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  • 1.
    Jansson, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    Samtidens gränser: Om språkreformer och historisk tid runt sekelskiftet 19002023Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines two extensive language reforms that caused controversy and discord in late 19th century Sweden: a comprehensive spelling reform and a formally authorised Bible translation. Among the numerous disagreements and entanglements that afflicted the projects, one issue persisted more than any other: the question of historical time. The correlation between past, present and future was fiercely contested and became a topic of intense negotiation.

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse situated constructions of historical time around the turn of the 20th century. By invoking the language reforms as examples of temporal synchronisations, the study contributes to recent debates about modern temporalities and historical time. While earlier research predominantly considers intellectual discourses and abstract notions of temporality, this study emphasises historical time as a consequence of practical measures and applied procedures.

    The study concludes that historical time was established in order to manage a plethora of conflicting temporalities and asynchronous rhythms. The spelling reform and the Bible translation were affected by a wide range of conflicting times that preceded the notions of progress and acceleration often associated with the modern regime of historicity. The thesis demonstrates how the language reforms established a modern historical order that is often reduced to a passive articulation of an underlying regime.

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  • 2.
    Cornu, Armel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria, Avdelningen för vetenskapshistoria.
    Enlightening Water: Science, market & regulation of mineral waters in eighteenth-century France2022Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    My thesis investigates the process through which French mineral waters were conceptually and materially transformed by the forces of market, regulation, and science during the Enlightenment. Tracing this process deepens current understandings of eighteenth-century societies, and presents a novel image of the development of medicine and chemistry.

    Eighteenth-century mineral waters were no longer confined to discrete spa towns. Instead, their use had become a kingdom-wide phenomenon, thanks to developments in bottling. Increased access to mineral waters caught the interest of medical and chemical practitioners who wanted to explain the striking properties of the waters and ensure they were sold fairly and safely. This culminated in the 1776 creation of a dedicated regulatory institution, the Société de Médecine, which attempted to legislate the market of mineral waters.

    By examining the extensive records of the Société, my work brings into focus the unsuspected reach of the mineral water market, and explores the history of the institutions that attempted to control it. In parallel, I highlight the active resistance to the centralising force of the state coming from the vast, eclectic and inherently decentred world of mineral water handlers. Mineral water knowledge, likewise, was created within a decentred network of analysts, who nevertheless produced an increasingly standardised method for the chemical examination of mineral waters. Access to this intricate process of knowledge creation is provided by hundreds of treatises, reports, and letters concerning the analysis of mineral waters produced and circulated throughout the French kingdom. This substantial array of hitherto understudied primary material, interpreted via a combination of quantitative methods and social history from below, makes a case for mineral waters as a lens to both illustrate and challenge established narratives of the period. My work thus demonstrates the significance of the Enlightenment period in the longer history of spas and healing waters.

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  • 3.
    Franzén, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    Kroppar i förvandling: Obstetriska och embryologiska samlingar vid Uppsala universitet, ca 1830–19302022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, some of Uppsala University’s museums contain old specimens of embryos, fetuses, newborns, and women’s pelves. These have survived from obstetrical and embryological collections assembled in the “age of museum medicine,” when museum collections were central sites of medical research and education, alongside clinics and laboratories.

    The purpose of this compilation thesis is to examine how medical knowledge of fetal development, pregnancy, and labor were produced and communicated through such collection objects, along with models and surgical instruments, at Uppsala University circa 1830–1930. Collections are conceptualized as materializations of medical knowledge and the investigation is organized as four research articles: two are studies of the obstetrical collection and two deal with the embryological collection. Based on analyses of the materiality of the objects, as well as the surrounding system of information (e. g. museum catalogues and labels), together with scientific and popular publications, the case studies shed light on the making of the collections, but also on their shifting uses and meanings over time. Using a wide definition of knowledge, this thesis explores the dynamic relationships between the collections and a heterogeneous set of historical actors, including medical men, midwives, patients, and priests. The social networks and different social worlds these actors belonged to are shown to have impacted the understanding of collection objects, which became contested boundary objects.

