the type of welfare regime. The empirical analysis herein finds that increasing immigration and higher unemployment have triggered policy restrictions in Basic Security welfare states, but that the influence of these factors on policy changes is less clear in State Corporatist and Universal welfare states. Contrary to what the idea of the progressive dilemma would lead us to expect, Basic Security welfare states with weaker universal and redistributive features have been more likely to sharpen restrictions on the admission of family migrants when under pressure from increasing immigration and rising unemployment.

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  • 199.
    Ahlén, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    A Stratified Right to Family (Re)Unification: Evidence on the Differential Effects of Admission Policies on Rates of Family Immigration in European states, 2008–2019Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether and how much family-immigration policies have influenced patterns of family immigration in European states. Family immigration has been the largest category of entry in many Western countries in recent decades, and it has been the subject of increasing contestation in political debates. While research on family-migration policies has advanced in recent years, no comprehensive cross-country comparisons have been done of the impact of different policies on the size and composition of family-immigrant inflows. This study addresses this gap, by analysing the connection between admission policies and rates of family immigration in 31 European states during the 2008–2019 period. Combining data from Eurostat and the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX), this study uses a time-series regression analysis to assess the effects of admission policies on different types of family-related immigration. While restrictive admission policies have led to falling overall levels of family immigration, the analysis here reveals stratifying implications, whereby the effect have been greater where the sponsor is a non-EU citizen than where he/she is an EU citizen. An interaction analysis, moreover, shows that restrictive admission policies have a greater impact on family-immigration rates in countries with comparatively large immigrant populations. By providing evidence on the differential and conditional impacts of admission policies on family-related immigration, this study contributes new insights on the effects of restrictive immigration policies.

  • 200.
    Ahlén, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Development Trends in Family-Immigration Policies in Europe: Convergence, a ‘Race to the Bottom’, or a ‘Civic Turn’?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of family-migration policy have pointed to growing policy restrictiveness in European countries, seen as related to broader trends in policies on migration and the integration of immigrants (such as convergence, a ‘race to the bottom’, or a ‘civic turn’). Still, no comprehensive cross-country comparison has so far been done that accounts for the varying policy configurations and differing levels of conditionality integral to family-immigration policies. This paper presents a typology for analysing policy configurations and changes therein, based on a two-dimensional conceptualization that distinguishes between eligibility criteria (EC) and qualifying conditions (QC). Analysing different policy changes, variations, and configurations, the paper maps how admission policies developed across 20 European countries between 1990 and 2010. The results show that admission policies on average became more restrictive over time, although there were some notable exceptions. The trend was towards reduced variation in both EC and QC. However, my analysis reveals substantial differences in the policy configurations of different countries; some policy changes go against the common trend. Uncovering patterns of congruence and deviation in a more detailed way than previous research has done, this paper challenges expectations about convergence, a ‘race to the bottom’, and a ‘civic turn’ in family-immigration policies and suggests that these expectations need to be qualified.

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