    Building on previous research about medical collections and drawing on previously unexamined empirical material, the study shows how the actors involved in the formation and uses of Uppsala University’s obstetrical and embryological collections produced a wide range of medical knowledge on reproduction. This included expanding expertise in managing complicated labors and pregnancies, knowledge of fetal malformations and normal development, and also contributed to constructions of race, nation, and sex. In addition, this thesis demonstrates that the embryological collection was used to introduce a biological view of life to audiences outside of the university, such as schoolteachers and secondary school pupils, thus constituting a form of public science.

    Contributing to the growing historical scholarship on medical collections, Kroppar i förvandling argues that while obstetrical and embryological collections tend to be investigated separately, there is much to be gained in examining them together: the collections co-produced each other as well as the categories they represented, such as the pregnant and laboring woman and the fetus.

    Delarbeten
    1. 'Pelves of various nations': Race and sex in a mid-nineteenth-century obstetric collection
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>'Pelves of various nations': Race and sex in a mid-nineteenth-century obstetric collection
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Forskningsämne
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-461118 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet, Dnr 2014-1749
    Tillgänglig från: 2021-12-13 Skapad: 2021-12-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-01-25
    2. From patient to specimen and back again: radical surgeries and pelvic pathologies in the Museum Obstetricum
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>From patient to specimen and back again: radical surgeries and pelvic pathologies in the Museum Obstetricum
    2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, s. 33-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nyckelord
    obstetrics, obstetrical collections, history of medicine, nineteenth century, maternity care, caesarean section, human remains, medical museums, obstetrisk samling, medicinhistoria, 1800-tal, kirurgi, kejsarsnitt, mödravård, obstetrik, mänskliga kvarlevor, anatomi, anatomisk samling
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-429557 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet, Dnr 2014-1749
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-12-29 Skapad: 2020-12-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-05-05
    3. 'The precious material': Obtaining human fetal bodies for an embryological collection at Uppsala University, ca 1890-1930
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>'The precious material': Obtaining human fetal bodies for an embryological collection at Uppsala University, ca 1890-1930
    2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 178-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the late nineteenth century, anatomists at Uppsala University took an interest in embryology, that is, fetal development from conception to birth. In order to conduct embryological research, fetal bodies from all stages of development were needed, but difficult to obtain. By building connections with medical professionals – such as midwives, physicians, and obstetrician-gynaecologists – who had access to pregnant and labouring women, the anatomists at Uppsala University were able to assemble the raw material for their research. However, the various professions involved, and the female patients, had different understandings of what fetal bodies meant and how to manage them. By exploring three contexts of collecting fetal bodies – miscarriages, surgeries to address ectopic pregnancy, and the birth of deviant bodies – this study draws attention to the social processes of knowledge production. It highlights the plethora of meanings ascribed to fetal bodies; underscores that these meanings were underpinned, as well as affected, by understandings of pregnancy; and argues that medical knowledge of reproduction was produced in the dynamic relations between the embryological collection and medical practice.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Taylor & Francis, 2022
    Nyckelord
    embryological collection, maternity care, knowledge production, Sweden, embryology, anatomy, human remains, embryologisk samling, embryologi, mödravård, kunskapsproduktion, medicinhistoria, anatomi, mänskliga kvarlevor
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Forskningsämne
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-461120 (URN)10.1080/03468755.2021.1985602 (DOI)000710384400001 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet, Dnr 2014-1749
    Tillgänglig från: 2021-12-13 Skapad: 2021-12-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-10-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Att lära sig se embryologiskt: Samlingsobjekt i forskning och pedagogiska kontexter 1870-1920
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Att lära sig se embryologiskt: Samlingsobjekt i forskning och pedagogiska kontexter 1870-1920
    (Svenska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-461121 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet, Dnr 2014-1749
    Tillgänglig från: 2021-12-13 Skapad: 2021-12-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-12-13
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  • 4.
    Helmius, Agneta
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    Mode och hushåll: Om formandet av kön och media i frihetstidens svenska små- och veckoskrifter2022Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis, Fashion and the household: The formation of media and gender in 18th Century Swedish periodicals and pamphlets, deals with the formation of media and gender in 18th Century Sweden using fashion and the household as themes of discussion and gender as an analytical category. The material used consists of periodicals, small prints and series of pamphlets published from the 1730s to the 1770s in Sweden, and one engraving showing five housewives beating a husband on his bare buttocks printed in 1755. According to both writers of that time and to earlier research these periodicals and pamphlets, printed in small editions and circulated mostly in the capital of Stockholm, meant a breakthrough for a new public discourse. 

    One aim is to study how gender was used, discussed and constructed in this new media. Another aim is to study how gender was used to create modern forward looking identities. Of particular interest in this new media is the debate on modernity and how it brought about new views on modern society including both gender relations and the construction of public and private spheres. The public discourse fostered a debate on the privatization of the household.

    The perspective chosen is meant to show how gender was used differently, on different levels by both male and female writers depending on purpose or agenda and sometimes in opposition to the described changes taking place. Gender could be used both benevolently and with hostility.

    By using gender as analytical category the public discourse studied in this thesis is decoded showing how both society and the public discourse, simultaneously, were gendered in new ways. It presents a debate of modernity on the threshold to modernity, and a debate on the exploitation of private vices and the privatization or marginalization of the household, later to be described as a division of private and public spheres.

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  • 5.
    Rydin, Thor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    In the Image of Loss: A new perspective on the works of Johan Huizinga (1872–1945)2022Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    "I no longer understand it, and I no longer care for it," Johan Huizinga, Professor of General History at Leiden University, said about his own field to his undoubtedly perplexed students at the opening of the academic year in 1919. The Great War had shocked him to the bone: states, traditions, norms and communities that until only recently had seemed part of life’s unquestionable fabric had been torn apart – and though Huizinga did not know at the time, more experiences of loss and upheaval were soon to follow. Other than he announced in 1919, however, Huizinga continued to "care" for and write history after the war; or rather, "history" became a way of "caring" for himself and others in times of rupture. Today, Huizinga is commonly ranked among the most eminent cultural historians of his century.

    This dissertation examines through the lens of Huizinga’s work how "experiences of loss" mediated not only a different angle on particular historical periods but renegotiated the meaning and purpose of "history" just before and during the interwar period. Against the background of loss, "history" became a way of life to Huizinga – a way of organizing thoughts and passions in unsteady times. By making this argument, this dissertation makes two claims: one historical, the other historiographical. Historically, it offers a new and original perspective on an iconic and celebrated historian and his times. Historiographically, it produces a case in point for an "experiential" approach to authors, and historians in particular, writing in times of great uncertainty.

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  • 6.
    Smedberg, Carl-Filip
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    Klassriket: Socialgruppsindelningen som skillnadsteknologi under 1900-talet2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 20th century, a number of actors and institutions set out to develop taxonomies of the Swedish population. This thesis examines the most im­portant social classification system, the social group, which despite its great importance in administrative, scientific, commercial, political and media con­texts has received little attention in historical research. Invented by the Central Bureau of Statistics in 1911 to map voters according to their social position, the division enabled Swedes to be hierarchized under the categories of social group I, II or III. The taxonomy became a standard for a number of knowledge-producing institu­tions in their studies of the Swedish class structure: for the nascent market research companies and their assessments of consumers from the 1930s on­wards; for the polling companies’ surveys of public opinion from the 1940s onwards; and for the post-war social science research and government com­mittees’ statistical production about higher education.

    The thesis analyses classification systems in use and in movement between actors and contexts. Social taxonomies are understood as difference technol­ogies: by which I mean ways of mapping and studying populations. They link populations together, quantify concepts into precise classifications and enable specific overviews of social structures – knowledge that can then be used as a basis for action and societal interventions. Moreover, the social group division was widely discussed in post-war Swedish press and mediated into images and tables. Actors within media interpreted and used it differently, and as a result, new meaning was created around it. The division was presented by some as cultural communities, while others pointed to it as evidence of a new social phase, characterised by declining class conflicts. Finally, it became the focus for meta-reflections on the societal place and impact of social divisions. Through these mediated engagements, the taxonomy became a given yet con­tested part of the Swedish public sphere.

    Delarbeten
    1. Klassriket: Klasskunskaper i den svenska partipolitiska sfären, 1911–1940
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Klassriket: Klasskunskaper i den svenska partipolitiska sfären, 1911–1940
    2022 (Svenska)Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 142, nr 2, s. 185-211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the creation and circulation of class knowledge among Sweden’s political parties as Swedish representative democracy took shape, 1911–1940. When the expanded franchise for men was introduced in the general election of 1911, the National Statistics Bureau (SCB) was tasked with categorising voters to measure the effects of the reform. They created a taxonomy made up of three social groups. The study situates this innovation in election statistics in the general interest in social class, which was used as a frame for understanding and intervening in societal matters around 1900. The political scientist Pontus Fahlbeck’s influence on SCB is considered. His taxonomy of society, created 1892, reflected his conviction that a class structure was vital for maintaining and developing Western civilisation and its culture. However, the political parties soon found a way of using SCB’s divisions for their own ends, mobilising it for a variety of political projects. For the Social Democratic Party, the numerical majority of social group III – a class they claimed to represent – legitimised their claim to rule. The conservative parties instead focused on how in their view they were truly democratic because their voters were drawn from all social groups. The article uses insights from the cultural history of statistics – a field which holds numbers to be a form of communication, and which underlines how phenomena and concepts change when quantified – to contribute to the history of class concepts. I show how class was made into statistics, transforming it from a fuzzy category into something concrete, exact, and calculable. Election statistics and Fahlbeck’s taxonomy were the political parties’ shared resource in their pursuit of election wins. Through this process, a common understanding of Swedish society as ordered into three societal groups was established, which would prove highly influential continuing into the second half of the twentieth century.

    Nyckelord
    Sweden, twentieth century, class, social group, political parties, elections, statistics
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Forskningsämne
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria; Historia
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-477350 (URN)000818025300003 ()
    Anmärkning

    English title/Title in WoS: A kingdom of class: Class knowledge in the Swedish political sphere, 1911–1940

    Tillgänglig från: 2022-06-16 Skapad: 2022-06-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-08-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. En marknad för klass: Marknads- och opinionsundersökningar som skillnadsmaskiner 1930–1960
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>En marknad för klass: Marknads- och opinionsundersökningar som skillnadsmaskiner 1930–1960
    2021 (Svenska)Ingår i: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, s. 91-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies the rise of market research and opinion surveys in Sweden from the 1930s and onward. By focusing on the promotion of empirical knowledge by actors between the academic and the commercial world, such as the economist Gerhard Törnqvist, the article shows how new practices of classifying consumers into social classes were established among marketers and advertisers. These approaches were passed on to the Swedish Gallup, which produced opinion surveys from the early 1940s. The final section of the article charts Swedish newspapers’ preoccupation with classifying practices of the Swedish population into classes. The article investigates market research and opinion surveys through following “the social life of methods”, a theoretical perspective that sees methods of knowledge as political. I analyze how a class taxonomy constructed by the Swedish statistical bureau in 1911 migrated and became productive in the commercial sector starting in the 1930s. These taxonomies could be called “difference machines” in that they repeatedly produced statistical differences as new knowledge.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Lund: , 2021
    Nyckelord
    social class, the history of market research and opinion surveys, the commercial life of methods, twentieth century, Sweden
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Forskningsämne
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-480949 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2022-07-26 Skapad: 2022-07-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-08-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Klass i begåvningsreservens tidevarv: Taxonomiska konflikter inom och genom svensk utbildningsforskning, ca 1945–1960
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Klass i begåvningsreservens tidevarv: Taxonomiska konflikter inom och genom svensk utbildningsforskning, ca 1945–1960
    2021 (Svenska)Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 59-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Class in the age of the pool of talent: Taxonomic struggles in and through Swedish education research, c. 1945–1960. This article studies conceptualisations of social class in Swedish education research, c. 1945–1960. The article follows knowledge produced about talent and class in state commissions and in the newly expanded social sciences, and how it in turn was interpreted and used in political debates and in the media. I show that the taxonomy of the population in social groups (Socialgrupper) was key for conceptualising notions of talent and framing education policy, beginning with debates around ”the pool of talent” (Begåvningsreserven) in 1948. At the same time as becoming a standard tool for mapping social difference in Sweden, the social group taxonomy was criticised for being unscientific.

    Nyckelord
    Post-war Sweden, history of the education sciences, social group, social class, Efterkrigstidens Sverige, utbildningsvetenskapernas historia, socialgrupp, samhällsklass
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-463366 (URN)10.36368/njedh.v8i1.208 (DOI)2-s2.0-85118406597 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2022-01-09 Skapad: 2022-01-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Låginkomsttagarna: Expertis, politik och mediering i formandet av en ny kategori omkring 1968
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Låginkomsttagarna: Expertis, politik och mediering i formandet av en ny kategori omkring 1968
    2018 (Svenska)Ingår i: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 84, nr 1, s. 61-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses changing word- and concept-usages after the political radicalisation of the 1960s in Sweden. Following the concept of låginkomsttagare, low-income earner, in mainly newspapers, I show how different meanings were attributed to it by different users in the political spectrum. The theory and method used was inspired by historians like Reinhart Koselleck and Dror Wahrman in their history of concepts. Low-income earner was first used by social scientist and bureaucrats in the state commission "Låginkomstutredningen" (1965–1971), instigated to map the low-income earners in Sweden. These actors, mainly from the political left, described and statistically counted Swedish society according to income-groups, but they also shaped the political debate to give focus to what they described as growing inequalities and a society in social conflict. The concept of låginkomsttagare saw a remarkable career in usage in all sorts of contexts, pointing towards how wide the political radicalisation of the late 1960s spread – the concept became a part of the everyday Swedish vocabulary. However, soon the concept was overtaken and transformed by actors with different political goals in a struggle for the definition of who really were low-income earners. Låginkomsttagare gained a sort of moral status as society’s forgotten social group, and many wanted to claim that they belonged to this group.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Lund: , 2018
    Nyckelord
    Low-income earners, circulation, mediation, 1968, social class
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Forskningsämne
    Idé- och lärdomshistoria
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355014 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-06-25 Skapad: 2018-06-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-08-08Bibliografiskt granskad
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  • 7.
    Ramsey, Morag
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    The Swedish Abortion Pill: Co-Producing Medical Abortion and Values, ca. 1965–19922021Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Abortion pills have had a large impact. Since their introduction to national markets in the 1990s, scholars have examined how abortion pills have changed medical practices, illegal abortion, and reproductive activism. What has gone unstudied, however, has been the development and the history of abortion pills. This dissertation addresses this gap by examining how abortion pills were developed in Sweden. What political, legal, and moral processes were included in their development? What specific conditions in Sweden helped to support this research and what was its impact? Answering these questions further develops scholarship on medical abortion as well as the history of the Swedish welfare state’s reproduction management. The dissertation argues that the development of abortion pills co-produced new ways of understanding and valuing abortion 

    Beginning in 1965, Swedish researchers clinically tested compounds on pregnant women, hoping to induce abortion. This dissertation follows abortion pill research in Sweden by concentrating on clinical trial practices in the period between 1965 and 1992. An intricate web of actors is highlighted, showing collaboration between state institutes, pharmaceutical companies, non-profit organizations, media, researchers, and trial participants. Using perspectives from science and technology studies and by introducing the concept of abortion scripts, the book traces how abortion was made in these expanding research networks. Whereas earlier scholarship has focused on contraceptive pills, intrauterine devices, and emergency contraceptives, this dissertation shows how abortion pills also contested reproductive concepts during the mid-20th century. Abortion pill research challenged reproductive boundaries, moved medical procedures from the hospital to the home, and expanded family planning initiatives.

    As abortion access impacts people’s reproductive choices, it is important to understand how concepts of abortion are made. The Swedish Abortion Pill maps a multitude of abortion scripts, detailing both change and continuity over time and makes visible the extent of the practical work that went into the development of medical abortion. While the technology is often attributed to research done by French researchers, this study reveals that decades of work in Sweden also contributed to the success of abortion pills. 

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  • 8.
    Windahl Pontén, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    Kiär hustru, wackra barn, bodde i ett palais: Identitet och materialitet i hushållet von Linné2020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhandlingen studerar identitet och materialitet i hushållet von Linné. I de olika delstudierna diskuteras vilken bild Linné ville skapa inför omvärlden av sig själv, sin familj och sin verksamhet, men också hur han faktiskt levde i praktiken. Hushållet bildas i Uppsala av Carl och Sara Elisabeth von Linné i och med att han tillträder en professur i medicin vid Uppsala universitet. I denna studie kontextualiseras och analyseras hushållet på ett nytt sätt. Här utforskas hur en av Sveriges genom tiderna mest berömde vetenskapsutövare och hans närmaste formerade och iscensatte bilden av sig själva. Ett syfte är att analysera vilka performativa praktiker som formerat Carl von Linnés persona.

    Avhandlingen har fem kapitel varav tre innehåller de huvudsakliga analys-delarna. I det första av dessa studeras hushållets och performativa praktiker och materiella status. Här finns tidigare opublicerad data om hushållets storlek och medlemmar samt analys av hur husen används i verksamheter som undervisning och samlande. Ett fokus är användningen av kläder, textilier och möbler, ett annat är värdskap och bjudningar. I det andra kapitlet behandlas den självpresentation som kommer till uttryck i Carl von Linné d ä:s så kallade självbiografiska texter, vitorna, samt i samtida porträtt på familjens medlemmar. En jämförelse görs med porträtt av några andra professorer. I tredje kapitlet analyseras performativa praktiker i dietetik-föreläsningar och andra texter, som t ex dissertationer. Linné d ä och Linné d y jämförs. Här behandlas hur medicinska teorier används för att förklara eller understöjda vissa praktiker som förekommer i hushållet. Den samtida debatten om lyx och konsumtion berörs, liksom även de inslag av adelskritik som finns i texterna. Metoden i studien är genomgående att kombinera text och föremål för att fördjupa och nyansera bilden av hushållet von Linné. 

    Resultaten visar att hushållet von Linné aktivt formar en persona som kan kallas akademisk ståndsperon. De rumsliga och materiella aspekterna är av stor vikt för den vetenskapliga verksamheten och för Linnés karriär. Linné d y omformar delvis de praktiker och den persona som etablerats av föräldrarna. Personan utvecklas och rör sig från informella till formella stildrag, men är också en hybrid mellan bördsaristokratiska och mer meritokratiska ideal.

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  • 9.
    Hellström, Petter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    Trees of Knowledge: Science and the Shape of Genealogy2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates early employments of family trees in the modern sciences, in order to historicise their iconic status and now established uses, notably in evolutionary biology and linguistics. Moving beyond disciplinary accounts to consider the wider cultural background, it examines how early uses within the sciences transformed family trees as a format of visual representation, as well as the meanings invested in them.

    Historical writing about trees in the modern sciences is heavily tilted towards evolutionary biology, especially the iconic diagrams associated with Darwinism. Trees of Knowledge shifts the focus to France in the wake of the Revolution, when family trees were first put to use in a number of disparate academic fields. Through three case studies drawn from across the disciplines, it investigates the simultaneous appearance of trees in natural history, language studies, and music theory. Augustin Augier’s tree of plant families, Félix Gallet’s family tree of dead and living languages, and Henri Montan Berton’s family tree of chords served diverse ends, yet all exploited the familiar shape of genealogy.

    While outlining how genealogical trees once constituted a more general resource in scholarly knowledge production—employed primarily as pedagogical tools—this study argues that family trees entered the modern sciences independently of the evolutionary theories they were later made to illustrate. The trees from post-revolutionary France occasionally charted development over time, yet more often they served to visualise organic hierarchy and perfect order. In bringing this neglected history to light, Trees of Knowledge provides not only a rich account of the rise of tree thinking in the modern sciences, but also a pragmatic methodology for approaching the dynamic interplay of metaphor, visual representation, and knowledge production in the history of science.

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  • 10.
    Drakman, Annelie
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    När kroppen slöt sig och blev fast: Varför åderlåtning, miasmateori och klimatmedicin övergavs vid 1800-talets mitt2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    For 2500 years, bloodletting, purging, climate medicine and the miasmatic theory were the fundaments of Western medicine. But then, over the course of just a few decades during the middle of the nineteenth century, they disappeared. Silently, without having been disproven or even disputed, before the breakthrough of bacteriology.

    In this study I investigate the reasons behind this abandonment, which has been described as ”a precondition for scientific medicine”, using 8800 yearly reports written by 2500 Swedish provincial doctors between 1820 and 1900. These were state funded doctors, based in mostly rural districts throughout all of Sweden. Their tasks included overseeing midwives and vaccinators, inspecting pharmacies, managing epidemics, establishing their own practice and reporting back to the National Board of Health. Their digitised reports constitute a unique source of materials giving direct insight into their conceptions of health and disease.

    The reports provide evidence that the collapse of ”traditional” medicine should be understood as the result of a decisive break between two different ways of understanding the interaction between body and environment: ”flow-managing” and ”boundary-protecting” medicine. Until the 1860s, the provincial doctors aimed to manage the volume and pace of flows of body fluids. However, between 1865 and 1900, they instead focused on upholding the boundaries between the body and its environment. Doctors stopped understanding bodies as open, fluid, and constantly interacting with the world around them, and rather began perceiving them as closed off, autonomous from and independent of their environment. This shift in what it meant to practice medicine explains the covert but momentous demise of ”traditional” theories and therapies.

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  • 11.
    Haffenden, Chris
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    Every Man His Own Monument: Self-Monumentalizing in Romantic Britain2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    From framing private homes as museums, to sitting for life masks and appointing biographers, new forms of self-monumentalizing emerged in the early nineteenth century. In this study I investigate the emergence and configuration of such practices in Romantic Britain. Positioning these practices at the intersection of emergent national pantheons, a modern conception of history, and a newly-formed celebrity culture, I argue that this period witnessed the birth of distinctively modern ways for the individual to make immortality. Faced with a visceral fear of being forgotten, public figures began borrowing from celebrity culture to make their own monuments.

    Concentrated upon early nineteenth-century London, I characterize these practices as attempts at self-made immortality.  I do so by analyzing the legacy projects of three well-known but seldom connected individuals: the Auto-Icon by the philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832), the Soane Museum by the architect Sir John Soane (1753–1837), and the life-writing efforts of the painter Benjamin Robert Haydon (1786–1846). Employing both sociological and materialist frameworks to analyze the making of immortality, I contend that these projects were characteristic of a novel regime for the production of lasting renown. Whereas earlier scholarship on Romantic recognition has tended to focus either on mass-media celebrity or the longer history of canon-formation, I highlight the interactions of celebrity and monument embodied in entrepreneurial efforts to secure future recognition.

    In Every Man His Own Monument, I demonstrate how a constellation of media forms and recording practices we now take for granted—the statuary figure, the house museum, and the published Life—assumed a central place within a new memorial regime. Bringing the historical roots of self-monumentalizing individuals to light, this study contributes to discussions both within the History of Celebrity and Cultural Memory Studies, and to broader debates regarding our Instagram-saturated present.

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  • 12.
    Rydberg, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    Inner Experience: An Analysis of Scientific Experience in Early Modern Germany2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades a number of studies have shed light on early modern scientific experience. While some of these studies have focused on how new facts were forced out of nature in so-called experimental situations, others have charted long-term transformations. In this dissertation I explore a rather different facet of scientific experience by focusing on the case of the Prussian university town Halle in the period from the late seventeenth till the mid-eighteenth century. At this site philosophers, theologians and physicians were preoccupied with categories such as inner senses, inner experience, living experience, psychological experiments and psychometrics. In the study I argue that these hitherto almost completely overlooked categories take us away from observations of external things to the internal organisation of experience and to entirely internal objects of experience. Rather than seeing this internal side of scientific experience as mere theory and epistemology, I argue that it was an integral and central part of what has been referred to as the cultura animi tradition, that is, the philosophical and medical tradition of approaching the soul as something in need of cultivation, education, disciplination and cure.

    The study contains four empirical chapters. In the first chapter I analyse the meaning and function of experience in Christian Wolff’s philosophy understood as spiritual exercise and cultura animi. In the second chapter I examine experience in the theologian Hermann Francke’s cultura animi, focusing particularly on the relation between scientific experience and what scholars have referred to as religious experience. In the third chapter I chart aesthetic experience in Alexander Baumgarten’s aesthetics. In the fourth chapter I examine the role of experience in the medicine of Georg Ernst Stahl, Friedrich Hoffmann and their followers. The analysis of medical experience channels the discussion into questions regarding the relation between the cultura animi tradition and the kind of attitudes, practices and processes that have been connected to modern objectivity.

     

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